Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Primitive adûnaic

gimil

root. *star

One of the roots Tolkien used to illustrate various processes of Primitive Adûnaic word formation (SD/422-5). It also seems to be the basis of words related to stars, such as gimli.

Variations

  • GIM’L ✧ SD/434

Derivatives

  • Ad. gimil “(all) stars; ?silver”
  • Ad. gimli “star (in the sky)”
  • Ad. igmil “star-shaped figure”

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
IGIMLvowel-prefixion-✧ SD/422
GIMLIvowel-suffixion-✧ SD/422; SD/425
-GMILvowel-suppression-✧ SD/422
IGMILvowel-prefixion vowel-suppression-✧ SD/422; SD/425
DA-GMILvowel-suppression-✧ SD/422
GIMLAsubordinate-vowel-variation-✧ SD/422; SD/425
GIMLUsubordinate-vowel-variation-✧ SD/422; SD/425
GIMALsubordinate-vowel-variation-✧ SD/425
GIMILfull-form-✧ SD/425
GIMULsubordinate-vowel-variation-✧ SD/425
GĒMILa-fortification-✧ SD/425
GIMĒLa-fortification-✧ SD/425
IGMĒLa-fortification-✧ SD/425
GIMMILconsonant-doubling-✧ SD/425
GIMILLAconsonant-doubling-✧ SD/425
Primitive adûnaic [SD/422; SD/423; SD/425; SD/434] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ʔir

root. one, alone

A Primitive Adûnaic root glossed “one, alone” (SD/432), likely the basis for Êru “God” (the One) and probably related to the Primitive Elvish root √ER of the same meaning.

Variations

  • ?IR ✧ SD/432

Derivatives

  • Ad. Êru “God (the Omnipotent)”
Primitive adûnaic [SD/432] Group: Eldamo. Published by

saphdān

noun. wise man, wizard

The primitive form of sapthân “wise man, wizard”, derived from the root ✶Ad. √SAPHAD (SD/421). Its final element -ān may be a primitive form of the agental suffix -ân.

Derivatives

  • Ad. sapthân “wise man, wizard” ✧ SD/421
Primitive adûnaic [SD/421] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nakh

root. come, approach

A Primitive Adûnaic root glossed “come, approach” (SD/416), no doubt the basis for the verb nakh- “to come”.

Derivatives

Primitive adûnaic [SD/416] Group: Eldamo. Published by

saphad

root. understand

A Primitive Adûnaic root glossed “understand” (SD/416), the basis for the verb saphad- “to understand” and the noun sapthân “wise man” (SD/421).

Derivatives

  • Ad. saphad- “to understand” ✧ SD/421

Element in

  • ✶Ad. saphdān “wise man, wizard” ✧ SD/421
Primitive adûnaic [SD/416; SD/421] Group: Eldamo. Published by

bith

root. say

A root glossed “say” (SD/416), from which bêth “expression, saying, word” is most likely derived. It may be related to the Primitive Elvish root √KWET; see the entry on bêth for further discussion.

Derivatives

  • Ad. bêth “expression, saying, word”
  • Ad. bith- “to say”

Derivations

  • KWET “say, speak, utter words”
    • KWE “vocal speech” ✧ WJ/392
Primitive adûnaic [SD/416] Group: Eldamo. Published by

khaw

noun. crow

A Primitive Adûnaic word glossed “crow” (SD/426). Tolkien gave two primitive forms of this word, khāw and khăw, which could just be variant forms of the same root *KHAW. A more intriguing possibility is that khāw is actually the subjective form of khăw, since this would indicate that this subjective formation dates back to the primitive stages of the language. As evidence of this, the derived plural khāwī(m) (SD/426) does resemble the Classical Adûnaic subjective plural.

Contradicting this conjecture is the fact that khaw, as an animal name, should be declined as a common-noun, using the common subjective suffix -an. Elsewhere, though, Tolkien declined some animal names as if they were neuter nouns, for example narîka as the subjective plural of #narak (SD/251). Perhaps not all animals were common nouns, or perhaps Tolkien’s ideas for the subjective tense were not fully formed when these examples were written.

