Quenya 

oa-

verb. to possess, own, keep

Derivations

  • AW “possess, own, keep (have in hand, use or with one)” ✧ PE22/151
  • BĀ/ABA “refuse, forbid, prohibit, say nay (in refusal or denial), refuse, forbid, prohibit, say nay (in refusal or denial), [ᴹ√] deny; away, go away, depart” ✧ PE22/151

Element in

  • ᴺQ. oamo “owner”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
AW > auta[awta-] > [auta-]✧ PE22/151
AW > ăw̯a > oa[awa-] > [oa-]✧ PE22/151
AB > āva[āba] > [āβa] > [āva]✧ PE22/151

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
autapresent“possess, own, keep (have in hand, use or with one)”✧ PE22/151
†au̯antepast-✧ PE22/151
oantepast-✧ PE22/151
vantepast-✧ PE22/151
oapresent-✧ PE22/151
āvapresent-✧ PE22/151
aunepast-✧ PE22/151; PE22/152
auvafuture-✧ PE22/151
Quenya [PE22/151; PE22/152] Group: Eldamo. Published by

auta-

verb. to possess, own, keep

véra

adjective. personal, private, own

Derivations

  • WĒ/EWE “person, being, individual” ✧ PM/340

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
EWE > wéra > véra[wēra] > [βēra] > [vēra]✧ PM/340

véra

personal, private, own

véra (< Old Quenya wéra) noun "personal, private, own" (PM:340)

harya-

possess

harya- vb. "possess" (3AR)

heru-

verb. to lord it over, be master of, own, [ᴱQ.] rule

Derivations

  • kheru- “to lord it over, be master of, own”
    • KHER “possess, possess, [ᴹ√] rule, govern, [ᴱ√] have power”

Sindarin 

garn

own

(adj.) garn (lenited arn; pl. gern); also as noun "ones own" = property: garn (i **arn), pl. gern (i ngern** = i ñern).

gwîr

adjective. own, personal

The hypothetical Sindarin cognate of Q véra (PM/340); CE (e)wēra would > OS wīra > S *gwîr.

Sindarin [(neologism)] Group: Neologism. Published by

garnen

adjective. own, held, possessed

Elements

WordGloss
gar-“to hold, have, to hold, have, *possess”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

gar

possess

gar- (i **âr, i ngerir = i ñerir) (hold, have; be able, can); pa.t. garant**. (AI:92, VT45:14)

Primitive elvish

aw

root. possess, own, keep (have in hand, use or with one)

A root appearing in some late notes on verbs from around 1969, with the sense “possess, own, keep” (PE22/151). It seems to be a restoration of a much earlier root from the 1910s, which appeared as ᴱ√AW̯A in the Qenya Lexicon with derivatives having to do with wealth, such as ᴱQ. ausie “wealth” and ᴱQ. aute “rich” (QL/33), as well as Gnomish and Early Noldorin cognates G. avos “wealth” (GL/20) and ᴱN. awes “rich” (PE13/137). This root is a good example of how certain linguistic ideas could lay dormant for many years in Tolkien’s writing, only to reemerge much later. This makes it difficult to say for certain whether Tolkien really abandoned a particular idea.

Derivatives

  • Q. aura “possession, thing owned” ✧ PE22/151
  • Q. auvië “possession (abstract), *the act of possessing” ✧ PE22/151
  • Q. oa- “to possess, own, keep” ✧ PE22/151
Primitive elvish [PE22/151] Group: Eldamo. Published by

kher

root. possess, possess, [ᴹ√] rule, govern, [ᴱ√] have power

The basic root for rulership was √KHER for most of Tolkien’s life. The root appeared as ᴱ√HERE “rule, have power” in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s, and in this period already had the derivative ᴱQ. heru “lord” and ᴱQ. heri “lady” (QL/40), words that retained the same form and meaning throughout Tolkien’s life. Gnomish derivatives from this period include G. herma “protection, lordship, sway”, G. hermon “lord”, G. hîr “care, anxiety; heed”, and G. hiril “queen†, princess” (GL/49).

In The Etymologies of the 1930s these last two Gnomish words became N. hîr “master” and N. hiril “lady” as derivatives of ᴹ√KHER “rule, govern, possess”; the words ᴹQ. heru/ᴹQ. heri reappeared as well (Ety/KHER). All four of these words reappeared frequently in Tolkien’s later writing, though S. hîr was more typically glossed “lord” (PM/210; SD/129; VT41/9; Let/382; UT/318). The root √KHER itself reappeared in a 1954 letter to Naomi Mitchison with the gloss “possess” (Let/178).

