Primitive elvish


root. complete, full, whole, all, every, complete, full, whole, all, every; [ᴹ√] something

A root, frequently but not universally suffixal, indicating completion or fullness. The first appearance of this root was ᴹ√KWA “something” in The Etymologies of the 1930s, serving as the basis for ᴹQ. il-qa “everything, ✱all-thing” (EtyAC/KWA). √KWA reappeared in the Quendi and Eldar essay of 1959-60 glossed “completion” (WJ/392) or “full” (WJ/412), with extended form √KWAN and the verbal variant √KWAT “fill”. It appeared again in various notes from the late 1960s on numbering systems, glossed “full, complete, all, every” (VT42/24), “whole, complete, all” (VT47/7), or “complete, full, all, the whole” (VT47/17). In these notes it was connected to Tolkien’s latest word for “ten” from this period: ✶kwayam > Q. quean or S. pae. Since the root √IL was usually used for “all”, I think it is more accurate to attribute the sense “complete(ness)” or “full(ness)” to √KWA.


  • akwā “fully, completely, altogether, wholly” ✧ WJ/415
    • Q. aqua “fully, completely, altogether, wholly” ✧ WJ/392
  • -ikwā “-ful, adjectival suffix” ✧ WJ/412; WJ/415
    • Q. -inqua “-ful, complete” ✧ WJ/412
    • S. -eb “adjective suffix” ✧ WJ/412
  • -kwā “-ful”
  • KWAT “fill; full” ✧ WJ/392
    • Q. quanta “full, filled, full, filled; [ᴱQ.] whole, all” ✧ PE17/068
    • Q. quanta- “to fill, to fill [something], (lit.) make full; [ᴱQ.] to complete, fulfill” ✧ PE17/068
    • Q. quat- “to fill, to fill, *be filled” ✧ WJ/392
    • S. pant “full, full; [G.] (with article) the whole, all the”
  • ᴺQ. qua(na) “all, complete, entire, full, the whole”
  • S. pân “all, all, *complete, entire, full, the whole”

Element in

  • KWAT “fill; full” ✧ WJ/412
  • KWAY “ten” ✧ VT42/24
  • makwā “a hand-full, complete hand with all five fingers” ✧ VT47/07
  • ᴺQ. qualöa(va) “annual, yearly, perennial (year as whole)”
  • ᴺQ. qualussë “perfect tense, (lit.) full tense”


  • kwā ✧ VT47/07; WJ/415
  • kwā̆ ✧ VT47/17
  • KWAN ✧ WJ/392
  • kwa ✧ WJ/412
Primitive elvish [VT42/24; VT47/07; VT47/17; WJ/392; WJ/412; WJ/415] Group: Eldamo. Published by