Quenya 

-mo

suffix. agental suffix

Element in

  • ᴺQ. aimo “saint”
  • Q. astarmo “bystander; witness”
  • Q. ciryamo “mariner”
  • ᴺQ. cordamo “cleric”
  • Q. Curumo “*Skilled-one”
  • Q. enelmo “go-between, intervener, intermediary, mediator”
  • Q. Estelmo “*Hope-person”
  • Q. Herucalmo
  • Q. ingolmo “loremaster, wizard, one with very great knowledge, loremaster, wizard, one with very great knowledge, *scientist”
  • Q. Írimon
  • Q. Irmo “Desirer”
  • Q. Isilmo
  • Q. Maitimo “Well-shaped One”
  • Q. námo “person, somebody (unnamed)”
  • Q. námo “judge”
  • Q. Nólimon “*Learned One”
  • Q. nolmo “wise person”
  • ᴺQ. ongwemo “criminal, transgressor”
  • Q. onótimo “*reckoner” ✧ MR/049
  • Q. ormo “riser”
  • ᴺQ. ostomo “citizen”
  • ᴺQ. parmo “student, (lit.) learner”
  • ᴺQ. nólemo “student”
  • Q. Súlimo “Lord of the Breath of Arda, (lit.) Breather”
  • Q. tirmo “watcher”
  • Q. Ulmo “Pourer”

Elements

WordGloss
mo“one, anyone, someone, somebody”
Quenya [MR/049; WJ/400] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-r(o)

suffix. agental suffix

Variations

  • -ro ✧ PE18/100 (-ro)
  • -r ✧ VT41/13 (-r); WJ/371 (-r)

Derivations

  • -ro “an old agental formation” ✧ WJ/371

Element in

  • Q. Haimenar “*Far-farer”
  • Q. Avar “Refuser, Elf who did not journey to Aman” ✧ WJ/371
  • Q. Calantar “Light-giver”
  • Q. Envinyatar “Renewer”
  • Q. Istar “Wizard, (lit.) One Who Knows”
  • Q. maitar “artist; poet”
  • Q. nostar “parent, begetter, *ancestor; parent, begetter”
  • Q. ohtar “warrior”
  • Q. quentaro “speaker, reciter, speaker, reciter; [ᴹQ.] narrator, minstrel” ✧ PE18/100
  • Q. sanar “mind, thinker, reflector” ✧ VT41/13
  • ᴺQ. tanar “indicator, [linguistics] demonstrative”
  • Q. Telcontar “Strider”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
-rŏ > -r[-ro] > [-r]✧ WJ/371
Quenya [PE18/100; VT41/13; WJ/371] Group: Eldamo. Published by

lér

man

**lér noun "man" (NI1; hypothetical Q form of PQ dēr; the form actually used in Quenya was nér)

nér

man

nér (1) (ner-, as in pl. neri) noun "man" (adult male elf, mortal, or of other speaking race) (MR:213, VT49:17, DER, NDER, NI1, VT45:9; see also WJ:393)

nér

noun. man

Quenya [PE 22:124] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

vëo

man

vëo noun "man" (WEG; etymologically connected to vëa "manly, vigorous"; the more neutral word for "man" is nér. According to VT46:21, Tolkien indicated that vëo is an archaic or poetic word.) Tolkien at a later point defined the word as "living creature" (PE17:189). Cf. variant wëo, q.v.

