Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Primitive elvish

tāna

adjective. high
Primitive elvish Group: Eldamo. Published by

ad(a)

preposition. and, alongside
Primitive elvish [PE17/041; PE17/070; PE17/071; PE17/102] Group: Eldamo. Published by

as(a)

preposition. and
Primitive elvish [PE17/041; VT43/30; VT47/31] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ata

suffix. numerative dual ending
Primitive elvish [Let/427] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ban

root. meet, come up against
Primitive elvish [PE17/016.2505; PE17/016.3113; PE17/143.0302; PE17/149.3001; PE17/150.2801; VT42/32.1902] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ban

root. beauty (due to lack of fault or blemish), fair, beautiful
Primitive elvish [PE17/056; PE17/146; PE17/149; PE17/150; PE17/165] Group: Eldamo. Published by

bāta-

verb. to ban, prohibit, refuse, forbid
Primitive elvish [PE22/161; WJ/372] Group: Eldamo. Published by

han

root. add to, increase, enhance, honour (espec. by gift), add to, increase, enhance, honour (especially by gift), extend, enhance, enrich, add to, give
Primitive elvish [PE17/155.1101; PE17/158.3504; PE22/163.1311; PE22/163.1519; PE22/163.2419; VT43/14.0810; VT47/26.4214; VT47/27.1211] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tam

root. construct

In the Etymologies, the word for “craftsman, smith” was ᴹQ. tano, N. *tân as in N. Cirdan “Shipbuilder”, both from the root ᴹ√TAN “make, fashion”. In later writings, Tolkien changed √TAN >> √TAM “construct” and the Quenya form tano >> tamo “smith” (PE17/107-108), possibly due to conflict with a new root √TAN² “show, indicate”. That this change was lasting is supported by the appearance of the form Q. Martamo as a title of Aulë in a “very late note” (LT1A/Talka Marda), as opposed to the form ᴹQ. Martan(o) in the Etymologies (Ety/TAN).

However, √TAM would have produced S. *tav, and Tolkien wanted to retain the name Círdan. On PE17/108, he indicated that √TAN became the usual Sindarin form of the root, owing to the influence of √PAN “arrange, set in order”. Thus, the Sindarin development would have been √TAM > ✶tan- > tân, lenited in S. Círdan and S. calardan “lampwright”, whose plural appears in The Lord of the Rings as part of S. Rath Celerdain “Lampwrights’ Street”.

Primitive elvish [PE17/107.4010; PE17/186.3201] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tawĭnā

adjective. wood
Primitive elvish [PE17/115.2204] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tañkā

adjective. firm, firm, fixed
Primitive elvish [PE22/129.1315; PE22/135.2111] Group: Eldamo. Published by

thangā

noun. throng, crowd, press
Primitive elvish Group: Eldamo. Published by

(n)dor

root. land, hard, firm
Primitive elvish [PE17/026.0414; PE17/072.2808; PE17/106.3303; PE17/107.0913; PE17/167.2601; PE17/167.2701; PE17/181.2913] Group: Eldamo. Published by

abta

verb. refuse, deny, say no
Primitive elvish [PE19/090] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aikwā

adjective. steep, tall
Primitive elvish [PE18/100] Group: Eldamo. Published by

alkwā

noun. swan
Primitive elvish [PE18/100; UT/265; VT42/07] Group: Eldamo. Published by

amtā

noun. amtā
Primitive elvish [PE18/085; PE18/087] Group: Eldamo. Published by

anad

root. long, far
Primitive elvish [PE17/040; PE17/090; PE17/166] Group: Eldamo. Published by

anak

adverb. against, opposite
Primitive elvish [PE21/71] Group: Eldamo. Published by

andā

adjective. long, far
Primitive elvish [PE17/090] Group: Eldamo. Published by

anga

root. iron
Primitive elvish [PM/366] Group: Eldamo. Published by

angā

noun. iron
Primitive elvish [PM/347] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ankā

noun. jaws, (animal’s) mouth, *[ᴹ✶] row of teeth
Primitive elvish [PE18/085; PE18/087] Group: Eldamo. Published by

annā

noun. gift
Primitive elvish [PE17/090; SA/anna] Group: Eldamo. Published by

anār

noun. Sun
Primitive elvish [SA/nár] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aran

root. good, excellent, noble
Primitive elvish [PE17/147; PE17/148] Group: Eldamo. Published by

atar

noun. father
Primitive elvish [PE21/71; PE21/74; PE21/75; PE21/76; PE21/77; PE21/83] Group: Eldamo. Published by

