Quenya 

firë

mortal man

firë noun "mortal man" (PHIR), pl. firi given (the latter is not clearly glossed and may also be the archaic form from which firë is derived, since word-final short i became e in Quenya but since we would rather expect the spelling phiri if it were an archaic form, it is best taken as the pl. of firë.)

firya

proper name. Mortal

A shorter variant of Fírima (WJ/219, 387). It is the adjectival form of the root √PHIR produced by the suffix -ya.

Conceptual Development: In The Etymologies, the word ᴹQ. firya is glossed “human” and is derived from the same root ᴹ√PHIR (Ety/PHIR).

Cognates

  • S. Feir “Mortal, Mortal, [N.] mortal man” ✧ WJ/219; WJI/Feir; WJ/219

Derivations

  • PHIR “exhale, expire, breathe out, exhale, expire, breathe out; [ᴹ√] die of natural causes” ✧ WJ/387

Derivatives

  • S. Feir “Mortal, Mortal, [N.] mortal man” ✧ WJ/387

Elements

WordGloss
firya“mortal; human, [ᴹQ.] human; [Q.] mortal”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
PHIRI > Firyar[pʰirja] > [ɸirja] > [firja]✧ WJ/387
Quenya [WJ/219; WJ/387; WJI/Feir] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Fírimo

mortal

#Fírimo noun "mortal", see fírima

fírima

mortal

fírima adj. "mortal" (PHIR; firima with a short i in VT46:4); also used as noun: Fírima pl. Fírimar "those apt to die", "mortals", an Elvish name of Mortal Men (WJ:387). This adj. is also the source of an explicit noun, personalized #Fírimo = mortal, mortal man. Pl. Fírimor (VT49:10-11), dative pl. fírimoin "for men" in Fíriel's Song; cf. also the pl. allative fírimonnar in VT44:35.

forya

right

forya adj. "right" (PHOR), "dexter" (VT46:10)

cambë

noun. hand, (hollow of) hand

Derivations

  • KAB “hold, contain, retain, possess, have in hand, hold, contain, retain, possess, have in hand; [ᴹ√] hollow”

limbë

quick, swift

limbë (1) adj. (stem limbi-, given primitive form ¤lĭmbĭ) "quick, swift" (PE17:18)

nonda

hand, especially in [?clutching]

nonda noun "hand, especially in [?clutching]" (VT47:23; Tolkien's gloss was not certainly legible)

noun. hand

hand

Quenya [PE 18:35] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

hand

noun "hand" (MA3, LT2:339, Narqelion, VT39:10, [VT45:30], VT47:6, 18, 19); the dual "a pair of hands" is attested both by itself as mát (VT47:6) and with a pronominal suffix as máryat "his/her (pair of) hands" (see -rya, -t) (Nam, RGEO:67). The nominative plural form was only máli, not **már (VT47:6), though plurals in -r may occur in some of the cases, as indicated by the pl. allative mannar "into hands" (FS). Mánta "their hand", dual mántat "their hands" (two hands each) (PE17:161). Cf. also the compounds mátengwië "language of the hands" (VT47:9) and Lungumá "Heavyhand" (VT47:19); also compare the adj. -maitë "-handed". See also málimë.

noun. hand

Quenya [PE 22:160] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

noun. hand

The most common Quenya word for “hand”, which Tolkien usually derived from a root √MAH or √MAƷ “hand; handle, wield”. The weak consonant h or ʒ in the root was lost very early, so that primitive ✶ was one of a rare set of ancient monosyllabic nouns ending in a vowel. Tolkien said that of the various hand words, was “the oldest (probably) and the one that retained a general and unspecialized sense — referring to the entire hand (including wrist) in any attitude or function” (VT47/6).

As a part of the body, “hand” was usually referred to in the singular () or dual (mát). This was true when referring to the hands of groups of people as well. For example, to say that “the Elves raised their hands”, you would say either i Eldar ortaner mánta (singular, one hand each) or i Eldar ortaner mántat (dual, both hands each), with the possessive suffix -nta “their”.

The plural form már “hands” (or archaic †mai) was almost never used, in part because it conflicted with Q. már “dwelling”. The singular form was also used in general statements and proverbs: “hand is cleverer than foot” má anfinya epe tál (ná). A collection of otherwise unrelated hands would likely use the partitive-plural form: máli “some hands”, which in this case could also serve as the general plural (VT47/12 Note 2). See the discussions on PE17/161 and VT47/6 for more information.

This word is also unusual in that it retains its long vowel before consonant clusters in inflected forms such as mánta “their hand” (PE17/161) or márya “his/her hand” (PE17/69). As Tolkien described it:

> is usually shortened to la before 2 consonants, according to the usual Q. procedure, but the long vowel can be retained, especially for additional emphasis, as in other cases where pronominal affixes follow a long vowel, as in márya “his hand” (PE22/160).

Conceptual Development: This word dates all the way back to ᴱQ. “hand” from Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s, derived from the early root ᴱ√MAHA “grasp” (QL/57). ᴹQ. “hand” also appeared in The Etymologies of the 1930s under the root ᴹ√MAƷ “hand” (Ety/MAƷ). Tolkien mentioned this word with great frequency, usually derived from √MAH or √MAƷ (as noted above) though he sometimes considered deriving it from √MAG instead.

