-llosuffix. from (suffix), ablative
-llosuffix. (movement) from
Also glossed as “ablative suffix”, “ablative”, “ablative adverbial suffix”, “movement from”.
[-llo (2) "you", dual; abandoned pronominal ending. Also written -illo. (VT49:49)]
-lloablative adverbial suffix
-llo (1) "ablative adverbial suffix" (PE17:72) implying "from" or "out of", as in sindanóriello "out of a grey land", Rómello "from the East" (Nam), Mardello "from Earth" (FS), ulcullo "from evil" (VT43:12), sillumello "from this hour" (VT44:35), yello "from whom" (VT47:21), Manwello *"from Manwë" (VT49:24), Melcorello / Melkorello "from Melkor" (VT49:7, 24). Pl. -llon (so in Plotz) or -llor (in illon, elenillor, raxellor, elendellor, q.v.); dual -lto (Plotz). A shorter form of the ablative ending, -lo, apparently occurs in the words silo "hence" and talo "from there", q.v. In the Etymologies, Tolkien cited the Quenya ablative ending as -ello, evidently including the connecting vowel -e- that may be inserted when the ending is added to a word ending in a consonant (VT45:28), compare Melcorello. See also ló, lo #2.
ló, lo (2) prep. "from", also used = "by" introducing the agent after a passive construction: nahtana ló Turin *"slain by Túrin" (VT49:24). A similar and possibly identical form is mentioned in the Etymologies as being somehow related to the ablative ending -llo, but is not there clearly defined (VT45:28). At one point, Tolkien suggested that lo rather than the ending -llo was used with proper names (lo Manwë rather than Manwello for "from Manwë"), but this seems to have been a short-lived idea (VT49:24).
silo adv. "hence" (from here), also sio (VT49:18). The words seem to incorporate -lo, a shorter version of the ablative ending -llo, and -o, the genitive ending that may also be used in an ablativic sense. Compare talo, tó "thence".
Variations of the word: sio.
Word Gloss Source sī hence VT49/18.0409
sio adv. "hence" (from here), also silo (VT49:18)
-ello ablative ending (VT45:28); see -llo
talo adv. "thence". Also tó. Basically these are simple ablative/genitive forms of ta (#1) "that"; compare silo, sio. (VT49:11)
incë ("k") *"you", emphatic pronoun for 2nd person pl. familiar, apparently a form abandoned by Tolkien. It is listed as an alternative to ilcë in the source, a query appearing between the forms (VT49:48, 49). The word could also be read as intë (VT49:49)
Variations of the word: tō.
Word Gloss Source ta thence VT49/11.3902
tó 2) adv. "thence" (for *tao, the pronoun ta "that, it" with the genitive ending -o, here used in an ablativic sense). Also talo, with -lo as a short form of the ablative ending -llo. (VT49:29, 11)
tyeyou, thou, thee
tye pron. "you, thou, thee", 2nd person intimate/familar (LR:61, 70, Arct, VT49:36, 55), corresponding to formal/polite lye. According to VT49:51, tye was used as an endearment especially between lovers, and (grand)parents and children also used it to address one another ("to use the adult lye was more stern"). Tyenya "my tye", used = "dear kinsman" (VT49:51). The pronoun tye is derived from kie, sc. an original stem ki with an added -e(VT49:50). Stressed tyé; dual tyet "the two of you" (VT49:51 another note reproduced on the same page however states that tye has no dual form, and VT49:52 likewise states that the 2nd person familiar "never deleloped" dual or plural forms). Compare the reflexive pronoun intyë "yourself". Possibly related to the pronominal stem KE (2nd person sg.), if tye represents earlier *kye.
va prep. "from" (VT43:20; prefixed in the form var- in var-úra "from evil", VT43:24). In VT49:24, va, au and o are quoted as variants of the stem awa "away from".