Variations

  • khăw ✧ SD/426

Derivatives

  • Ad. khô “crow” ✧ SD/426; SD/426

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
khāwsubjective-✧ SD/426
khăwīplural-✧ SD/426
Primitive adûnaic [SD/426] Group: Eldamo. Published by

izray

noun. *sweetheart, beloved

The primitive form of izrê “sweetheart, beloved” (SD/424), probably derived from the root ✶Ad. √ZIR. The actual primitive word was more likely *izrai, produced via a-fortification from the biconsonantal vowel-suppression form *izri. Its plural form izray+yi is also attested.

Derivatives

  • Ad. izrê “sweetheart, beloved” ✧ SD/424

Derivations

  • √Ad. ZIR “love, desire”

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
izray+yiplural-✧ SD/424
Primitive adûnaic [SD/424] Group: Eldamo. Published by

dawar

root. *gloom

The root from which dâur “gloom” is derived (SD/423), perhaps with a similar meaning.

Derivatives

  • ✶Ad. dāw’r “gloom” ✧ SD/423
    • Ad. dâur “gloom” ✧ SD/423
Primitive adûnaic [SD/423] Group: Eldamo. Published by

dāw’r

noun. gloom

A Primitive Adûnaic word glossed “gloom” (SD/423), the only attested example of a single-vowel-form for a triconsonantal-root. Ordinarily such a form would not be possible, since final consonant clusters did not appear in Primitive Adûnaic (SD/418, 426). It is possible that such forms were valid in the case of medial semi-vowels [w] and [j], however, since [[ad|[w] and [j] became [u] and [i] before consonants and finally]], thereby preventing a cluster from forming.

Derivatives

  • Ad. dâur “gloom” ✧ SD/423

Derivations

  • √Ad. DAWAR “*gloom” ✧ SD/423

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
√Ad. DAWAR > dāw’r[dāwr]✧ SD/423
Primitive adûnaic [SD/423] Group: Eldamo. Published by

manaw

noun. spirit

The primitive form of manô “spirit” (SD/424). Its plural form manaw+yi is also attested.

Variations

  • manaw- ✧ SD/424

Derivatives

  • Ad. manô “spirit” ✧ SD/424; SD/424

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
manaw+yiplural-✧ SD/424
Primitive adûnaic [SD/424] Group: Eldamo. Published by

minil

root. heaven, sky

A Primitive Adûnaic root glossed “heaven, sky” that Tolkien used as an example of an “early borrowing” from Primitive Elvish: the Primitive Elvish root √MENEL became ✶Ad. √MINIL from whatever Avari language influenced Primitive Adûnaic (SD/414).

Derivatives

  • Ad. minal “the heavens, sky” ✧ SD/414

Derivations

  • ᴹ√MENEL “heaven, sky” ✧ SD/414

Cognates

  • ᴹ√MENEL “heaven, sky” ✧ SD/414

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√MENEL > MINIL[menel] > [menil] > [minil]✧ SD/414
Primitive adûnaic [SD/414] Group: Eldamo. Published by

miy

root. small

A root glossed “small” that Tolkien wrote in its full-form ✶Ad. √MIYI (SD/427). For consistency this entry has normalized it to the basic form of biconsonantal roots. Although glossed as “small”, all of its attested derivatives have to do with babies.

Variations

  • MIYI ✧ SD/427

Derivatives

  • Ad. mîk “*baby boy” ✧ SD/427
  • Ad. miya “infant” ✧ SD/427

Element in

  • Ad. mîth “baby girl, maid-child, little girl” ✧ SD/427
Primitive adûnaic [SD/427] Group: Eldamo. Published by

sapad

root. ?

An otherwise unexplained root Tolkien gave to illustrate a pronunciation example. It may not be a real root.

Derivatives

  • Ad. sapda “[unglossed]” ✧ SD/421
Primitive adûnaic [SD/421] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ruth

root. scar, score, furrow

This root, glossed “scar, score, furrow”, appeared as part of a discussion of the origin of the Sindarin word S. ross “foam” appearing in the name Elros “Star-foam” (PM/368-371). Tolkien was uncertain whether this Sindarin word could coexist with its homophone S. ross “copper-coloured”, and investigated the possibility that Elros was instead derived from a Beorian word rôs “foam”. According to Christopher Tolkien, his father was forced to abandon this line of reasoning when he remembered that the unrelated name S. Cair Andros also contained this element, forcing it to be of Sindarin rather than Beorian origin (SD/371).