Cognates

  • S. maw “hand” ✧ PE17/162; VT47/06
  • T. “hand” ✧ VT47/18; VT47/06

Derivations

  • MAH “handle, manage, control, wield; serve, be of use, handle, manage, control, wield; serve, be of use; [ᴹ√] hand; [ᴱ√] grasp” ✧ PE17/069; PE17/162; PE19/100; VT39/11; VT47/19
  • MAG “good (physically); to thrive, be in a good state, good (physically); to thrive, be in a good state; [ᴹ√] use, handle” ✧ PE17/161; VT47/18
  • “hand” ✧ PE19/102; VT47/06
    • maha “hand, the manager” ✧ PE19/074; PE19/102; VT47/06; VT47/07; VT47/35
    • MAH “handle, manage, control, wield; serve, be of use, handle, manage, control, wield; serve, be of use; [ᴹ√] hand; [ᴱ√] grasp” ✧ VT47/18; VT47/18
    • MAG “good (physically); to thrive, be in a good state, good (physically); to thrive, be in a good state; [ᴹ√] use, handle” ✧ VT47/18
    • MAH “handle, manage, control, wield; serve, be of use, handle, manage, control, wield; serve, be of use; [ᴹ√] hand; [ᴱ√] grasp” ✧ PE21/70
    • MAG “good (physically); to thrive, be in a good state, good (physically); to thrive, be in a good state; [ᴹ√] use, handle” ✧ VT47/18
  • maha “hand, the manager” ✧ PE19/106; VT47/18
    • MAH “handle, manage, control, wield; serve, be of use, handle, manage, control, wield; serve, be of use; [ᴹ√] hand; [ᴱ√] grasp” ✧ VT47/18; VT47/18
    • MAG “good (physically); to thrive, be in a good state, good (physically); to thrive, be in a good state; [ᴹ√] use, handle” ✧ VT47/18

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
MAƷ > [maɣa] > [mā]✧ PE17/069
MAG > [maga] > [maɣa] > [mā]✧ PE17/161
MAƷ > [mā]✧ PE17/162
MAƷ > [maɣa] > [mā]✧ PE19/100
māh > [māh] > [mā]✧ PE19/102
māʒ > [māɣ] > [mā]✧ PE19/106
maha > [maha] > [mā]✧ VT39/11
> [mā]✧ VT47/06
māʒ(ă) > [māɣa] > [mā]✧ VT47/18
mag > [māga] > [māɣa] > [mā]✧ VT47/18
MAƷA > [maɣa] > [mā]✧ VT47/19

Variations

  • ✧ PE17/069; PE17/161; VT39/09; VT39/11; VT47/18; VT47/18
  • ✧ PE19/102
  • ✧ PE19/106
Quenya [LotR/0377; PE17/069; PE17/070; PE17/130; PE17/135; PE17/161; PE17/162; PE19/100; PE19/102; PE19/106; PE22/160; RGEO/58; RGEO/59; VT39/09; VT39/11; VT47/03; VT47/06; VT47/12; VT47/18; VT47/19; VT49/10] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Sindarin 

feir

noun. Mortal, Mortal, [N.] mortal man

A term used for Men meaning “Mortal”, appearing in the Quendi and Eldar essay of 1959-60, cognate to Q. Firya of the same meaning, both derived from √PHIR which was the basis of words for natural death (WJ/387). According to Tolkien this word was borrowed from Quenya, since the Noldor had pre-knowledge of the nature of Men having learned of them from the Valar. The plural form of Feir was Fîr and its class plural Firiath, the latter also appearing in contemporaneous Silmarillion drafts (WJ/219 footnote). It is unclear why this word did not become ✱Fair, since ei became ai in Sindarin monosyllables. Perhaps it remained Feir because it was an adaptation from Quenya, or it could be a conceptual remnant of its Noldorin form (see below).

Conceptual Development: Probably the first precursor to this word was ᴱN. fion “man, human being” from Index of Names for The Lay of the Children of Húrin compiled in the early 1920s (PE15/62), also appearing with the gloss “mortal man” in Early Noldorin Word-lists of the same period (PE13/143). In The Etymologies of the 1930s Tolkien gaven N. {fîr “man, mortal” >>} feir pl. fîr “mortals” under the root ᴹ√PHIR (Ety/PHIR; EtyAC/PHIR), hence with basically the same form, meaning and etymology as it had in later Sindarin.

Cognates

  • Q. Firya “Mortal” ✧ WJ/219; WJI/Feir; WJ/219

Derivations

  • Q. Firya “Mortal” ✧ WJ/387
    • PHIR “exhale, expire, breathe out, exhale, expire, breathe out; [ᴹ√] die of natural causes” ✧ WJ/387

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
Q. Firya > Feir[firja] > [ferja] > [feria] > [feri] > [feir]✧ WJ/387
Q. Firya > Fîr[firji] > [firi] > [fir]✧ WJ/387
Sindarin [WJ/219; WJ/387; WJI/Feir] Group: Eldamo. Published by

feir

noun. mortal

Sindarin [Ety/381, WJ/387, X/EI] Q firya. Group: SINDICT. Published by

feir

adjective. quick

_adj. _quick, ready, prompt. >> fair

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:181] < _pheryā _< PHERE. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

fair

noun. mortal

Sindarin [Ety/381, WJ/387, X/EI] Q firya. Group: SINDICT. Published by

fair

adjective. quick

_adj. _quick, ready, prompt. >> feir

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:181] < _pheryā _< PHERE. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

fair

noun. right (hand)

Sindarin [Ety/382, VT/46:10] Group: SINDICT. Published by

firin

adjective. mortal

adj. mortal. >> firen

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:101] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

firion

noun. mortal man

Sindarin [WJ/387] Group: SINDICT. Published by

fíreb

adjective. mortal

An adjective meaning “mortal”, more literally “those apt to die”, a Sindarin adaptation of Q. fírima of the same meaning, both based on the root √PHIR having to do with natural death (WJ/387). It was also used as Fíreb to refer to Mortal Men, a variant of Feir of similar meaning. Tolkien said “Fíreb as compared with Fírima shows the use of a different suffix, since the S equivalent of Q -ima (✱-ef) was not current” (WJ/387).