Sindarin 

-(r)on

suffix. agental suffix

Variations

  • -ron ✧ PE17/170

Element in

  • ᴺS. aeron “saint”
  • ᴺS. caron “actor, agent, doer, maker”
  • ᴺS. eithron “*spearman, [ᴱN.] warrior”
  • S. Girithron “December, *Shuddering-one”
  • S. Gwaeron “March, *Windy-one”
  • S. Lothron “May, *Flower-ness”
  • S. ogron “wicked or evil person” ✧ PE17/170
Sindarin [PE17/170] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-or

suffix. agental suffix

Element in

  • S. magor “swordsman” ✧ LotR/0081
Sindarin [LotR/0081] Group: Eldamo. Published by

dîr

noun. man, man, [N.] adult male; agental suffix

A word for “man” as a male person, attested only as an element in compounds or as (archaic?) ndir (PE17/60). This word likely refers to male individuals of all races including Elves, Men, Dwarves and so forth, much like its Quenya cognate Q. nér. This word must have been derived from the primitive subjective form ✶ndēr of the root √N(D)ER “male person”, where the ancient long ē became ī, and the initial cluster nd- became d-, though the ancient cluster would still be reflected in mutated forms, such as in i nîr “the man” rather than **i dhîr.

Conceptual Development: Perhaps the earliest precursor to this word is (archaic) G. †drio “hero, warrior” with variants driw, driodweg and driothweg, a cognate of ᴱQ. nēr (GL/22). This Gnomish word was derived from primitive ᴱ✶n’reu̯, where the initial nr- became dr-. At this early stage, the root was unstrengthened ᴱ√NERE (QL/65), as reflected in (archaic) ᴱN. nîr “hero, prince, warrior-elf” in the Early Noldorin Dictionary of the 1920s (PE13/164).

In The Etymologies of the 1930s the root became ᴹ√DER “adult male, man” of any speaking race and the derived form was N. dîr (Ety/DER). However, in this document Tolkien said:

> EN †dîr surviving chiefly in proper names (as Diriel older Dirghel [GYEL], Haldir, Brandir) and as agental ending (as ceredir “doer, maker”) ... In ordinary use EN has benn [for “man”] (properly = “husband”).

Thus in the scenario described in The Etymologies, dîr “man” was archaic and used only as an element in names or as a suffix. In ordinary speech it was replaced by N. benn, which used to mean “husband” but now meant “man”, while the word for “husband” became N. hervenn (Ety/BES). It is unlikely Tolkien imagined this exact scenario in later Sindarin, however, since the 1930s root for benn was ᴹ√BES “wed”, but by the 1960s the root for husband/wife/marry words had become √BER.

Neo-Sindarin: Since the status of N. benn is questionable given ᴹ√BES >> √BER, many Neo-Sindarin writers prefer to use S. *dîr as the Sindarin word for man. I am of the opinion that both dîr and benn are acceptable for “man, male person”. This is because I prefer to retain ᴹ√BES as the root for “marry, wed”, since it is the best basis for attested husband/wife words in (Neo) Sindarin.

Variations

  • ndir ✧ PE17/060

Derivations

Element in

Sindarin [PE17/060] Group: Eldamo. Published by

adanath

noun. men

Sindarin [MR/373] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

adan

noun. man, one of the Second People (elvish name for men)

Sindarin [LotR/A(v), S/427, PM/324, WJ/387, Letters/282] Q. atan. Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

Dúnadan

noun. Man of the west, Númenórean

Sindarin [LotR/I:XII, WJ/378, S/390] dûn+adan. Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

adanadar

noun. man, one of the Fathers of Men

Sindarin [MR/373] adan+adar. Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

drû

noun. wild man, Wose, Púkel-Man

In PE/11:31, an older Gnomish word drû, drui meant "wood, forest", and in PE/13:142, the early Noldorin word drú was assigned the meaning "dark". Drû pl. Drúin later came to be used for the name of the Woses, with other derivatives (Drúadan, etc.). "Wose" is actually the modernization of an Anglo-Saxon word wasa only found in the compound wudu-wasa "wild man of the woods", cf. UT/385 sq. In the drafts of the "Ride of the Rohirrim" in WR/343-346, the Woses first appeared as "the dark men of Eilenach". Though internally said to derive from drughu in their own tongue, Tolkien's choice for the Sindarin name of the Woses was apparently influenced by earlier meanings assigned to this word

