sar (sard-, as in pl. sardi) noun "(small) stone" (SAR). In Elessar, q.v. Since Tolkien let this name have a stem in -sarn- (genitive Ele[s]sarno, VT49:28), he may seem to have changed the stem-form of sar from sard- to sarn-.
noun. stone (small)
A word for “stone”, most notably in the name Q. Elessar “Elfstone” (LotR/375). The genitive for that name was given as Elesarno (PE22/158; VT49/28), so the stem for this word is probably sarn-, especially given its better-attested Sindarin cognate S. sarn. It is a derivative of the root ᴹ√SAR, and referred to a small (individual) stone (Ety/SAR), as opposed to Q. ondo which is stone as a material or large rocks or bodies of stone.
Conceptual Development: The earliest hint of this word was ᴱQ. sar “earth, soil” in Early Qenya Word-lists of the 1920s, but this was marked with an “X” and ᴱQ. kemen (of similar meaning) was written next to it as an alternative (PE16/139). ᴹQ. sar “(small) stone” appeared in The Etymologies of the 1930s derived from the root ᴹ√SAR, but there it had a plural sardi and hence a stem form of sard- (Ety/KEM). In that document, N. sarn was “stone as material” and hence not directly related. But later S. sarn was used for individual stones, and thus was probably a direct cognate of Q. sar (sarn-), as discussed above.
- S. sarn “(small) stone, pebble; stony (place), (small) stone, pebble; stony (place); [N.] stone as a material”
- ᴺQ. ambalasar “stalagmite, (lit.) up-growing stone”
- ᴺQ. ëassar “pearl, (lit.) sea-pebble/stone”
- Q. Elessar “Elfstone” ✧ LotR/0375
- ᴺQ. hwandasar “pumice, (lit.) sponge-stone”
- ᴺQ. inwissar “opal, (lit.) mood-change stone”
- ᴺQ. liptasar “dripstone”
- ᴺQ. malatsar “chrysolite”
- Q. sarnië “shingle, pebble bank”
- ᴺQ. sarnincë “pebble”
- ᴺQ. undalasar “stalactite, (lit.) down-growing stone”
- ᴺQ. ussar “sulphur, (lit.) fire-stone”
sarno noun "table" (QL:82)
mar (1) noun "earth" (world), also "home, dwelling, mansion". Stem mard- (VT46:13, PE17:64), also seen in the ablative Mardello "from earth" (FS); the word is used with a more limited sense in oromardi "high halls" (sg. oromar, PM17:64), referring to the dwellings of Manwë and Varda on Mt. Taniquetil (Nam, RGEO:66). The initial element of Mardorunando (q.v.) may be the genitive mardo (distinguish mardo "dweller"). May be more or less identical to már "home, house, dwelling" (of persons or peoples; in names like Val(i)mar, Vinyamar, Mar-nu-Falmar, Mardil) (SA:bar, VT45:33, VT47:6). Már is however unlikely to have the stem-form mard-; a "Qenya" genitive maren appears in the phrase hon-maren, q.v., suggesting that its stem is mar-. A possible convention could therefore be to use már (mar-) for "home, house" (also when = household, family as in Mardil, q.v.), whereas mar (mard-) is used for for "earth, world". Early "Qenya" has mar (mas-) "dwelling of men, the Earth, -land" (LT1:251); notice that in LotR-style Quenya, a word in -r cannot have a stem-form in -s-.
Elessar masc. name "Elf-stone" (Elen + sar, actually "Star-stone", cf. Elendil concerning elen "star" being used to mean "Elf") (LotR3:V ch. 8). Genitive Elesarno _(VT49:28, read _Elessarno?) indicates that the stem is -sarn-. As a common noun, elessar or "elf-stone" may signify "beryl" (in the chapter Flight to the Ford in the LotR, Aragorn finds "a single pale-green jewel" and declares: "It is a beryl, an elf-stone"). Elessar as a name may also be seen as a pun or variant of Elesser "Elf-friend".
kemen noun "earth"; see cemen.
earth, soil, land
cemi noun "earth, soil, land"; Cémi ("k")"Mother Earth" (LT1:257; the "Qenya" word cemi would correspond to cemen in LotR-style Quenya)
- ᴺQ. paluhtincë “tablet”
Word Gloss palo “plane (surface), the flat, *level, flatness; plain”