Despite all this, the related Adûnaic word Ad. roth “foam” survived in The Silmarillion in the Adûnaic name Rothinzil “Foam-flower” of Earendil’s ship. Therefore, perhaps this root remains valid. According to Tolkien, this root originally had to do with ploughs and ploughing, and was later used for the white crest of waves by analogy with the churning dirt of a furrow (PM/376).

Derivatives

  • Ad. rôth “foam, white crest of waves” ✧ PM/376
Primitive adûnaic [PM/376] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ir

root. *love

A rejected Adûnaic root attested as iri- and having to do with love (SD/305), perhaps related to the Primitive Elvish root ᴹ√IR “desirable, beautiful”.

Variations

  • iri- ✧ SD/305 (iri-)

Changes

  • iri-bel- ✧ SD/305

Element in

  • Ad. PharazîrSea-lover” ✧ SD/305 (Pharazîr*)
Primitive adûnaic [SD/305] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-th

suffix. feminine suffix

A (primitive?) feminine suffix used in the formation of mîth “baby girl” from the root ✶Ad. √MIYI (SD/427). Tolkien stated that that th was one of the “favoured” feminine consonants (SD/427).

Element in

  • Ad. mîth “baby girl, maid-child, little girl” ✧ SD/427
Primitive adûnaic [SD/427] Group: Eldamo. Published by

bel

root. *befriend, love

This unglossed root appears only as an element in the name Azrubêl “Friend of the Sea, Sea-lover” (SD/305). It has a sense similar to that of ✶Ad. √ZIR “love, desire”. Perhap it is distinct from ✶Ad. √ZIR in that it has more to do with friendship than desire. It could be distantly related to the elvish root √MEL, perhaps ✶mel- > ✶mbel- > ✶bel- in the Avari tongue that influenced Primitive Adûnaic, but this is purely speculative.

This root also contradicts statements by Tolkien elsewhere that Primitive Adûnaic only had the vowels a, i and u. Perhaps it should be *BIL, as with ✶Ad. √BITH “say” the primitive root of Ad. bêth “expression, saying, word”.

Derivatives

  • Ad. bêl- “*to befriend, love”
Primitive adûnaic Group: Eldamo. Published by

nak

root. ?

An otherwise unexplained root that Tolkien used to illustrate the processes of Primitive Adûnaic word formation (SD/422-3). It may have no real meaning. Even if it were, certainly only a few of its derivatives could be real words in Classical Adûnaic.

Variations

  • NAK- ✧ SD/422

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
NAKAfull-form-✧ SD/422; SD/423
ANAKvowel-prefixion-✧ SD/422
-NKAvowel-suppression-✧ SD/422
ANKAvowel-prefixion vowel-suppression-✧ SD/422
DA-NKAvowel-suppression-✧ SD/422
NAKIsubordinate-vowel-variation-✧ SD/423
NAKUsubordinate-vowel-variation-✧ SD/423
Primitive adûnaic [SD/422; SD/423] Group: Eldamo. Published by

zir

root. love, desire

A Primitive Adûnaic root glossed “love, desire”, the basis for the verbal element zîr- of similar meaning and the noun zâir “yearning” (SD/423). It is likely also the basis for the noun izrê “sweetheart, beloved” (SD/424).

Derivatives

  • ✶Ad. izray “*sweetheart, beloved”
    • Ad. izrê “sweetheart, beloved” ✧ SD/424
  • Ad. zâir “longing, yearning” ✧ SD/423
  • Ad. zîr- “*to love, desire” ✧ SD/423
Primitive adûnaic [SD/423] Group: Eldamo. Published by

kulub

root. *root (as a kind of plant)

One of the Primitive Adûnaic roots Tolkien used to illustrate the processes of Primitive Adûnaic word formation (SD/422-5). It also seems to be the root of words such as kulbu and kulub “root (as a kind of plant)” (SD/431), perhaps an deliberate pun by Tolkien.