Sindarin [UT/385] MS *druγ, Dr druγu. Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

drúadan

noun. wild man, one of the Woses

Sindarin [UT/385] drû+adan. Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

dîr

man

1) (adult male of any speaking race) dîr (dír-, also agentive ending -dir or -nir; with article, i nîr, hard mutation as in o ndîr), no distinct pl. form except with article (i ndîr); coll. pl. díriath. Also benn (i venn, construct ben), pl. binn (i minn). The latter is in archaic language used = "husband" (the etymological meaning). The ending -we in names may also express ”being, man, person”. 2) (mortal human as opposed to Elf) Adan (pl. Edain; the coll. pl. Adanath is attested). The word Adan came to be used primarily of a member of the Three Houses of the Edain, not of the mortal race of Men in general.

Nandorin 

beorn

noun. man

The shift of e to eo is strange and has no direct parallels, but compare eo from i in meord "fine rain" (< primitive mizdê). Normally final becomes in Nandorin (see golda), but here it is simply lost instead of producing *beorna. C.f. meord the other word where we might have expected to see a final -a (in that case from ); it may be that final vowels are lost in words that would otherwise come to have more than two syllables. - The shift of primitive s to r in besnô > beorn may be ascribed primarily to the blending with ber(n)ô, but r from z is seen in meord < mizdê; perhaps the s of besnô first became z and then r. Such developments are common in Quenya.

Nandorin [H. Fauskanger (LR:352)] besnô "blend with" ber(n)ô "valiant man, warrior". Published by

Adûnaic

-ân Reconstructed

suffix. agental suffix

A suffix that is used in some examples for agental-formation: creating nouns from verbs that indicate the agent who performs the verb’s action. The clearest example is sapthân “wise man” derived (after some ancient sound modifications) from saphad- “to understand”. This formation means “*one who understands”. Less clear examples are magân “wright, builder”, perhaps from a verb mag- “to build”, and kathuphazgân “conquerer”, perhaps a combined of katha “all” and a verb ?phazag- “to take”, meaning “one who takes all”.

It is not clear how this suffix related to the similar participle suffix -ân used for form adjectives from verbs. See the entry on participle for further discussion. Andreas Moehn suggested (EotAL/TAN) that -ân as an agental formation may be related to anâ “human being”.

Variations

  • -ān ✧ SD/429 (-ān)

Derivations

  • ✶Ad. -ān “agental suffix”

Element in

Primitive elvish

ndē̆r

noun. man

Derivatives

  • S. dîr “man, man, [N.] adult male; agental suffix”

Derivations

  • N(D)ER “male (person), man”
Primitive elvish [PE19/102] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Noldorin 

-(r)on

suffix. agental suffix

Variations

  • -ron ✧ Ety/BAD (-ron); Ety/KHAT (-ron); Ety/MEL (-ron)
  • -on ✧ Ety/BARÁD (-on); Ety/MEL (-on); EtyAC/MAK (-on)

Derivations

  • On. -ndo “*agental suffix”
    • ᴹ✶-ndō “agental suffix”

Element in

  • N. badhron “judge” ✧ Ety/BAD
  • N. brannon “lord” ✧ Ety/BARÁD
  • N. callon “hero”
  • N. Durion “Dark-elf”
  • N. egledhron “exile”
  • N. faron “hunter”
  • N. Girithron “December, *Shuddering-one”
  • N. Gwaeron “March, *Windy-one”
  • N. hadron “thrower (of spears and darts)” ✧ Ety/KHAT
  • N. heron “lord, master”
  • N. Lothron “May, *Flower-ness”
  • N. maethon “sword” ✧ EtyAC/MAK (maethon)
  • N. melethron “lover (m.)” ✧ Ety/MEL
  • N. mellon “friend, (friend), lover, friends” ✧ Ety/MEL
  • N. nathron “weaver, webster”
  • N. odhron “parent”
  • N. pethron “narrator, reciter, minstrel”
  • N. thavron “carpenter, wright, builder”
Noldorin [Ety/BAD; Ety/BARÁD; Ety/KHAT; Ety/MEL; EtyAC/MAK] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-on

