Primitive elvish

root. interjection of pleasure/assent

A root appearing in 1959 notes as a variant of √AL(A) “good” with a single derivative: Q. or alá “yes” (PE17/158). A possible precursor is the rejected root ᴹ√LAƷ from The Etymologies of the 1930s, unglossed but with one derivative ᴹQ. whose gloss is difficult to read by might be “please” (EtyAC/LAƷ). I recommend against using this root for purposes of Neo-Eldarin, as it is easily confused with the negative root √LA.

Derivations

  • AL(A) “good (physically), blessed, fortunate, prosperous, health(y)”

Derivatives

  • Q. (a)lá “yes” ✧ PE17/158; VT42/33

Variations

  • ✧ VT42/33
Primitive elvish [PE17/158; VT42/33] Group: Eldamo. Published by

lā̆

preposition/adverb. beyond

Derivations

  • LAƷ “cross, pass over, go beyond” ✧ PE17/065

Derivatives

  • Q. “beyond, over, across, athwart” ✧ PE17/065; PE17/065

Element in

  • orlā “over” ✧ PE17/065
  • pelola “beyond (the boundary)” ✧ PE17/065

Variations

  • laŋa ✧ PE17/065
Primitive elvish [PE17/065] Group: Eldamo. Published by

lā-

verb. to not be

Derivations

  • LA “no, not; negative; not to be” ✧ PE22/153

Derivatives

  • Q. lá- “to not be” ✧ PE22/153; PE22/153; VT49/13
  • ᴺS. lae- “to not be”

Element in

Variations

  • la ✧ PE22/140
  • ✧ PE22/153
Primitive elvish [PE22/140; PE22/153; VT49/13] Group: Eldamo. Published by

laʒ

root. cross, pass over, go beyond

Tolkien considered several similar roots for the Elvish words “neck”, “throat” and “beyond”.

In The Etymologies, the words for “throat” were ᴹQ. lanko and N. lhanc from the root ᴹ√LAK with nasal-infixion (Ety/LAK, Ety/TARAG). The Noldorin form also appeared as an element in the adjective N. tarlanc “stiff-necked, obstinate”. In The Lord of the Rings, it seems that this last word had shifted to S. tarlang, as in the place name Tarlang (LotR/790). The earlier words reappeared as S. lang and Q. lango “neck, passage”, whose roots were either √LAG (PE17/65) or √LAƷA (PE17/91-92).

Tolkien also established the word Q. as the Quenya element meaning “beyond”, most notably in the preposition pella (the Namárië poem, LotR/377), whose literal meaning was “beyond the border”. There is an early hint of this sense in The Etymologies in the root ᴹ√, unglossed but said to be related to the “ablative element” ᴹ√ (EtyAC/LŌ). Other possible precursors are ᴱ√ALA “spread” and related ᴱ√LAHA or ᴱ√ from the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s (QL/29, 32, 50).

In notes from 1965, Tolkien stated that the root of “beyond” was √LAŊ, distinct from the root √LAG of lango (PE17/65). But in notes from 1967, Tolkien briefly considered using the root √ALA/LA for “beyond” (PE17/90), but quickly changed it to √LAƷA “cross, pass over, go beyond” (PE17/91-92), the same as the root of Q. lango “neck” as noted above. This leaves us with two scenarios: that lango “neck” and “beyond” had distinct origins from the roots √LAG and √LAÑ respectively (1965: PE17/65), or that lango “neck” and “beyond” had the same origin in the root √LAƷ “cross, pass over, go beyond” (1967: PE17/91-92).

Neo-Eldarin: For purposes of Neo-Eldarin I prefer the 1967 scenario with the root √LAƷA “cross, pass over, go beyond”, and would assume “neck” is based on the sense “passage”, since it frees up the root √LAG to retain its meaning from The Etymologies: ᴹ√LAG “✱cut” (Ety/LAG). For “throat” words, see the discusssion in the entry for ᴹ√LAK.

Derivatives

  • lā̆ “beyond” ✧ PE17/065
    • Q. “beyond, over, across, athwart” ✧ PE17/065; PE17/065
  • langa ✧ PE17/091
    • Q. langë “surpassingly, superlatively, extremely” ✧ PE17/091
  • langō “route or connection between to places; neck” ✧ PE17/091
    • Q. lango “neck, neck, [ᴹQ.] throat” ✧ PE17/092
    • S. lang “passage; neck, passage; neck, *throat” ✧ PE17/092
  • lañna “athwart” ✧ PE17/065
    • Q. lanna “athwart, athwart, *across” ✧ PE17/065
  • Q. “beyond, over, across, athwart” ✧ PE17/065; PE17/090; PE17/091
  • Q. lahta- “to cross, pass over, go over; to surpass, excel” ✧ PE17/065; PE17/092
  • Q. lan “*while”
  • Q. langa “thing that crosses, ferry, ford, crossway, bridge, cross-bar” ✧ PE17/065
  • Q. lango “neck, neck, [ᴹQ.] throat” ✧ PE17/065
  • Q. lanna “athwart, athwart, *across” ✧ PE17/065
  • ᴺS. lo “while”

Element in

  • ᴺQ. lanquet- “to converse, debate, *discuss”
  • ᴺQ. lanquetta “conversation, debate, interchange of words”
  • ᴺQ. lanquinga “crossbow”
  • Q. pella “beyond (boundary or limit)” ✧ PE17/090

Variations

  • LAŊ ✧ PE17/065; PE17/159
  • LAG ✧ PE17/065; PE17/159
  • ALA/LA ✧ PE17/090; PE17/146
  • LAƷA ✧ PE17/091; PE17/092; PE17/159
  • LA ✧ PE17/158
Primitive elvish [PE17/065; PE17/090; PE17/091; PE17/092; PE17/146; PE17/158; PE17/159] Group: Eldamo. Published by