Derivations

  • PHIR “exhale, expire, breathe out, exhale, expire, breathe out; [ᴹ√] die of natural causes” ✧ WJ/387

Element in

  • S. Fíreb “Mortal” ✧ WJ/387

Elements

WordGloss
fir-“to fade, *die”
-eb“adjective suffix”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
PHIRI > Fíreb[pʰīrikwā] > [pʰīripā] > [pʰīripa] > [ɸīripa] > [ɸīrepa] > [fīrepa] > [fīrep] > [fīreb]✧ WJ/387

Variations

  • Fíreb ✧ WJ/387

fíreb

noun. Mortal

Cognates

  • Q. Fírima “Mortal, (lit.) One Apt to Die” ✧ WJ/387
Sindarin [WJ/387; WJI/Fíreb] Group: Eldamo. Published by

fíreb

adjective. mortal

Sindarin [WJ/387] fair+-eb. Group: SINDICT. Published by

Fíriel

noun. mortal maid

Sindarin [Ety/382, PM/195, PM/232] Group: SINDICT. Published by

firiath

noun. mortals, human beings

Sindarin [WJ/219, WJ/387] Group: SINDICT. Published by

firieth

noun. mortal woman

Sindarin [WJ/387] fair+-eth (PHIR). Group: SINDICT. Published by

forn

noun. right, north

Sindarin [Ety/382, UT/426, S/431] Group: SINDICT. Published by

forvo

noun. right side

Sindarin [VT/47:6] for-vaw, fôr+maw. Group: SINDICT. Published by

forvo

noun. right hand

Sindarin [VT/47:6] for-vaw, fôr+maw. Group: SINDICT. Published by

mab-

noun. a hand-full, complete hand (with all five fingers)

Sindarin [Ety/371, VT/45:32, VT/47:6-7] Group: SINDICT. Published by

mâb

noun. a hand-full, complete hand (with all five fingers)

Sindarin [Ety/371, VT/45:32, VT/47:6-7] Group: SINDICT. Published by

mâb

noun. hand, hand, [N.] grasp

The typical Sindarin word for “hand” (VT47/7, 20), usable in almost any context. It is most notable as an element in the name Mablung “Heavy Hand” (VT47/8). See below for a discussion of its etymology.

Conceptual Development: This word dates all the way back to the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s, where G. mab “hand” appeared as a derivative of the early root ᴱ√MAPA “seize” (GL/55). Tolkien then revised the gloss to “hands”, saying instead it was an irregular dual of G. “hand”. The word reverted to singular ᴱN. mab “hand” in Early Noldorin Word-lists of the 1920s (PE13/149). These early versions of the word were already an element of Mablung “Heavy Hand(ed)” (LT2/38; LB/311), but also of Ermabwed “One-handed” (LT2/34; LB/119).

In the 1930s it seems Tolkien decided Ilk. mâb “hand” was primarily an Ilkorin word, and the usual word for “hand” in Noldorin was N. cam. Compare Ilkorin Ermabuin “One-handed” and Mablosgen “Empty-handed” with Noldorin Erchamion and Camlost of the same meaning. In The Etymologies of the 1930s, Tolkien had N. mab “grasp” under the root ᴹ√MAPA “seize”, but the version of the entry with that word was overwritten (EtyAC/MAP), leaving only the Ilkorin form mâb. In this period, Mablung may also have been an Ilkorin name.

After Tolkien abandoned Ilkorin in the 1950s, he kept S. Erchamion and Camlost based on cam, but also kept Mablung “Heavy Hand” which must have become Sindarin. In his later writings Tolkien again revisited the etymology of S. mâb “hand”. In a note from Jan-Feb 1968, he wrote:

> It [Q. = “hand”] did not survive in Telerin and Sindarin as an independent word, but was replaced by the similar-sounding but unconnected C.E. makwā, Q. maqua, T. mapa, S. mab, of uncertain origin, but probably originally an adjectival formation from MAK “strike” ... (VT47/19).

This sentence was struck through, however. In drafts of notes on Elvish Hands, Fingers and Numerals written in or after 1968, Tolkien again derived mâb from √MAP (VT47/20 note #13), but in the final version of these notes he made the remarkable decision to discard this root despite it being a stable part of Elvish for nearly 50 years, declaring it was used only in Telerin and not Quenya or Sindarin (VT47/7). He coined a new etymology for S. mâb “hand” based on ✶makwā “handful” = ✶ + ✶kwā (VT47/6-7), a variation on the above etymology from √MAK.

Neo-Sindarin: For purposes of Neo-Sindarin, I prefer to ignore Tolkien’s 1968 removal of √MAP “seize”, and so would continue to derive S. mâb “hand” from that root. However, its ancient meaning may have been “✱grasp”, and its eventual use as “hand” might have been influenced by ancient ✶makwā “handful”.