suffix. agental suffix

-or

suffix. agental suffix

Element in

  • N. gollor “magician” ✧ Ety/ÑGOL
  • N. maethor “warrior” ✧ Ety/MAK
Noldorin [Ety/MAK; Ety/ÑGOL] Group: Eldamo. Published by

dîr

noun. man, adult male; agental suffix

Variations

  • dīr ✧ Ety/BARÁD
  • dír ✧ Ety/BES

Derivations

  • ᴹ√(N)DER “adult male, man; bridegroom” ✧ Ety/BARÁD; Ety/BES
  • On. dîr “adult male, man (elf/mortal/other speaking race)” ✧ Ety/DER
    • ᴹ√(N)DER “adult male, man; bridegroom” ✧ Ety/DER; Ety/NĪ¹

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. nér “man, adult male” ✧ Ety/DER

Element in

  • N. Díriel ✧ Ety/DER
  • N. bauglir “tyrant, oppressor” ✧ Ety/MBAW
  • N. Brandir “*Noble-man” ✧ Ety/BARÁD; Ety/DER
  • N. ceredir “doer, maker, doer, maker, *crafter (m.)” ✧ Ety/DER
  • N. curunir “a man of craft, wizard” ✧ Ety/KUR
  • N. feredir “hunter”
  • N. Haldir “Hidden Hero” ✧ Ety/DER
  • N. haldir “fur-hunter” ✧ EtyAC/SKEL (haldir)
  • N. Handir
  • N. Hathaldir
  • N. meldir “friend [m.]”
  • N. rhandir “wanderer, pilgrim”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
On. dîr > dîr[dīr]✧ Ety/DER

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
-nirsuffix-✧ Ety/KUR
-irsuffix-✧ Ety/MBAW
derioold-genitive plural-✧ PE21/60
-derionold-genitive plural-✧ PE21/60
Noldorin [Ety/BARÁD; Ety/BES; Ety/DER; Ety/KUR; Ety/MBAW; EtyAC/BES; EtyAC/SKEL; PE21/60] Group: Eldamo. Published by

benn

noun. man, male

Noldorin [Ety/352, VT/45:9] "husband". Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

forodwaith

noun. the lands of the North

Noldorin [Ety/382, Ety/398, X/EI] forod+gwaith. Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

forodweith

noun. the lands of the North

Noldorin [Ety/382, Ety/398, X/EI] forod+gwaith. Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

forodrim

noun. Northmen

Noldorin [Ety/392] forod+rim. Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

forodwaith

noun. Northmen

Noldorin [Ety/382, Ety/398, X/EI] forod+gwaith. Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

forodweith

noun. Northmen

Noldorin [Ety/382, Ety/398, X/EI] forod+gwaith. Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

dîr

noun. man, referring to an adult male (elf, mortal, or of any other speaking race)

Noldorin [Ety/354, Ety/352] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Edain

bar

noun. man

Element in

  • Ed. halbar “chieftain” ✧ WJ/238

Primitive adûnaic

-ān Reconstructed

suffix. agental suffix

An apparent primitive form of the Classical Adûnaic agental suffix -ân, attested in the Primitive Adûnaic word saphdān = SAPHAD + -ān (SD/421).

Derivatives

  • Ad. -ân “agental suffix”

Element in

  • ✶Ad. saphdān “wise man, wizard” ✧ SD/421
Primitive adûnaic [SD/421] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Qenya 

-mo

suffix. agental suffix

Element in

  • ᴹQ. Kalamor “Light-elves” ✧ Ety/KAL
  • ᴹQ. Írimor “Fair Ones”
  • ᴹQ. Istimor “The Wise”
  • ᴹQ. Morimor “Dark Elves, (lit.) *Dark-ones”