Variations

  • KUL’B ✧ SD/422

Derivatives

  • Ad. kulbu “root”
  • Ad. kulub “roots, edible vegetables that are roots not fruits”

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
KULUBfull-form-✧ SD/422; SD/425
UKULBvowel-prefixion-✧ SD/422
KULBUvowel-suffixion-✧ SD/422; SD/425
-KLUBvowel-suppression-✧ SD/422
UKLUBvowel-prefixion vowel-suppression-✧ SD/422; SD/425
DA-KLUBvowel-suppression-✧ SD/422
UKULBAvowel-prefixion-✧ SD/422
KULABsubordinate-vowel-variation-✧ SD/423; SD/425
KULIBsubordinate-vowel-variation-✧ SD/423; SD/425
KULBAvowel-suffixion subordinate-vowel-variation-✧ SD/423
KULBIvowel-suffixion subordinate-vowel-variation-✧ SD/423
KULBAsubordinate-vowel-variation-✧ SD/425
KULBIsubordinate-vowel-variation-✧ SD/425
Kulbōa-fortification-✧ SD/425
Kulbāvowel-lengthening-✧ SD/425
Kulbēa-fortification-✧ SD/425
Kulbīvowel-lengthening-✧ SD/425
Kulbūvowel-lengthening-✧ SD/425
kōlaba-fortification-✧ SD/425
kōliba-fortification-✧ SD/425
kōluba-fortification-✧ SD/425
kulōba-fortification-✧ SD/425
kulēba-fortification-✧ SD/425
kulābvowel-lengthening-✧ SD/425
kulūbvowel-lengthening-✧ SD/425
kulībvowel-lengthening-✧ SD/425
uklōba-fortification-✧ SD/425
uklūbvowel-lengthening-✧ SD/425
Kullubconsonant-doubling-✧ SD/425
Kullabconsonant-doubling-✧ SD/425
Kullibconsonant-doubling-✧ SD/425
Kullūbvowel-lengthening-✧ SD/425
Kullībvowel-lengthening-✧ SD/425
Kullābvowel-lengthening-✧ SD/425
Kullēba-fortification-✧ SD/425
Kullōba-fortification-✧ SD/425
kulubbaconsonant-doubling-✧ SD/425
kulubbiconsonant-doubling-✧ SD/425
kulabbuconsonant-doubling-✧ SD/425
kulabbaconsonant-doubling-✧ SD/425
kulabbiconsonant-doubling-✧ SD/425
kulibbuconsonant-doubling-✧ SD/425
kulibbiconsonant-doubling-✧ SD/425
kulibbaconsonant-doubling-✧ SD/425
kulumbanasal-infixion-✧ SD/425
kulimbanasal-infixion-✧ SD/425
kulambanasal-infixion-✧ SD/425
uklumbanasal-infixion-✧ SD/425
Primitive adûnaic [SD/422; SD/423; SD/425] Group: Eldamo. Published by

amān

masculine name. *Manwë

The primitive form of Amân, the Adûnaic name of Manwë, written in allcaps as AMĀN (SD/420). Usually Tolkien used capitalization for primitive roots, but in this case it is more like to be a form derived from an unattested Primitive Adûnaic root MAN, probably related to the Primitive Elvish root ᴹ√MAN*.

Variations

  • AMĀN ✧ SD/420

Derivatives

Element in

  • Ad. Amatthâni “Blessed Realm, (lit.) Land of Manwë” ✧ SD/420
Primitive adûnaic [SD/420] Group: Eldamo. Published by

asad

root. ?

An otherwise unexplained root Tolkien gave to illustrate a pronunciation example (SD/421). It may not be a real root. If it is real, it is either a biconsonantal-root with vowel-prefixion or a triconsonantal-root with a lost initial consonant such as ] or ].

Derivatives

  • Ad. asdi “[unglossed]” ✧ SD/421
Primitive adûnaic [SD/421] Group: Eldamo. Published by

kalab

root. fall

A Primitive Adûnaic root gloss “fall” (SD/416) appearing as an element in the name Akallabêth (PM/158) and also most likely the basis for the verb kalab- “to fall (down)”.