Cognates

  • Q. maqua “hand-full, group of five (similar) things; hand (colloquial); closing or closed [hand] (facing down) for taking” ✧ VT47/06; VT47/19; VT47/20

Derivations

  • makwā “a hand-full, complete hand with all five fingers” ✧ VT47/06; VT47/07; VT47/19
    • MAK “cut, hew with a sharp edge; kill, slay; forge metal, cut, hew with a sharp edge, [ᴹ√] cleave; sword, fight (with a sword); ️[√] forge metal; kill, slay” ✧ VT47/19
  • MAP “take away, take hold of, grasp, take away, take hold of, grasp, [ᴹ√] lay hold of with hand, seize” ✧ VT47/20

Element in

  • ᴺS. mablanthas “sycamore”
  • S. Mablung “Heavy Hand” ✧ VT47/07
  • ᴺS. mabren “handed, having hands, dextrous”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
makwā > mâb[makwā] > [mapā] > [mapa] > [map] > [mab] > [māb]✧ VT47/06
makwā > mâb[makwā] > [mapā] > [mapa] > [map] > [mab] > [māb]✧ VT47/07
makwā > mâb[makwā] > [mapā] > [mapa] > [map] > [mab] > [māb]✧ VT47/19
MAP > măpo > mâb[mapo] > [map] > [mab] > [māb]✧ VT47/20
Sindarin [VT47/06; VT47/07; VT47/19; VT47/20] Group: Eldamo. Published by

cam

noun. hand

Sindarin [Ety/361, Ety/371, S/429] Group: SINDICT. Published by

cam

hand

1) cam (i gam, o cham), pl. caim (i chaim), coll. pl. cammath; 2) mâb (i vâb; construct mab), pl. maib (i maib). 3) Archaic †maw (i vaw), pl. moe (i moe). A homophone means ”soil, stain”. (VT47:6) 4) (fist) dond (i dhond; construct don), pl. dynd (i nynd), coll. pl. donnath (VT47:23).

cam

hand

(i gam, o cham), pl. caim (i chaim), coll. pl. cammath

camm

noun. hand

dond

hand

(i dhond; construct don), pl. dynd (i nynd), coll. pl. donnath (VT47:23).

maw

noun. hand

The Sindarin equivalent of Q. , likewise derived from the root √MAH or √MAƷ “hand; handle, wield” (PE17/162; VT47/6). However, in Sindarin this word was archaic, used only in poetry, having been replaced in ordinary speech by other words like S. mâb and (less often) cam. Other remnants of this word can be seen in compounds like molif “wrist, (orig.) hand link” and directional words like forvo and harvo for left and right hand side.

Conceptual Development: In the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s, G. from the early root ᴱ√MAHA was the normal word for “hand”, replacing mab “hand” (< ᴱ√MAHA) which in this document Tolkien decided was instead an irregular dual form of (GL/55). It had also had an irregular plural mabin based on this dual, replacing an older plural †maith. In the Gnomish Grammar, its archaic form was †, with the usual Gnomish sound change of ā to ō (GG/14), as opposed to later Sindarin/Noldorin ā to au, spelt -aw when final. Tolkien seems to have abandoned as a non-archaic word for “hand” early on, preferring ᴱN. mab “hand” by the 1920s and introducing N. cam “hand” in the 1930s.

Cognates

  • Q. “hand” ✧ PE17/162; VT47/06
  • T. “hand” ✧ VT47/18

Derivations

  • MAH “handle, manage, control, wield; serve, be of use, handle, manage, control, wield; serve, be of use; [ᴹ√] hand; [ᴱ√] grasp” ✧ PE17/162
  • “hand” ✧ VT47/06
    • maha “hand, the manager” ✧ PE19/074; PE19/102; VT47/06; VT47/07; VT47/35
    • MAH “handle, manage, control, wield; serve, be of use, handle, manage, control, wield; serve, be of use; [ᴹ√] hand; [ᴱ√] grasp” ✧ VT47/18; VT47/18
    • MAG “good (physically); to thrive, be in a good state, good (physically); to thrive, be in a good state; [ᴹ√] use, handle” ✧ VT47/18
    • MAH “handle, manage, control, wield; serve, be of use, handle, manage, control, wield; serve, be of use; [ᴹ√] hand; [ᴱ√] grasp” ✧ PE21/70
    • MAG “good (physically); to thrive, be in a good state, good (physically); to thrive, be in a good state; [ᴹ√] use, handle” ✧ VT47/18
  • MAG “good (physically); to thrive, be in a good state, good (physically); to thrive, be in a good state; [ᴹ√] use, handle” ✧ VT47/18

Element in

  • S. forvo “right hand, right side” ✧ VT47/06
  • S. harvo “left hand, left side” ✧ VT47/06
  • S. maed “handy, skillful, handy, skillful, [N.] skilled” ✧ VT47/06
  • ᴺS. mawedh “glove”
  • S. molif “wrist, (lit.) hand-link” ✧ VT47/06

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
MAƷ > maw[mā] > [mǭ] > [mau]✧ PE17/162
> maw[mā] > [mǭ] > [mau]✧ VT47/06
mag > maw[mā] > [mǭ] > [mau]✧ VT47/18
Sindarin [PE17/162; VT47/06; VT47/18] Group: Eldamo. Published by

maw

noun. hand

Sindarin [VT/47:6] Group: SINDICT. Published by

maw

hand

(i vaw), pl. moe (i moe). A homophone means ”soil, stain”. (VT47:6) 

mâb

hand

(i vâb; construct mab), pl. maib (i maib).

fair

mortal man

(human) fair (fír-), pl. fîr, coll. pl. firiath. Archaic sg. feir (WJ:387). Wheareas the above-mentioned terms are apparently gender-neutral, the following are gender-specific:

fair

mortal man

(fír-), pl. fîr, coll. pl. firiath. Archaic sg. feir (WJ:387). Wheareas the above-mentioned terms are apparently gender-neutral, the following are gender-specific:

fair

adjective. right (hand)