-ro

suffix. agental suffix

Element in

  • ᴹQ. nandaro “harper” ✧ Ety/ÑGAN
  • ᴹQ. tambaro “woodpecker, (lit.) knocker”
  • ᴹQ. Vaiaro “Ulmo”

atan

noun. Man

Element in

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
ataniplural“men”✧ PE22/125

veo

noun. man

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶wegō “man; warrior” ✧ Ety/WEG
    • ᴹ√WEG “(manly) vigour” ✧ Ety/ING; Ety/WEG

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶wegō > veo[wegō] > [weɣō] > [weo] > [veo]✧ Ety/WEG
Qenya [Ety/WEG; EtyAC/WEG] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Ossriandric

beorn

noun. man

A noun for “man” that developed from the blending of primitive ᴹ✶besnō “man” and ᴹ✶berō “valiant man, warrior” > ber(n)ō (Ety/BER, BES). The simplest explanation is that ᴹ✶besnō > beznō > bernō, where first the [[dan|[s] voiced to [z] before the nasal [n]]] and then the resulting [[dan|[z] becoming [r]]]. The similarity of this word to ᴹ✶berō could have led it to develop into ber(n)ō as well. From there, the [[dan|[e] broke into the diphthong [eo] before the liquid [r]]] and then the final vowel vanished.

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶berō “valiant man, warrior” ✧ Ety/BES
    • ᴹ√BER “valiant” ✧ Ety/BER; Ety/BES
  • ᴹ✶besnō “husband” ✧ Ety/BES
    • ᴹ√BES “wed” ✧ Ety/BER; Ety/BES

Cognates

  • Ilk. ber “valiant man, warrior” ✧ Ety/BER
  • ᴹQ. venno “husband” ✧ Ety/BES

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶ber(n)ō > beorn[bernō] > [beornō] > [beorn]✧ Ety/BES
ᴹ✶besnō > beorn[besnō] > [beznō] > [bernō] > [beornō] > [beorn]✧ Ety/BES
Ossriandric [Ety/BER; Ety/BES] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Old Noldorin 

-ndo

noun. *agental suffix

Variations

  • ndo ✧ Ety/STAB

Derivatives

  • N. -(r)on “agental suffix”

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶-ndō “agental suffix”

Element in

  • On. sthabrondo “carpenter, wright, builder” ✧ Ety/STAB
Old Noldorin [Ety/STAB] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ro

prefix. agental suffix

Element in

  • On. etledro “exile” ✧ Ety/LED
Old Noldorin [Ety/LED] Group: Eldamo. Published by

benno

noun. man

Derivatives

  • N. benn “man, male, †husband” ✧ Ety/BES

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶besnō “husband” ✧ Ety/BES
    • ᴹ√BES “wed” ✧ Ety/BER; Ety/BES

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. venno “husband” ✧ Ety/BES

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶besnō > benno[besnō] > [besno] > [benno]✧ Ety/BES
Old Noldorin [Ety/BES] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Middle Primitive Elvish

-ndō

suffix. agental suffix

Derivatives

  • ᴹQ. -ndo “*agent (male)”
  • N. -on “masculine suffix”
  • On. -ndo “*agental suffix”
    • N. -(r)on “agental suffix”

Element in

Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/KAL] Group: Eldamo. Published by

dēr

noun. man

Variations

  • der ✧ Ety/NDER
  • dér ✧ EtyAC/NDER
  • nēr ✧ PE18/035
  • der- ✧ PE21/55
  • dēr/dĕr- ✧ PE21/55
  • ndēr ✧ PE21/64
  • nĕrĕ ✧ PE21/69

Derivatives

  • ᴹQ. nér “man, adult male” ✧ Ety/NĪ¹; PE21/69

Derivations

  • ᴹ√(N)DER “adult male, man; bridegroom” ✧ Ety/NDER; Ety/NĪ¹; PE18/035

Element in

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
nĕr-stem-✧ PE18/035
dērsubjective-✧ PE21/58
dĕraobjective-✧ PE21/58
dertsubjective-✧ PE21/58
dērobjective-✧ PE21/58
-dĕr-objective-✧ PE21/58
derĭnagenitive plural“of men, man’s (in a general sense)”✧ PE21/60
derengenitive“a man’s”✧ PE21/60
derijōmgenitive plural“of men, among men”✧ PE21/60 prehist Q
ndĕr-objective-✧ PE21/64
ndĕrĕobjective“man”✧ PE21/64
ndereobjective“man”✧ PE21/65
neređobjective“man”✧ PE21/65
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/NDER; Ety/NĪ¹; EtyAC/NDER; PE18/035; PE21/55; PE21/58; PE21/60; PE21/64; PE21/65; PE21/69] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Gnomish

