Quenya 

Lungumá

heavyhand

Lungumá, Lungumaqua masc. name "Heavyhand", equivalent of Sindarin Mablung(VT47:19)

lungumá

masculine name. Heavyhand

The Quenya name of S. Mablung, a compound of lungo “heavy” and “hand” (VT47/19). Normally long final vowels were shortened in Quenya, so perhaps its proper form would be Lunguma, as it appeared in some notes from the early 1930s (PE21/41).

Conceptual Development: The first appearance of a Quenya cognate for Mablung was ᴹQ. Lunguma in the aforementioned notes from the 1930s. It reappeared in notes from the 1960s with long á (VT47/19). In these same notes, this name also appeared in the form Lungumaqua where its second element was the direct equivalent of S. mâb “hand”. However, Q. maqua was elsewhere used as an alternate word for “five” (lit. “hand-full”), much as English “dozen” is an alternate word for “twelve” (VT47/7), so the variant Lungumaqua may be an archaic form of this name.

Variations

  • Lungumaqua ✧ VT47/19

Cognates

  • S. Mablung “Heavy Hand” ✧ VT47/19

Elements

WordGloss
lungo“heavy, heavy [prefix only]”
“hand”

lunga

heavy

lunga adj. "heavy" (LUG1). Curiously, the variant lungu- appears in certain compounds; see Lungumá, lungumaitë.

lungo

adjective. heavy, heavy [prefix only]

Quenya adjective meaning “heavy” attested only as lungu- in the compounds Lungumá “Heavyhand” and lungumaitë “heavy-handed” (VT47/19, PE17/162). Given its stem form, it probably developed from primitive lungŭ*, which would be *lungo in Quenya since [[p|short final [i], [u] became [e], [o]]] in Primitive Elvish. This is consistent with its Sindarin cognate S. lung.

In one place, an earlier form of this word ᴹQ. lunga was glossed “fraught” in the phrase “fraught with sorrow” (PE22/124), as in “heavy with sorrow”. This indicates this word could be used in the metaphorical sense of “heavy” as well as its physical sense.

Conceptual Development: In the Qenya Lexicon from the 1910s, the word for “heavy” was ᴱQ. talka “heavy” from the root ᴱ√TALA “support” (QL/88). In the (Early) Noldorin Dictionary from the 1920s, Tolkien introduced the form ᴱQ. lungo “heavy” (PE13/163), but towards the end of that decade he used ᴱQ. lunga in notes associated with the Oilima Markirya poem (PE16/75).

ᴹQ. lunga reappeared in The Etymologies from the 1930s, this time as a derivative of ᴹ✶lungā, consistent with the a-affection in its Noldorin cognate lhong (Ety/LUG¹). At this point in time, Mablung was Doriathrin/Ilkorin rather than a Noldorin name (Ety/MAP), so there was no conflict with that name.

After Tolkien abandoned the Ilkorin language, Mablung would have become a Sindarin name, and Tolkien needed a new etymology for it. Judging by its later Quenya cognate Lungumá (VT47/19), it seems that Tolkien revised the primitive form of this word from ✶lungā to ✶lungŭ, as describe above, possibly a restoration of its etymology from the 1920s. This meant there was no a-affection in the Sindarin development, making S. lung the Sindarin form of the word.

Neo-Quenya: I used to prefer lungo for the Quenya word for “heavy”, but the form lunga has been known for longer, and has the advantage of being directly attested, albeit only in earlier writings. There are also very few adjectives ending in o, and it is not clear how lungo would be inflected in (for example) a plural form. As a result, I now prefer lunga (pl. lungë) as the normal Quenya adjective for “heavy”. I only use lungu- in compounds.

Variations

  • lungu ✧ VT47/19 (lungu)

Derivations

  • lungu “heavy”
    • ᴹ√LUG “be heavy”

Cognates

  • S. lung “heavy, heavy; [G.] grave, serious”