Sindarin Group: Eldamo - neologism/adaptations. Published by

fuir

right hand

pl. fŷr. Also used as adj. "right, north" (VT42:20). In ”Noldorin” the word appeared as (”foeir” =) föir, feir (LR:382 s.v. PHOR).

fuir

right

1) (adj, of direction), also used as noun "right hand": fuir (north), pl. fŷr (VT42:20). In ”Noldorin” the word appeared as (”foeir” =) föir, feir (LR:382 s.v. PHOR). 2) (direction, not "correct") fôr (north), pl. fŷr. 3) (straight) tîr (lenited dîr, no distinct pl. form) Note: a homophone means ”looking, view, glance” (noun).

fuir

right

(north), pl. fŷr (VT42:20). In ”Noldorin” the word appeared as (”foeir” =) föir, feir (LR:382 s.v. PHOR).

firin

mortal

. No distinct pl. form.

firin

mortal

?firin. No distinct pl. form.

firion

mortal man

firion (pl. firyn) and

firion

mortal man

firion (pl. firyn).

fíreb

mortal

(pl. fírib), coll. pl. firebrim. The literal meaning is "apt to die" (WJ:387).

fíreb

mortal

(adj. and noun) fíreb (pl. fírib), coll. pl. firebrim. The literal meaning is "apt to die" (WJ:387).

firieth

mortal woman

(pl. firith).

fôr

right

(north), pl. fŷr.

tîr

right

(lenited dîr, no distinct pl. form) Note: a homophone means ”looking, view, glance” (noun).

forgam

right-handed

(pl. fergaim, for archaic förgeim)

camlann

of the hand

(i gamlann, o chamlann), pl. cemlain (i chemlain).

brêg

quick

(sudden, lively), lenited vrêg, pl. brîg

brêg

quick

brêg (sudden, lively), lenited vrêg, pl. brîg

crûm

left hand

(i grûm, o chrûm, construct crum), pl. cruim (i chruim), coll. pl. crummath. Also ✱hair (i chair), no distinct pl. form (not even with article). Note: hair is also used = ”left” as adjective. Cited in archaic form heir (LR:365 s.v. KHYAR).

Telerin 

camba

noun. hand

Cognates

  • S. cam “(cupped) hand, holding hand; handful” ✧ VT47/22

mapa

noun. hand

Cognates

  • Q. maqua “hand-full, group of five (similar) things; hand (colloquial); closing or closed [hand] (facing down) for taking” ✧ VT47/06; VT47/19; VT47/20

Derivations

  • makwā “a hand-full, complete hand with all five fingers” ✧ VT47/06; VT47/07; VT47/19
    • MAK “cut, hew with a sharp edge; kill, slay; forge metal, cut, hew with a sharp edge, [ᴹ√] cleave; sword, fight (with a sword); ️[√] forge metal; kill, slay” ✧ VT47/19
  • MAP “take away, take hold of, grasp, take away, take hold of, grasp, [ᴹ√] lay hold of with hand, seize” ✧ VT47/20

Derivatives

  • T. mapa- “to take hold of, grasp” ✧ VT47/07

Variations

  • mapo ✧ VT47/20
Telerin [VT47/06; VT47/07; VT47/19; VT47/20] Group: Eldamo. Published by

noun. hand

Cognates

  • Q. “hand” ✧ VT47/18; VT47/06
  • S. maw “hand” ✧ VT47/18

Derivations

  • “hand” ✧ VT47/06
    • maha “hand, the manager” ✧ PE19/074; PE19/102; VT47/06; VT47/07; VT47/35
    • MAH “handle, manage, control, wield; serve, be of use, handle, manage, control, wield; serve, be of use; [ᴹ√] hand; [ᴱ√] grasp” ✧ VT47/18; VT47/18
    • MAG “good (physically); to thrive, be in a good state, good (physically); to thrive, be in a good state; [ᴹ√] use, handle” ✧ VT47/18
    • MAH “handle, manage, control, wield; serve, be of use, handle, manage, control, wield; serve, be of use; [ᴹ√] hand; [ᴱ√] grasp” ✧ PE21/70
    • MAG “good (physically); to thrive, be in a good state, good (physically); to thrive, be in a good state; [ᴹ√] use, handle” ✧ VT47/18
  • MAG “good (physically); to thrive, be in a good state, good (physically); to thrive, be in a good state; [ᴹ√] use, handle” ✧ VT47/18

Element in

  • T. forma “right-hand” ✧ VT47/06
  • T. málimë “wrist, (lit.) hand-link” ✧ VT47/06
  • T. þarma “left-hand” ✧ VT47/06

Variations

  • ✧ VT47/06 ()
  • māga ✧ VT47/18
Telerin [VT47/06; VT47/18] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Adûnaic

noun. hand

A noun translated “hand”, given as an example of an apparent Adûnaic uniconsonantal noun, which had a biconsonantal-root but lost one of its consonants from its ancient form ✶Ad. paʒa (SD/416, 426).