-(r)on

suffix. agental suffix

Variations

  • -ron ✧ GL/18 (-ron); GL/21 (-ron); GL/22 (-ron); GL/28 (-ron); GL/36 (-ron); GL/36 (-ron); GL/41 (-ron); GL/42 (-ron); GL/47 (-ron)
  • -on ✧ GL/24 (-on); GL/36 (-on); GL/44 (-on); GL/49 (-on)

Element in

  • G. bagron “trader” ✧ GL/21
  • G. gwadhron “inhabitant (m.)” ✧ GL/47
  • G. bridhon “king, prince” ✧ GL/24
  • G. aithron “warrior, †swordsman” ✧ GL/18
  • G. fwion “nephew” ✧ GL/36
  • G. gadron “fellow, associate” ✧ GL/36
  • G. gagron “yoke ox, bullock” ✧ GL/36
  • G. gomodron “companion, associate, fellow; monk” ✧ GL/41
  • G. gwar(e)dhon “m. companion, comrade”
  • G. hermon “lord” ✧ GL/49
  • G. bedhron “husband” ✧ GL/22
  • G. cwingron “archer” ✧ GL/28
  • G. grethron “saviour” ✧ GL/42
  • G. Gwalon “male god” ✧ GL/44
Gnomish [GL/18; GL/21; GL/22; GL/24; GL/28; GL/36; GL/41; GL/42; GL/44; GL/47; GL/49] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ir

suffix. agental suffix

-og

suffix. agental suffix

Variations

  • -og ✧ GL/34 (-og); GL/43 (-og); PE13/109 (-og)

Element in

  • G. aithrog “warrior” ✧ PE13/109
  • G. guinog “chattel” ✧ GL/43
  • G. fedhrog “one bound by oath” ✧ GL/34
Gnomish [GL/34; GL/43; PE13/109] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-or

suffix. agental suffix

Element in

  • G. ecthor “warrior, swordsman” ✧ GL/31
  • G. aith(i)or “warrior, swordsman” ✧ GL/18
Gnomish [GL/18; GL/31] Group: Eldamo. Published by

man

masculine name. Man

Variations

  • Manw ✧ PE13/104 (Manw)

Changes

  • ManwMan ✧ PE13/104

Derivations

  • ᴱ√MANA “*good (moral)”

Cognates

  • Eq. Manwe ✧ GL/18; LT1A/Manwë; PE13/104

Element in

Gnomish [GL/18; GL/20; GL/43; GL/56; GL/68; LT1A/Manwë; PE13/104; PE15/26] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Early Noldorin

-ion

suffix. *agental suffix

Element in

  • En. be(i)gion “trader” ✧ PE13/138
  • En. ennion “porter, doorkeeper” ✧ PE13/143
  • En. peidion “sayer, soothsayer” ✧ PE13/164
  • En. edebion “builder” ✧ PE13/158
  • En. edengion “builder” ✧ PE13/136
Early Noldorin [PE13/136; PE13/138; PE13/143; PE13/158; PE13/164] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Early Quenya

-mo

suffix. agental suffix

Element in

  • Eq. varimo “foreigner” ✧ QL/100
  • Eq. laulemo “inhabitant” ✧ QL/052
  • Eq. manimo “holy soul” ✧ QL/058
  • Eq. qolimo “invalid” ✧ QL/078
Early Quenya [QL/052; QL/058; QL/078; QL/100] Group: Eldamo. Published by