Quenya zR5Ì#

-da

draught, the amount drunk

-da suffix used to derive nouns denoting the result of an action, like yulda "draught, the amount drunk" (the stem YUL is here given the meaning "drink"). (PE17:68) Cf. also carda "deed" (q.v.) vs. the verb car- "do".

[Quettaparma Quenyallo] Group: Quettaparma Quenyallo. Published by

-da

suffix. product of an action

Element in: Q. carda, Q. cenda, Q. yulda

-e

suffix. plural of adjectives

[PE17/076.2112] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ëa

suffix. ordinal suffix

Variations of the word: -ea.

Element in: Q. attëa, Q. enquëa, Q. lempëa, Q. otsëa, Q. quainëa, Q. toldëa

[VT42/25.0804; VT42/26.2006] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-na

no longer part of verbal conjugation

-na (4), ending used to form passive participles as well as some adjectives and nouns; see -ina. According to PE17:68, the ending -na was "no longer part of verbal conjugation"; the derived words are thus considered independent adjectives (sometimes nouns) rather than regularly derived passive participles, the obvious etymological connection to certain verbal stems notwithstanding. Where adding the ending to a root would produce the combinations tn, pn, kn (cn), metathesis occurs to produce nt, (np >) mp, nc, as in nanca *"slain" for older ¤ndakna, or hampa "restrained, delayed, kept" vs. the root KHAP "retain, keep, detain". Following -l, the suffix -na turns into -da, as in yulda "draught, the amount drunk" for older yulna (this being an example of a noun being derived with this ending, though Tolkien might also explain yulda as containing a distinct ending -da [q.v.] denoting the result of a verbal action). The word *turúna "mastered" (q.v., only attested in elided form turún) would seem to be a passive participle formed from the verb turu- "master" (PE17:113), suggesting that in the case of U-stem verbs, their final -u is lengthened to ú when -na is added.

[Quettaparma Quenyallo] Group: Quettaparma Quenyallo. Published by

-r

suffix. motion to or towards a point

Element in: Q. oar, Q. var

[WJ/366.0302-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ar-

prefix. by-

Also glossed as “beside; outside; near”, “near”, “by”, “beside”.

Elements

WordGlossSource
ar(a)beside-

Element in: Q. Araman, Q. armaro, Q. artarindo, Q. Arvernien, Q. astarmo, Q. Arnen

[PE17/071.0904-1; PE17/169.2405; PE17/169.2603; VT42/17.2812] Group: Eldamo. Published by

car

deed

car (card-) (3) ("k")noun "deed" (rewritten >) "building, house" (KAR). Cf. carda.

[Quettaparma Quenyallo] Group: Quettaparma Quenyallo. Published by

carda

deed

carda noun "deed" (PE17:51). Cf. car #3. The word may contain the ending -da (q.v.) denoting the result of the corresponding verbal action.

[Quettaparma Quenyallo] Group: Quettaparma Quenyallo. Published by

carda

noun. deed

[PE 22:152] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

carma

noun. deed

suhto

draught

suhto noun "draught" (SUK)

[Quettaparma Quenyallo] Group: Quettaparma Quenyallo. Published by

yulda

draught, something drunk, a drink, the amount drunk

yulda noun "draught, something drunk, a drink, the amount drunk", pl. yuldar (Nam, PE17:63, 68, RGEO:66). See -da regarding etymology.

[Quettaparma Quenyallo] Group: Quettaparma Quenyallo. Published by

Sindarin iT2#7T5

carth

noun. deed

Sindarin noun for a “deed”, attested only in its lenited plural form gerth within the word úgarth “trespass” (VT44/28), which probably more literally means “*misdeed”. This word is not completely compatible with its Quenya cognate Q. carda “deed” from primitive ✶kardā, which in Sindarin should produce *cardh. Perhaps the Sindarin word had a slightly different primitive form *✶kartā.

Conceptual Development: Perhaps the earliest precursor of this word is G. carm “act, deed, exploit” in the Gnomish Lexicon from the 1910s (GL/25; PE13/111), cognate of contemporaneous ᴱQ. karma “shape, fashion; act, deed” (QL/45). In the Early Noldorin word lists from the 1920s, this word was revised to ᴱN. carbh “deed” (PE13/140), reflecting Tolkien’s changing conception of the phonetic development of final -m in Noldorin. In the Etymologies from the 1930s, the word appeared as N. carth or carð “deed” (cardh), but these forms were rejected and replaced by N. car(ð) “building” (Ety/KAR).

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
gerthsoft-mutation plural-VT44/28.2601-1

[VT44/28.2601-1] Group: Eldamo. Published by

carn

noun. deed

A Sindarin noun for a “deed”, attested only in its lenited form garn within the word othgarn “misdeed” (PE17/151). The alternate form carth “deed” is perhaps better attested.

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
garnsoft-mutationdeedPE17/151.2810-2

[PE17/151.2810-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

suith

noun. draught

[Ety/388, X/Z] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

cardh

deed

cardh (i gardh, o chardh), pl. cerdh (i cherdh). Note: cardh may also mean "house, building".

suith

draught

*suith (i huith, o suith), no distinct pl. form except with article (i suith). Suggested Sindarin form of ”Noldorin” sûth.