Derivations

  • √Ad. PAƷ “hand” ✧ SD/416
  • ✶Ad. paʒa “hand” ✧ SD/426
    • √Ad. PAƷ “hand”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
✶Ad. pa3a > [paɣa] > [paa] > [pā]✧ SD/426

Variations

  • ✧ SD/426
Adûnaic [SD/416; SD/426] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Primitive elvish

noun. hand

Derivations

  • maha “hand, the manager” ✧ PE19/074; PE19/102; VT47/06; VT47/07; VT47/35
    • MAH “handle, manage, control, wield; serve, be of use, handle, manage, control, wield; serve, be of use; [ᴹ√] hand; [ᴱ√] grasp” ✧ VT47/18; VT47/18
    • MAG “good (physically); to thrive, be in a good state, good (physically); to thrive, be in a good state; [ᴹ√] use, handle” ✧ VT47/18
  • MAH “handle, manage, control, wield; serve, be of use, handle, manage, control, wield; serve, be of use; [ᴹ√] hand; [ᴱ√] grasp” ✧ PE21/70
  • MAG “good (physically); to thrive, be in a good state, good (physically); to thrive, be in a good state; [ᴹ√] use, handle” ✧ VT47/18

Derivatives

  • Q. “hand” ✧ PE19/102; VT47/06
  • S. maw “hand” ✧ VT47/06
  • T. “hand” ✧ VT47/06

Element in

  • makwā “a hand-full, complete hand with all five fingers” ✧ VT47/07
  • mā-limi “wrist, (lit.) hand-link” ✧ VT47/06

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
maʒa > [maɣa] > [mā]✧ VT47/06

Variations

  • māh ✧ PE19/102
  • ✧ VT47/18; VT47/34 ()
Primitive elvish [PE19/074; PE19/102; PE21/70; VT47/06; VT47/07; VT47/18; VT47/34; VT47/35] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Noldorin 

feir

noun. mortal

Noldorin [Ety/381, WJ/387, X/EI] Q firya. Group: SINDICT. Published by

feir

noun. right (hand)

Noldorin [Ety/382, VT/46:10] Group: SINDICT. Published by

feir

adjective. right (hand)

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. forya “right (hand), dexter” ✧ Ety/PHOR

Derivations

  • ᴹ√PHOR “right-hand” ✧ Ety/PHOR

Element in

  • N. forgam “righthanded” ✧ Ety/PHOR

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√PHOR > fœir > feir[pʰorja] > [ɸorja] > [forja] > [foria] > [fœria] > [fœri] > [fœir] > [feir]✧ Ety/PHOR

Variations

  • feir ✧ Ety/PHOR
  • foeir ✧ EtyAC/PHOR
Noldorin [Ety/PHOR; EtyAC/PHOR] Group: Eldamo. Published by

feir

noun. mortal man, mortal

Changes

  • fîrfeir “man, mortal” ✧ Ety/PHIR

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. fire “mortal man” ✧ Ety/PHIR

Derivations

  • ᴹ√PHIR “die of natural causes” ✧ Ety/KHIL; Ety/PHIR

Element in

  • N. Fíriel “Mortal Maid” ✧ Ety/PHIR
  • N. firen “human” ✧ Ety/PHIR
  • N. Torfir “High-man”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√PHIR > feir[pʰirja] > [ɸirja] > [ɸerja] > [ferja] > [feria] > [feri] > [feir]✧ Ety/PHIR
ᴹ√PHIR > fîr[pʰirji] > [ɸirji] > [firji] > [firī] > [fir] > [fīr]✧ Ety/PHIR

Variations

  • feir ✧ Ety/PHIR
  • fîr ✧ EtyAC/PHIR (fîr)
Noldorin [Ety/KHIL; Ety/PHIR; EtyAC/PHIR] Group: Eldamo. Published by

fœir

noun. right (hand)

Noldorin [Ety/382, VT/46:10] Group: SINDICT. Published by

firiel

noun. mortal maid

Noldorin [Ety/382, PM/195, PM/232] Group: SINDICT. Published by

forn

noun. right, north

Noldorin [Ety/382, UT/426, S/431] Group: SINDICT. Published by

forgam

adjective. right-handed

Noldorin [Ety/382] fôr+cam. Group: SINDICT. Published by

cam

noun. hand

Noldorin [Ety/361, Ety/371, S/429] Group: SINDICT. Published by

cam

noun. hand

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. kambe “hollow (of hand)” ✧ Ety/KAB; EtyAC/KAB

Derivations

  • ᴹ√KAB “hollow” ✧ Ety/KAB; EtyAC/KAB
  • On. kamba “hand” ✧ Ety/MAƷ
    • ᴹ√KAB “hollow” ✧ Ety/MAƷ; EtyAC/MAƷ
    • ᴹ✶kambā ✧ PE21/59; PE21/59
    • ᴹ√KAB “hollow”

Element in

  • N. Cambant “Full Hand” ✧ Ety/KAB
  • N. camland “palm of hand” ✧ Ety/LAD
  • N. Camlost “Empty-hand(ed)” ✧ Ety/KAB
  • N. Erchamui “One-handed” ✧ Ety/KAB
  • N. forgam “righthanded”
  • N. hargam “left-handed”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√KAB > camb > cam[kamba] > [kamb] > [kamb] > [kamm] > [kam]✧ Ety/KAB
On. kamba > camm[kamba] > [kamb] > [kamb] > [kamm]✧ Ety/MAƷ

Variations

  • camm ✧ Ety/MAƷ
Noldorin [Ety/KAB; Ety/LAD; Ety/MAƷ; EtyAC/KAB; PE21/60] Group: Eldamo. Published by

camb

noun. hand

Noldorin [Ety/361, Ety/371, S/429] Group: SINDICT. Published by

camm

noun. hand

Noldorin [Ety/361, Ety/371, S/429] Group: SINDICT. Published by

camm

noun. hand

noun. hand

ON. hand

Noldorin [PE 18:35] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Primitive adûnaic

paʒ

root. hand

A Primitive Adûnaic root glossed “hand”, the basis for the noun of the same meaning (SD/416).