atta

cardinal. two
Primitive elvish [PE21/74; VT48/19] Group: Eldamo. Published by

bani

adjective. fair
Primitive elvish [PE17/057] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ektā

verb. prick with a sharp point, stab
Primitive elvish [WJ/365.2412] Group: Eldamo. Published by

khan

root. back
Primitive elvish [PE17/157.0301; PE17/166.3001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

pata

noun. ford, track, road, way
Primitive elvish [PE17/034.2702; PE17/034.2902; SA/thar.012-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

stal

root. strong
Primitive elvish [PE17/115.0908; PE17/185.3301] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tankātā-

verb. to make firm, fix
Primitive elvish [PE22/157.0408] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tañkas-

verb. become firm, settle down
Primitive elvish [PE22/135.0414] Group: Eldamo. Published by

airō

noun. ocean
Primitive elvish [PE17/149; PE18/097] Group: Eldamo. Published by

amtā-

verb. to enlarge, increase
Primitive elvish [PE17/091] Group: Eldamo. Published by

antā-

verb. to give, cause a thing/person to go to an object, send, *[ᴹ✶] present
Primitive elvish [PE17/091; PE22/163] Group: Eldamo. Published by

arātā

adjective. high, lofty, noble
Primitive elvish [PE17/039; PE17/049; PE17/118; PE17/186; PM/363; VT41/09] Group: Eldamo. Published by

atata

root. two, *[ᴹ√] again, *back
Primitive elvish [PE17/148; PE17/166; PE21/74; VT42/24; VT42/27; VT48/19] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ayanā

verb. to hallow, bless, treat as holy
Primitive elvish [PE17/149] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ba(n)

root. meet, come up against, go (away), *go, *[ᴹ√] proceed
Primitive elvish [PE17/016; PE17/143; PE17/149; PE17/150; VT42/32] Group: Eldamo. Published by

banya

adjective. beautiful
Primitive elvish [PE17/165; PM/402] Group: Eldamo. Published by

dankĭna

adjective. slain
Primitive elvish [PE17/133] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tañkatā-

verb. to make firm, fix, confirm
Primitive elvish [PE22/129.1402; PE22/135.2114] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ámān

place name. Unmarred State
Primitive elvish [PE17/162] Group: Eldamo. Published by

áyan

noun. holy thing or object or place
Primitive elvish [PE17/149] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ā

particle. imperative
Primitive elvish [PE22/139; PE22/140; WJ/365; WJ/371; WJ/372] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ān(a)

affix. subjective genitive
Primitive elvish [PE17/097] Group: Eldamo. Published by

(a)man

root. good, blessed, holy, unmarred
Primitive elvish [PE17/145.4103; PE17/146.4001; PE17/147.3703; PE17/149.1502; PE17/149.3311; PE17/150.0104; PE17/162.2301; PE17/162.4301; PM/357.3810; SA/mān.001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ambuna

adjective. hilly
Primitive elvish [PE17/092.4418] Group: Eldamo. Published by

and(ă)

adverb/conjunction. moreover, to go on further, to say more
Primitive elvish [PE17/090] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ap’lata

noun. prohibition, refusal
Primitive elvish [VT47/13] Group: Eldamo. Published by

as’tāră

noun. faith, loyalty
Primitive elvish [PE17/183] Group: Eldamo. Published by

at

root. two, double, bi-, di-, back, re-, across, over, lying from side to side, *[ᴹ√] again, *twice, *[ᴱ√] dual, *[√] across
Primitive elvish [PE17/148; PE17/166; PE17/167; PE21/74; VT42/26; VT42/27; VT42/31; VT43/33] Group: Eldamo. Published by

at-kwet

verb. answer
Primitive elvish [PE17/166] Group: Eldamo. Published by

atatya

adjective. double
Primitive elvish [VT42/27] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aya(n)

root. blessed, treat with awe/reverence, *[ᴱ√] honour, *revere
Primitive elvish [PE17/027; PE17/145; PE17/146; PE17/149; VT43/14] Group: Eldamo. Published by

barani

adjective. russet, brown
Primitive elvish [PE21/81] Group: Eldamo. Published by

bel

root. *strong
Primitive elvish [PE17/115; PE17/150] Group: Eldamo. Published by

bākwet-

verb. to refuse, prohibit, say no
Primitive elvish [PE22/167] Group: Eldamo. Published by

camta-

verb. to (make) fit, suit, accomodate, adapt

@@@ per Lokyt must be primitive because we don't see mt < nt

Primitive elvish [VT44/14] Group: Eldamo. Published by

delya-

verb. walk, go, proceed, travel
Primitive elvish [WJ/360] Group: Eldamo. Published by

del¹

root. walk, go, proceed, travel

This root appears in the “Quendi and Eldar” essay from 1959-60 with the sense “walk, go, proceed, travel” (WJ/360). Its derivatives S. Edhel “Elf”, Q. †Eldo blended with Elda “Elf”, both originally with the sense “one who goes” (✶edelō): those who left lake Cuiviénen to travel to Valinor. It is also the basis of several words meaning “to go”: T. delia- and Q. lelya-.