Adûnaic

-dâ-

suffix. verbal suffix

A possible causative verbal suffix in ugrudâ- “to overshadow”, as suggested by Carl Hostetter and Patrick Wynne (VSH/24). It may be related to Primitive Elvish causative suffix ✶-tā. Carl Hostetter and Patrick Wynne instead suggested (VSH/24) it may be related to the Adûnaic prepositional suffix -ada “to, toward”.

Element in: AD. ugrudâ-

-ôn

suffix. adjective or agental suffix

A suffix appearing only in the name Pharazôn “Golden” and possibly also in Zimrathôn. Since the element pharaz is elsewhere defined as “gold” (LotR/1114, SD/426), perhaps this suffix can be used to form adjectives from nouns in Adûnaic. Andreas Moehn suggested (EotAL/ZIM’R) it may instead be an agental suffix, a variant of -ân.

Element in: AD. Pharazôn, AD. Zimrathôn

-râ-

suffix. causative suffix

A possible element in the verb azgarâ- “to wage war”, perhaps a causative suffix, as suggested by Carl Hostetter and Patrick Wynne (VSH/24).

Element in: AD. azgarâ-

Noldorin 5^mY7T5

cardh

noun. deed, feat

[Ety/362] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

carth

noun. deed, feat

[Ety/362] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

carth

noun. deed

Variations of the word: carð.

[Ety/KAR.009; Ety/KAR.010] Group: Eldamo. Published by

sûth

noun. draught

[Ety/388, X/Z] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

sûth

noun. draught

[Ety/SUK.017] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Primitive elvish

-da

suffix. motion to or towards a point

Variations of the word: -dā̆.

Element in: P. awā-da

[WJ/366.0406; VT49/18.0902] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-dā

suffix. product of an action

Also glossed as “passive or product suffix”, “the passive result of an action”, “noun result of action”.
Variations of the word: -dā, -d.

Element in: P. mbardā, P. mbazdā, P. yuldā

[PE19/090.2306; PE17/068.0901; PE17/052.0413; PE17/051.3214; PE17/106.1205; PE19/090.4701] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Primitive adûnaic

-k

suffix. masculine suffix

A (primitive?) masculine suffix used in the formation of (male) mîk “baby” from the root ✶Ad. √MIYI (SD/427). Tolkien stated that that k was one of the “favoured” masculine consonants (SD/427).

[SD/427.04061] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-th

suffix. feminine suffix

A (primitive?) feminine suffix used in the formation of mîth “baby girl” from the root ✶Ad. √MIYI (SD/427). Tolkien stated that that th was one of the “favoured” feminine consonants (SD/427).

[SD/427.0304] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Qenya zR5Ì#

noun. deed

Also glossed as “act”, “fact”.

Element in: EQ. kaina

[QL/043.8101] Group: Eldamo. Published by

kar

noun. deed

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
kard-stem-Ety/KAR.005

[Ety/KAR.005; Ety/KAR.006] Group: Eldamo. Published by

karo

noun. deed

Also glossed as “act”, “action”.

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
karoliplural-PE15/71.3905

Element in: EQ. ohta·karo

[PE14/075.2401; PE15/68.0701; PE15/71.3905; PE14/045.1504; PE15/71.4101] Group: Eldamo. Published by

suhto

noun. draught

[Ety/SUK.020] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Doriathrin

-en

suffix. adjectival suffix

An adjectival suffix appearing as both -en and -in, and in one place as -on: Brithon. The -en form can be easily explained as a derivative of the primitive suffix ᴹ✶-inā, with the [primitive [i] becoming [e] due to Ilkorin a-affection](/w/short [i], [u] became [e], [o] preceding final [a]), the same origin as the Noldorin adjectival suffix -en. The -in variant is more difficult to explain. At least one example lómen had variations with both -en and -in, so perhaps the two forms represented vacillation on the function of Ilkorin a-affection, or an alternate primitive form ᴹ✶-ină where the final ă was lost before a-affection.

Alterately, -in could be a Doriathrin-specific variant, since the forms where it appears are all Doriathrin, while the forms where -en appear are marked Ilkorin, excepting only lómen which was itself revised from lómin.
Variations of the word: -en.

Element in: ILK. losgen, ILK. muilin, ILK. ngorthin, ILK. brithon, ILK. Ermabuin, ILK. lómen, ILK. thúren

[Ety/LAM.020-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-os

suffix. abstract ending

Apparently an abstract noun suffix appearing in the words Aros and thalos, perhaps of the same origin as the abstract endings ᴹQ. -sse and N. -as, though Helge Fauskanger suggested instead that it is related to the locative suffix ᴹQ. -sse (AL-Ilkorin/thalos).
Variations of the word: -os.

Element in: ILK. Aros, ILK. thalos

[Ety/STAL.011-2; Ety/YAR.022-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Middle Primitive Elvish

-da

suffix. motion to or towards a point

Gnomish

cara

noun. deed

Also glossed as “act”.

Element in: G. cartha-, G. cariod(wen), G. carn

[GL/25.5401] Group: Eldamo. Published by

carm

noun. deed

Also glossed as “act”, “exploit”.

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
garmsoft-mutation-GL/42.8001-2

[GL/25.4901; PE13/111.3901; GL/42.8001-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Early Noldorin

carbh

noun. deed

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
cerbhplural-PE13/140.3001

[PE13/140.3001; PE13/140.3205; PE13/140.3004] Group: Eldamo. Published by

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