Derivatives

  • Ad. “hand” ✧ SD/416
  • ✶Ad. paʒa “hand”
    • Ad. “hand” ✧ SD/426

Variations

  • PA3 ✧ SD/416
Primitive adûnaic [SD/416] Group: Eldamo. Published by

paʒa

noun. hand

The Primitive Adûnaic form of the noun “hand” (SD/426).

Derivations

  • √Ad. PAƷ “hand”

Derivatives

  • Ad. “hand” ✧ SD/426

Variations

  • pa3a ✧ SD/426
Primitive adûnaic [SD/426] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Qenya 

fire

noun. mortal man

A noun in The Etymologies of the 1930s glossed “mortal man” derived from the root ᴹ√PHIR (Ety/PHIR).

Cognates

  • N. feir “mortal man, mortal” ✧ Ety/PHIR

Derivations

  • ᴹ√PHIR “die of natural causes” ✧ Ety/PHIR

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√PHIR > fire[pʰire] > [ɸire] > [fire]✧ Ety/PHIR

fírima

adjective. mortal

Derivations

  • ᴹ√PHIR “die of natural causes” ✧ Ety/PHIR; EtyAC/ÑGUR

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√PHIR > fírima[pʰīrima] > [ɸīrima] > [fīrima]✧ Ety/PHIR

Variations

  • firima ✧ EtyAC/ÑGUR
Qenya [Ety/PHIR; EtyAC/ÑGUR] Group: Eldamo. Published by

fírimo

proper name. Mortal

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
fírima“mortal”
Qenya [LR/072; LR/245; LRI/Fírimor] Group: Eldamo. Published by

noun. hand

Cognates

  • On. “hand” ✧ Ety/MAƷ

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶māʒ “hand” ✧ Ety/MAƷ; PE18/035
    • ᴹ√MAƷ “hand” ✧ Ety/MAƷ
  • ᴹ✶magā “hand” ✧ EtyAC/MAƷ
    • ᴹ√MAG “use, handle” ✧ EtyAC/MAƷ

Element in

  • ᴹQ. númessier “and he gave it into the hands of the Lords: they are in the West” ✧ LR/072
  • ᴹQ. Lunguma “Heavy Hand”
  • ᴹQ. maite “handy, skilled”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶māʒ > [māɣ] > [mā]✧ Ety/MAƷ
ᴹ✶magā > [magā] > [maɣā] > [mā]✧ EtyAC/MAƷ
ᴹ✶ > [mā]✧ PE18/035

Variations

  • ✧ Ety/MAƷ; EtyAC/MAƷ (); PE18/035; PE21/40; PE22/021
Qenya [Ety/MAƷ; EtyAC/MAƷ; LR/072; PE18/035; PE21/40; PE22/021] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Doriathrin

mâb

noun. hand

An Ilkorin and Doriathrin noun for “hand” derived from primitive ᴹ✶mapā (Ety/MAP, EtyAC/MAP), where the [[ilk|voiceless stop [p] voiced to [b] after the vowel]]. Since its primitive form had a short [a] and its Ilkorin form a long [ā] (EtyAC/MAP), this word is an example of how short vowels sometimes lengthened in monosyllables in Ilkorin.

Cognates

  • N. mab “grasp” ✧ EtyAC/MAP

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶mapā “hand” ✧ Ety/MAP
    • ᴹ√MAP “lay hold of with hand, seize” ✧ Ety/MAP
  • ᴹ√MAP “lay hold of with hand, seize” ✧ EtyAC/MAP

Element in

  • Ilk. Mabluin “Pale-hand”
  • Ilk. Mablost “Empty-handed” ✧ Ety/KAB
  • Ilk. Mablosgen “Empty-handed” ✧ Ety/MAP
  • Ilk. Ermabuin “One-handed” ✧ Ety/MAP; EtyAC/MAP (Ermabin)
  • Ilk. Mablung “Heavy-hand” ✧ Ety/MAP

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶mapā > mâb[mapā] > [mapa] > [maba] > [mab] > [māb]✧ Ety/MAP

Variations

  • Mab ✧ Ety/KAB (Dor. Mab)
  • mab ✧ EtyAC/MAP; EtyAC/MAP (Dor. mab)
Doriathrin [Ety/KAB; Ety/MAP; EtyAC/MAP] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Old Noldorin 

kamba

noun. hand

Derivations

  • ᴹ√KAB “hollow” ✧ Ety/MAƷ; EtyAC/MAƷ
  • ᴹ✶kambā ✧ PE21/59; PE21/59
    • ᴹ√KAB “hollow”

Derivatives

  • N. cam “hand” ✧ Ety/MAƷ

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√KAB > kamba[kamba]✧ Ety/MAƷ
Old Noldorin [Ety/MAƷ; EtyAC/MAƷ; PE21/59] Group: Eldamo. Published by

maga

noun. hand

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶magā “hand” ✧ EtyAC/MAƷ
    • ᴹ√MAG “use, handle” ✧ EtyAC/MAƷ

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶magā > maga[magā] > [maga]✧ EtyAC/MAƷ
Old Noldorin [EtyAC/MAƷ] Group: Eldamo. Published by

noun. hand

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. “hand” ✧ Ety/MAƷ

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶māʒ “hand” ✧ Ety/MAƷ; PE18/035
    • ᴹ√MAƷ “hand” ✧ Ety/MAƷ