le, pronominal element "you", (originally) the "reverential 2nd person sing" (RGEO:73, VT49:56). However, singular le was apparently altered to lye (q.v.), and le took on a plural significance (le for pl. "you" is apparently derived from de, the ancient 2nd person pl. stem, VT49:50-51). Stressed lé (VT49:51), dual let "the two of you" (ibid.). At certain points in Tolkiens conception, le was still sg. "thou" rather than pl. "you". It is attested as an ending in the imperative form antalë "give thou" (VT43:17); see anta-. The form ólë in VT43:29 apparently means *"with thee"; according to Tolkiens later system, it would rather mean "with you" (pl.) Compare aselyë "with thee" (sg.) in a later source (see as).
alyë imperative particle with ending -lyë "you"; see a #3.
ilcë ("k") (2) *"you", emphatic pronoun of the 2nd person pl. familiar, apparently a form abandoned by Tolkien. An alternative form incë was also listed; a query appears between the forms (VT49:48).
ho prep. "from" (3O); cf. hó-
[-ilco ("k") *"you (two)", abandoned pronominal ending for the familiar 2nd person dual; in later sources the relevant ending is rather -stë (VT49:48). The ending -ilco was apparently changed from -ilto (VT49:49). Compare -illo.]
-va possessive ending, presumably related to the preposition va "from". In Eldaliéva, Ingoldova, miruvóreva, Oroméva, rómeva, Valinóreva (q.v. for references), Follondiéva, Hyallondiéva (see under turmen for references). Following a consonant, the ending instead appears as -wa (andamacilwa "of the long sword", PE17:147, rómenwa *"of the East", PE17:59). Pl. -vë when governing a plural word (from archaic -vai) (WJ:407), but it seems that -va was used throughout in late Exilic Quenya (cf. miruvóreva governing the plural word yuldar in Namárië). Pl. -iva (-ivë*), dual -twa, partitive pl. -líva**.
-t (3) reduced pronominal affix of the 2. person, "you" (sg.), the long form being -tyë (both endings are listed in VT49:48). See heca regarding the example hecat (WJ:364). However, in a later source, Tolkien denies that -tyë has any short form (VT49:51, 57). The status of the ending -t is therefore doubtful.
-tyë pronominal ending "you, thou" (VT49:48, 51), 2nd person familiar/intimate: carityë *"you do" (VT49:16; the corresponding formal/polite ending is -l, -lyë, cf. PE17:135 where Tolkien states that hiruvalyë "thou shalt find" from Namárië would be hiruvatyë if the polite pronoun were replaced by the familiar one). Compare the independent pronoun tye. In VT49:51, Tolkien denies that the ending -tyë has any short form (see, however, -t # 3). Cf. natyë "you are"; see ná #1. Compare tye, -tya.
-stë "you", 2nd person dual pronominal ending (VT49:51, 53), e.g. caristë "the two of you do" (VT49:16). Tolkien first wrote carindë, but changed the ending (VT49:33). The ending -stë is derived from earlier -dde (VT49:46, 51). An archaic ending of similar form could also be the third person dual, "the two of them" (but see -ttë #1).
[-ntyë "you", abandonded pronominal ending for 2nd person pl. familiar (VT49:49)]
[#-ndë (2) pronominal suffix for dual "you", as in carindë *"you (two) do". Tolkien changed the ending to -stë (VT49:33)]
-l or -lyë (VT49:48, 51), pronominal endings for 2nd person sg. polite/formal "you, thou": caril or carilyë *"you do" (VT49:16), hamil "you judge" (VT42:33), anel "you were" (see ná #1); see -lyë for further examples. These endings may also be added to pronouns (etel/etelyë or mil, milyë; see et, mi). In one source, -l is rather used as a reduced affix denoting plural "you"; see heca! (WJ:364)
-llë (2) abandoned pronominal ending "you", 2nd person pl. (VT49:48); Tolkien later revised this ending to -ldë.
-ldë (1) pronominal suffix "you", 2nd person pl. (VT49:51; carildë *"you do", VT49:16). This ending Tolkien revised from -llë in earlier sources (VT49:48, cf. PE17:69).
#-ilto, dual ablative ending (Plotz), see -llo #1.
[-ilto (2), see -ilco]
[-illo "you (two)", abandoned promoninal ending for the polite 2nd person dual; in later sources the relevant ending is rather -stë (VT49:48). This -illo was changed from -llo. Compare -ilco.]