Primitive elvish


adjective. this


  • Q. sina “this” ✧ VT49/18
  • S. sen “this” ✧ PE17/044; VT49/34


  • sĭna ✧ PE17/044
Primitive elvish [PE17/044; VT49/18; VT49/34] Group: Eldamo. Published by


root. this


root. this, this, [ᴹ√] here, now

Tolkien used √SI as the basis for “near demonstratives” like “here” and “now” from very early in his writings on Elvish. The Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s had two competing roots ᴱ√HYA “this by us” with derivatives like ᴱQ. hyá “here by us” (QL/41) and ᴱ√KI “this by me” with derivative ᴱQ. tyá (< ᴱ✶kı̯-ā) “now” (QL/41, 49). Indications of the latter can be seen words in the contemporaneous Gnomish Lexicon such as G. {“now” >>} “here” and G. cîrin “present (place or time), modern” [gloss deleted] (GL/26). However, Tolkien also introduced a new root ᴱ√si(n) “this here by me” with derivatives like G. “here” and G. sith “hither” (GL/68). Revisions of Gnomish ci- word glosses indicate Tolkien was vacillating on which forms were temporal and which were spatial.

In The Etymologies Tolkien gave the root ᴹ√SI “this, here, now” with derivatives like ᴹQ. or sin “now” and ᴹQ. sinya/N. sein “new” (Ety/SI). The root √SI was mentioned a couple times in Tolkien’s later writings, usually glossed “this” (PE17/67; VT48/25; VT49/18) and in one place with the variant √SIN (PE17/67). This root was not entirely without competition in Tolkien’s later notes, however: in one place he gave primitive ✶khĭn- as the possible basis for Q. “here” and S. “now” in 1968 notes on demonstratives, though it appeared beside primitive ✶si- forms (VT49/34 note #21).


  • “this (by me), now or here” ✧ PE17/067
    • Q. “now” ✧ PE17/067; VT49/18
    • S. “here, in this place (of speaker)” ✧ PE17/067
  • Q. si “this”
  • Q. sië “thus”
  • Q. sin “*thus”
  • ᴺS. se “this”
  • ᴺS. sin “these”

Element in

  • kenásĭta “if it be so, may be, perhaps”
  • Q. sinomë “here, (lit.) in this place” ✧ PE17/067
  • ᴺS. “yet, hither(to), hereto”


  • SĬ/SĬN ✧ PE17/067; PE17/184
  • SI ✧ VT48/25
Primitive elvish [PE17/067; PE17/184; VT48/25] Group: Eldamo. Published by


verb. to know


  • IS “know” ✧ PE22/129; PE22/134


  • ista ✧ PE22/129; PE22/134; PE22/135; PE22/158
  • is-ta ✧ PE22/134
Primitive elvish [PE22/129; PE22/130; PE22/134; PE22/135; PE22/158] Group: Eldamo. Published by