Derivatives

  • Ad. kalab- “to fall (down)”

Element in

Primitive adûnaic [PM/158; SD/416] Group: Eldamo. Published by

paʒ

root. hand

A Primitive Adûnaic root glossed “hand”, the basis for the noun of the same meaning (SD/416).

Variations

  • PA3 ✧ SD/416

Derivatives

  • Ad. “hand” ✧ SD/416
  • ✶Ad. paʒa “hand”
    • Ad. “hand” ✧ SD/426
Primitive adûnaic [SD/416] Group: Eldamo. Published by

paʒa

noun. hand

The Primitive Adûnaic form of the noun “hand” (SD/426).

Variations

  • pa3a ✧ SD/426

Derivatives

  • Ad. “hand” ✧ SD/426

Derivations

  • √Ad. PAƷ “hand”
Primitive adûnaic [SD/426] Group: Eldamo. Published by

karab

root. ?horse

An unglossed root (SD/415), likely the basis for the noun karab “horse” (SD/434).

Derivatives

Primitive adûnaic [SD/415] Group: Eldamo. Published by

kirib

root. KIRIB

An unglossed root with a different meaning than KARAB (SD/415).

Primitive adûnaic [SD/415] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nimir

root. shine

A Primitive Adûnaic root glossed “shine” (SD/416), apparently the basis for Nimir “Elf”.

Derivatives

  • Ad. Nimir “Elf, (lit.) Shining One”
Primitive adûnaic [SD/416] Group: Eldamo. Published by

thāni

noun. realm

The primitive form of thâni “land”, written in allcaps as THĀNI (SD/420). Usually Tolkien used capitalization for primitive roots, but in this case it is more like to be a form derived from an unattested Primitive Adûnaic root THAN*.

Variations

  • THĀNI ✧ SD/420

Derivatives

Element in

  • Ad. Amatthâni “Blessed Realm, (lit.) Land of Manwë” ✧ SD/420
Primitive adûnaic [SD/420] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-yī

noun. plural inflection

The likely primitive form of the Classical Adûnaic plural inflection -î- (SD/429), appearing in a few examples of primitive plurals in the form -yi: manaw+yi, izray+yi (SD/424). Tolkien gave no indication of whether the primitive inflection was also used as an infix, as was the case for Classical Adûnaic plurals of strong-nouns.

Variations

  • ✧ SD/424

Derivatives

  • Ad. -î- “plural inflection” ✧ SD/424; SD/429
Primitive adûnaic [SD/424; SD/429] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-k

suffix. *masculine suffix

A (primitive?) masculine suffix used in the formation of (male) mîk “baby” from the root ✶Ad. √MIYI (SD/427). Tolkien stated that that k was one of the “favoured” masculine consonants (SD/427).

Element in

  • Ad. mîk “*baby boy” ✧ SD/427
Primitive adûnaic [SD/427] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ʒu Reconstructed

root. he

A Primitive Adûnaic form attested as u “he” (SD/435), but given the later Adûnaic pronoun Ad. u or hu “he”, the actual primitive pronoun may have been ƷU* [ɣu], *ʔU or HU [xu], as Tolkien indicated in a footnote (SD/433, note #7). The suffix -u was also a common feature of Classical Adûnaic masculine-nouns*.

Variations

  • u ✧ SD/435

Derivatives

  • Ad. u “he”
Primitive adûnaic [SD/435] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ān Reconstructed

suffix. agental suffix

An apparent primitive form of the Classical Adûnaic agental suffix -ân, attested in the Primitive Adûnaic word saphdān = SAPHAD + -ān (SD/421).

Derivatives

  • Ad. -ân “agental suffix”

Element in

  • ✶Ad. saphdān “wise man, wizard” ✧ SD/421
Primitive adûnaic [SD/421] Group: Eldamo. Published by

hi Reconstructed

root. she

A Primitive Adûnaic form attested as i “she” (SD/435), but given the later feminine pronoun Ad. hi, the actual primitive pronoun must have been *HI [xi]. The suffix -i was also a common feature of Classical Adûnaic feminine-nouns.

Variations

  • i ✧ SD/435

Derivatives

  • Ad. hi “she”
Primitive adûnaic [SD/435] Group: Eldamo. Published by