Element in

noun. hand

Variations

  • ✧ PE17/069; PE17/161; VT39/09; VT39/11; VT47/18; VT47/18
  • ✧ PE19/102
  • ✧ PE19/106

Derivations

  • MAH “handle, manage, control, wield; serve, be of use, handle, manage, control, wield; serve, be of use; [ᴹ√] hand; [ᴱ√] grasp” ✧ PE17/069; PE17/162; PE19/100; VT39/11; VT47/19
  • MAG “good (physically); to thrive, be in a good state, good (physically); to thrive, be in a good state; [ᴹ√] use, handle” ✧ PE17/161; VT47/18
  • “hand” ✧ PE19/102; VT47/06
    • maha “hand, the manager” ✧ PE19/074; PE19/102; VT47/06; VT47/07; VT47/35
    • MAH “handle, manage, control, wield; serve, be of use, handle, manage, control, wield; serve, be of use; [ᴹ√] hand; [ᴱ√] grasp” ✧ VT47/18; VT47/18
    • MAG “good (physically); to thrive, be in a good state, good (physically); to thrive, be in a good state; [ᴹ√] use, handle” ✧ VT47/18
    • MAH “handle, manage, control, wield; serve, be of use, handle, manage, control, wield; serve, be of use; [ᴹ√] hand; [ᴱ√] grasp” ✧ PE21/70
    • MAG “good (physically); to thrive, be in a good state, good (physically); to thrive, be in a good state; [ᴹ√] use, handle” ✧ VT47/18
  • maha “hand, the manager” ✧ PE19/106; VT47/18
    • MAH “handle, manage, control, wield; serve, be of use, handle, manage, control, wield; serve, be of use; [ᴹ√] hand; [ᴱ√] grasp” ✧ VT47/18; VT47/18
    • MAG “good (physically); to thrive, be in a good state, good (physically); to thrive, be in a good state; [ᴹ√] use, handle” ✧ VT47/18

Cognates

  • S. maw “hand” ✧ PE17/162; VT47/06
  • T. “hand” ✧ VT47/18; VT47/06

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
MAƷ > [maɣa] > [mā]✧ PE17/069
MAG > [maga] > [maɣa] > [mā]✧ PE17/161
MAƷ > [mā]✧ PE17/162
MAƷ > [maɣa] > [mā]✧ PE19/100
māh > [māh] > [mā]✧ PE19/102
māʒ > [māɣ] > [mā]✧ PE19/106
maha > [maha] > [mā]✧ VT39/11
> [mā]✧ VT47/06
māʒ(ă) > [māɣa] > [mā]✧ VT47/18
mag > [māga] > [māɣa] > [mā]✧ VT47/18
MAƷA > [maɣa] > [mā]✧ VT47/19

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
máryat3rd-sg-poss dual“her hands”✧ LotR/0377; PE17/069
mā-rya3rd-sg-poss“her hand”✧ PE17/069
mārya-t3rd-sg-poss dual“her (two) hands”✧ PE17/069
má-rya-t3rd-sg-poss dual“her two hands”✧ PE17/130; PE17/135
má-ya-t3rd-sg-poss dual“her two hands”✧ PE17/130
má-rya-t3rd-pl-poss dual“*their two hands”✧ PE17/130
mátdual-✧ PE17/161; VT47/06 dual nominative
maineninstrumental plural“by hand”✧ PE17/161
máogenitive-✧ PE17/161
mándative-✧ PE17/161
márplural-✧ PE17/161
márongenitive plural-✧ PE17/161
maindative plural-✧ PE17/161
mánta3rd-pl-poss“their hand, their hands (one each)”✧ PE17/161
mántat3rd-pl-poss dual“their hands (each both)”✧ PE17/161
mánte3rd-pl-poss plural-✧ PE17/161
márya3rd-sg-poss“his hand”✧ PE22/160
mā́ryat3rd-sg-poss dual“her hands”✧ RGEO/58
mā-rya-t3rd-sg-poss dual“hands-her-two”✧ RGEO/59
málipartitive-plural“hands”✧ VT47/03; VT47/06; VT47/12
**maiplural“hands”✧ VT47/06
**márplural“hands”✧ VT47/06
Quenya [LotR/0377; PE17/069; PE17/070; PE17/130; PE17/135; PE17/161; PE17/162; PE19/100; PE19/102; PE19/106; PE22/160; RGEO/58; RGEO/59; VT39/09; VT39/11; VT47/03; VT47/06; VT47/12; VT47/18; VT47/19; VT49/10] Group: Eldamo. Published by

noun. hand

hand

Quenya [PE 18:35] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

hand

noun "hand" (MA3, LT2:339, Narqelion, VT39:10, [VT45:30], VT47:6, 18, 19); the dual "a pair of hands" is attested both by itself as mát (VT47:6) and with a pronominal suffix as máryat "his/her (pair of) hands" (see -rya, -t) (Nam, RGEO:67). The nominative plural form was only máli, not **már (VT47:6), though plurals in -r may occur in some of the cases, as indicated by the pl. allative mannar "into hands" (FS). Mánta "their hand", dual mántat "their hands" (two hands each) (PE17:161). Cf. also the compounds mátengwië "language of the hands" (VT47:9) and Lungumá "Heavyhand" (VT47:19); also compare the adj. -maitë "-handed". See also málimë.

noun. hand

Quenya [PE 22:160] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

nonda

hand, especially in [?clutching]

nonda noun "hand, especially in [?clutching]" (VT47:23; Tolkien's gloss was not certainly legible)

cambë

noun. hand, (hollow of) hand

Derivations

  • KAB “hold, contain, retain, possess, have in hand, hold, contain, retain, possess, have in hand; [ᴹ√] hollow”

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
kambeya3rd-sg-poss“his hand”✧ VT49/17