Variations

  • kher- ✧ Let/178

Derivatives

  • Ad. khôr “lord”
  • khēr “lord, master”
    • Q. heru “lord, master” ✧ Let/282; VT41/09
    • S. hîr “lord, master” ✧ Let/282; VT41/09
  • kherī “lady”
  • kheru- “to lord it over, be master of, own”
    • ᴺQ. heru- “to lord it over, be master of, own, [ᴱQ.] rule”
  • kherū “lord, master”
    • Q. heru “lord, master” ✧ Let/282; PE17/097
  • ᴺQ. hérë “lordship”
  • ᴺS. herf “protection, lordship, sway”

Element in

  • S. rochir “knight, horse-lord” ✧ Let/178
Primitive elvish [Let/178] Group: Eldamo. Published by

kheru

verb. lord it over, be master of, own

Primitive elvish [PE 22:135] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

kheru-

verb. to lord it over, be master of, own

Variations

  • kheru ✧ PE22/135

Derivatives

  • ᴺQ. heru- “to lord it over, be master of, own, [ᴱQ.] rule”

Derivations

  • KHER “possess, possess, [ᴹ√] rule, govern, [ᴱ√] have power”
Primitive elvish [PE22/135] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Noldorin 

garn

noun. ‘own’, property

Derivations

  • ᴹ√GAR “keep, hold, possess; maintain, defend” ✧ Ety/ƷAR|GAR

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√GAR > garn[garna] > [garn]✧ Ety/ƷARGAR
Noldorin [Ety/ƷAR|GAR] Group: Eldamo. Published by

garn

noun. own, property

Noldorin [Ety/360] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Qenya 

harya-

verb. to possess

Variations

  • arya- ✧ EtyAC/GAR (arya-)

Derivations

  • ᴹ√ƷAR “have, hold” ✧ Ety/ƷAR
  • ᴹ√GAR “keep, hold, possess; maintain, defend” ✧ Ety/GAR

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√ƷAR > harya-[ɣarja-] > [harja-]✧ Ety/ƷAR
ᴹ√GAR > arya-[garja-] > [ɣarja-] > [arja-]✧ Ety/GAR
Qenya [Ety/ƷAR; EtyAC/GAR] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Gnomish

guin

adjective. own, held, possessed

Variations

  • guin ✧ GL/43

Element in

  • G. guinog “chattel” ✧ GL/43
  • G. guinoth “property” ✧ GL/43
  • G. guinir “slave” ✧ GL/43

guira-

verb. to possess

Variations

  • gaira- ✧ GL/43 (gaira-)

Changes

  • gaira-guira- ✧ GL/43

Cognates

  • Eq. yaim- “to possess” ✧ GL/43

Early Primitive Elvish

mḷkḷ

root. possess

A root in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s (QL/62) glossed “possess” in a list of roots at the end of the M-section (QL/63) and having derivatives like ᴱQ. malke “rich”, ᴱQ. malko “lord”, and ᴱQ. milk- “have, keep, possess” (QL/62). In the contemporaneous Gnomish Lexicon is also had derivatives like G. malc “rich, powerful” and G. malcos “lordship” (GL/56). There are no signs of this root in Tolkien’s later writing.

Derivatives

  • ᴱ✶malkĭ-
    • G. malc “rich, powerful” ✧ GL/56
  • ᴱ✶malkŭ-
    • G. malc “lord” ✧ GL/56
  • Eq. milk(i)- “to possess, have, keep” ✧ QL/062; QL/063
  • Eq. malke “rich” ✧ QL/062
  • Eq. malko “lord, sir” ✧ QL/062
  • Eq. milkin “wealth” ✧ QL/062
Early Primitive Elvish [QL/062; QL/063] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Early Quenya

yaim-

verb. to possess

Variations

  • yaime ✧ GL/43
  • ia·ma ✧ GL/43 (ia·ma)
  • yaima ✧ GL/43

Changes

  • ia·mayaime ✧ GL/43

Derivations

  • ᴱ√YAYA “*steel, possession”

Cognates

  • G. guira- “to possess” ✧ GL/43
  • G. gôtha- “to possess, have, hold” ✧ GL/43
Early Quenya [GL/43] Group: Eldamo. Published by

yaima-

verb. to possess