rómen, Rómen noun "east" (RŌ, MEN, SA:men), "uprising, sunrise, east" (SA:rómen); also name of tengwa #25 (Appendix E). Possessive form rómenwa (PE17:59).Variant hrómen, PE17:18. Rómenna, a place in the eastern part of Númenor, is simply the allative "eastward" (SA:rómen), cf. also rómenna in LR:47, 56. Ablative Rómello "from the East" or "[to one] from the East", hence Tolkien's translation "to those from the East" in his rendering of Namárië (Nam, RGEO:67, PE17:59; Romello with a short o in VT49:32). Masc. name Rómendacil "East-victor" (Appendix A; cf. Letters:425). Masc. name Rómestámo, Róme(n)star "East-helper" (PM:384, 391; probably ?Rómenstar must always become Rómestar, but Tolkien cited the form as Róme(n)star to indicate the connection with rómen "east")
noun. east, uprising, sunrise
- ᴺQ. forrómen “northeast”
- Q. Rómendacil “East-victor, East-slayer” ✧ LotR/1044
- Q. Rómenna “Eastwards” ✧ SA/rómen
- Q. Rómestámo “East-helper” ✧ PM/385
- Q. sí vanwa ná, Rómello vanwa, Valimar! “now lost, lost to those from the east is Valimar!” ✧ LotR/0377; RGEO/58
- Q. sí vanwa ná, Rómello vanwa, Valimar! “now lost is, [to one] from the East lost, Valimar!” ✧ RGEO/59
Word Gloss ro- “uprising, sunrise, east” men “way, way; [ᴹQ.] place, spot”
- Rómen ✧ LotR/1044; PE17/059; SA/men
- hróme(n) ✧ PE17/018
- Róme ✧ PE17/059
- Rōme(n) ✧ PE17/063
- Róme(n) ✧ PE17/074; PE17/125
- Róme- ✧ PM/385
hrómen noun "east", variant of the more common Rómen, q.v. (PE17:18)
Rómë noun "east", variant of Rómen (PE17:59). Possessive romeva (read rómeva?), genitive rómeö (Ibid.)
róna adj.? "east" (RŌ). Compare hróna.
the wayward, the wanderer
Rána place-name "the Wayward, the Wanderer", a name of the moon (MR:198, MC:221, Silm); genitive Ráno in the phrase Ráno tië "the path of the Moon" (VT47:11). See also ceuran-, ránasta. According to one late source, Rána is not properly the Moon itself but is rather the "name of the spirit (Máya) that was said to abide in the Moon as its guardian" (VT42:13). The Etymologies gives Rana with a short vowel (RAN). In the pre-classical Tengwar system there presupposed, Rana was also the name of tengwa #25 (VT45:10), which letter Tolkien would later call Rómen instead.
to, at, upon
-nna "to, at, upon", allative ending, originating from -na "to" with fortified n, VT49:14. Attested in cilyanna, coraryanna, Endorenna, Elendilenna, númenórenna, parma-restalyanna, rénna, senna, tielyanna, q.v. If a noun ends in -n already, the ending -nna merges with it, as in Amanna, formenna, Elenna, númenna, rómenna as the allative forms of Aman, formen, elen, númen, rómen (q.v.). Plural -nnar in mannar, valannar, q.v.
-n (1) dative ending, originating as a reduced form of -nă "to", related to the allative ending -nna (VT49:14). Attested in nin, men, ten, enyalien, Erun, airefëan, tárin, yondon (q.v.) and also added to the English name Elaine (Elainen) in a book dedication to Elaine Griffiths (VT49:40). The longer dative ending -na is also attested in connection with some pronouns, such as sena, téna, véna (q.v.), also in the noun mariéna from márië "goodness" (PE17:59). Pl. -in (as in hínin, see hína), partitive pl. -lin, dual -nt (Plotz). The preposition ana (#1) is said to be used "when purely dative formula is required" (PE17:147), perhaps meaning that it can replace the dative ending, e.g. *ana Eru instead of Erun for "to God". In some of Tolkiens earlier material, the ending -n (or -en) expressed genitive rather than dative, but he later decided that the genitive ending was to be -o (cf. such a revision as Yénië Valinóren becoming Yénië Valinórëo, MR:200).
ana (1) prep. "to" (VT49:35), "as preposition _ana _is used when purely _dative formula is required" (PE17:147), perhaps meaning that the preposition ana can be used instead of the dative ending -n (#1, q.v.) Also as prefix: ana- "to, towards" (NĀ1); an (q.v.) is used with this meaning in one source (PE17:127)_
na (2) prep. "to, towards", possibly obsoleted by #1 above; for clarity writers may use the synonym ana instead (NĀ1). Originally, Tolkien glossed na as "at, by, near"; the new meaning entered together with the synonyms an, ana (VT45:36).
Ambalar noun "East" (MC:221; this is "Qenya")
The Quenya word for “east”, cognate of S. rhûn (LotR/1123). In inflected or compounds forms, the final n was usually dropped as was generally the case with Quenya direction words, for example in the ablative from Rómello “from the East” (LotR/377). It was ultimately derived from the root √RŌ/ORO “rise” (PE17/63, Ety/RŌ). It originally meant “rising direction”, that is ro- + men, and was thus connected to the rising sun.
Conceptual Development: In the earliest Lost Tales the word for “East” was ᴱQ. oronto (LT1/85), a word that also appeared in the Qenya Lexicon from the 1910s, with the gloss “rising (of the sun)” (QL/70). On the same page Tolkien gave the word ᴱQ. óre “the dawn, Sunrise, East” (QL/70), so the connection between “East” and “sunrise” was a very early idea.
The word ᴹQ. rómen “east” appeared in The Etymologies from the 1930s along with N. rhûn, both derived from ᴹ√RŌ (Ety/RŌ). At the time, there were no problems with this equivalence, since [[n|initial [r] was unvoiced]] in Noldorin. Tolkien went on to use both these forms in The Lord of the Rings.
Unfortunately, Tolkien later abandoned the unvoicing of initial r in Sindarin, making these two forms problematic. Tolkien considered modifying the Sindarin form to rûn (PE17/88) or the Quenya form to hrómen (PE17/18). The latter was probably derived from an s-strengthened form of the root ᴹ√SRŌ (PE22/127), where the initial sr- would become voiceless [r] in both Quenya and Sindarin. Ultimately, though, he left both forms alone. Perhaps he decided the s-strengthening of the root was a Sindarin-only variant.