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶māʒ > [māɣ] > [mā] > [mǭ]✧ Ety/MAƷ
Old Noldorin [Ety/MAƷ; PE18/035] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Middle Primitive Elvish

magā

noun. hand

Derivations

  • ᴹ√MAG “use, handle” ✧ EtyAC/MAƷ

Derivatives

  • ᴹQ. “hand” ✧ EtyAC/MAƷ
  • On. maga “hand” ✧ EtyAC/MAƷ
Middle Primitive Elvish [EtyAC/MAƷ] Group: Eldamo. Published by

mapā

noun. hand

Derivations

  • ᴹ√MAP “lay hold of with hand, seize” ✧ Ety/MAP

Derivatives

  • Ilk. mâb “hand” ✧ Ety/MAP
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/MAP] Group: Eldamo. Published by

maʒ

root. hand

Derivatives

  • ᴹ✶māʒ “hand” ✧ Ety/MAƷ
    • ᴹQ. “hand” ✧ Ety/MAƷ; PE18/035
    • On. “hand” ✧ Ety/MAƷ; PE18/035
  • ᴹ✶maʒiti “handy, skilled” ✧ Ety/MAƷ; EtyAC/MAƷ
    • ᴹQ. maite “handy, skilled” ✧ Ety/MAƷ
    • On. maite “handy, skilled” ✧ Ety/MAƷ
    • N. moed “handy, skilled” ✧ Ety/MAƷ
  • ᴹ✶mahtā- “to handle, stroke, feel; to deal with, wield, treat” ✧ PE19/048
    • ᴹQ. mahta- “to handle, wield; to deal with, treat; to stroke, feel; to wield a weapon, fight” ✧ Ety/MAƷ; PE19/048
    • On. mattha- “to stroke, feel, handle” ✧ Ety/MAƷ; EtyAC/MAƷ
    • N. matha- “to stroke, feel, handle” ✧ Ety/MAƷ; EtyAC/MAƷ
  • ᴹ✶maʒtā- “to handle, stroke, feel” ✧ Ety/MAƷ; Ety/MAK; EtyAC/MAƷ
    • ᴹ✶mahtā- “to handle, stroke, feel; to deal with, wield, treat” ✧ Ety/MAƷ; EtyAC/MAƷ
    • ᴹQ. mahta- “to handle, wield; to deal with, treat; to stroke, feel; to wield a weapon, fight” ✧ Ety/MAƷ; PE19/048
    • On. mattha- “to stroke, feel, handle” ✧ Ety/MAƷ; EtyAC/MAƷ
      • N. matha- “to stroke, feel, handle” ✧ Ety/MAƷ; EtyAC/MAƷ
  • ᴹQ. masse “handful, share, just portion (in distribution), measure or capacity (of a person)” ✧ PE19/048
  • N. moed “handy, skilled” ✧ EtyAC/KHYAR

Element in

  • ᴹQ. formaite “righthanded, dexterous” ✧ Ety/PHOR
  • ᴹQ. hyarmaite “left-handed” ✧ Ety/KHYAR
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/KHYAR; Ety/MAƷ; Ety/MAK; Ety/PHOR; EtyAC/KHYAR; EtyAC/MAƷ; PE19/048] Group: Eldamo. Published by

māʒ

noun. hand

Derivations

  • ᴹ√MAƷ “hand” ✧ Ety/MAƷ

Derivatives

  • ᴹQ. “hand” ✧ Ety/MAƷ; PE18/035
  • On. “hand” ✧ Ety/MAƷ; PE18/035

Element in

  • On. dalma “palm of hand” ✧ Ety/DAL

Variations

  • ✧ Ety/DAL; PE18/035
  • mā̆ʒ ✧ PE18/035
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/DAL; Ety/MAƷ; PE18/035; PE21/58] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Gnomish

noun. hand

Cognates

  • Eq. “hand”

Derivations

  • ᴱ√MAHA “grasp” ✧ GL/55

Variations

  • ✧ GG/14 ()
Gnomish [GG/14; GL/55; GL/57] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Early Noldorin

fion

noun. mortal man

Element in

  • En. fionwin “woman; (fem.) mortal man” ✧ PE13/143; PE13/143; PE15/62
  • En. fionweg “a man” ✧ PE15/62
Early Noldorin [PE13/143; PE15/62] Group: Eldamo. Published by

mab

noun. hand

Element in

Early Noldorin [LB/056; PE13/124; PE13/149; PE13/156] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Early Quenya

makte

noun. hand

An archaic word for “hand” in Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s, derived from the early root ᴱ√MAHA “grasp” (QL/57). There are no signs of it in Tolkien’s later writings.

Derivations

  • ᴱ√MAHA “grasp” ✧ QL/057

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴱ√MAHA > makte[makti] > [makte]✧ QL/057

Variations

  • makte ✧ QL/057 (makte)
Early Quenya [QL/057] Group: Eldamo. Published by

noun. hand

Cognates

  • G. ma “with instrument or by agent” ✧ GL/55
  • G. “hand”

Derivations

  • ᴱ√MAHA “grasp” ✧ LT2A/Ermabwed; QL/057

Element in

  • Eq. malenka “left handed” ✧ QL/057
  • Eq. mavoite “having hands” ✧ LT2A/Ermabwed; QL/057
  • Eq. Makarnea “Red-handed”
  • Eq. marikta “wrist” ✧ QL/057
  • Eq. mapalin “plane, sycamore” ✧ QL/057
  • Eq. torwa pior má tarasse “*the dark-brown fruit in the hand of the hawthorns” ✧ VT40/08

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴱ√MAHA > maha > [maxa] > [maxǝ] > [max] > [maɣ] > [mā]✧ QL/057

Variations

  • ✧ GL/55; PE15/73
  • ✧ LT2A/Ermabwed; PE16/137; QL/057
Early Quenya [GL/55; LT2A/Ermabwed; PE14/052; PE14/076; PE14/117; PE15/73; PE16/137; QL/057; VT40/08] Group: Eldamo. Published by