Many of Quenya derivatives of this root actually derive from an inversion √LED of the original √DEL. According to the “Quendi and Eldar” essay, this inversion only occurred in Quenya (WJ/363). In earlier writings like The Etymologies, however, ᴹ√LED “go, fare, travel” was the basic root in all languages. It seems that Tolkien revised ᴹ√LED >> √DEL¹, preserving √LED only as a Quenya variant. The strongest sign of this change was Tolkien’s consistent alteration of N. Eledh >> S. Edhel.

This leave open the question of what happened to the other non-Quenya derivatives of ᴹ√LED, such as S. edlen(n) “exile”. It is possible that they were transfered to √LEN “way”, which was the basis for S. lembas “way bread”.

Primitive elvish [WJ/360; WJ/363; WJ/392] Group: Eldamo. Published by

laŋna

adverb. athwart
Primitive elvish [PE17/065.2701] Group: Eldamo. Published by

mahtā-

verb. to handle, wield, manage, deal with
Primitive elvish [PE19/100.4501; VT47/06.1701; VT47/18.1903; VT47/18.1906] Group: Eldamo. Published by

otsoya

ordinal. 7th
Primitive elvish [VT42/26.1410] Group: Eldamo. Published by

stŏna-

noun. pine
Primitive elvish [PE17/081.3507; PE17/081.3701; PE17/081.3910; PE17/082.0207] Group: Eldamo. Published by

syandō

noun. cleaver, sword, hewer
Primitive elvish Group: Eldamo. Published by

ʒandā

adjective. long
Primitive elvish [PE17/155; VT47/27] Group: Eldamo. Published by

(a)tata

cardinal. two
Primitive elvish [PE17/014; VT42/27; WJ/421] Group: Eldamo. Published by

suffix. adjectival
Primitive elvish [PE21/82; WJ/382] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ā̆

suffix. active verbal suffix
Primitive elvish [PE17/104] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ad(a)

root. by (the side of), beside, alongside, against, opposed to, opposite
Primitive elvish [PE17/071; PE17/145; VT43/33; VT49/25] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ai

adverb. supposing
Primitive elvish [PE22/139] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ak

root. narrow, confined
Primitive elvish Group: Eldamo. Published by

ak

root. hostile return
Primitive elvish [PE17/145.4801; PE17/167.0102] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ak

root. hostile return
Primitive elvish [PE17/145; PE17/167] Group: Eldamo. Published by

am²

root. go up, [ᴹ√] up
Primitive elvish [PE17/146; PE17/157] Group: Eldamo. Published by

am¹

root. mother
Primitive elvish [VT48/17; VT48/19] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ap-pata

verb. to walk behind on a track or path
Primitive elvish [WJ/387] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ar

root. beyond, further than, outside, beside, along side, *[ᴱ√] spread, *extend sideways
Primitive elvish [PE17/147; SA/ar; VT43/33] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ara

adjective. beyond, further than
Primitive elvish [PE17/147] Group: Eldamo. Published by

arat/aran

root. good, excellent, noble
Primitive elvish [PE17/147.3505; PE17/148.0101; SA/ar(a).019] Group: Eldamo. Published by

arn(a)-

prefix. noble, royal
Primitive elvish [Let/427; Let/428] Group: Eldamo. Published by

artaurē

noun. Realm
Primitive elvish [PE17/028] Group: Eldamo. Published by

as²

root. beside
Primitive elvish [VT47/31; VT48/25] Group: Eldamo. Published by

as¹

root. warmth
Primitive elvish [MR/380; MRI/Âs; MRI/Asa; PE17/018; PE17/145; PE17/148; PE17/153; SA/arien; VT43/18] Group: Eldamo. Published by

at

prefix. once again
Primitive elvish [PE21/70] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aw

root. possess, own, keep (have in hand, use or with one)

@@@ revisit: this root is questionable given WĀ/AWA

Primitive elvish [PE22/151] Group: Eldamo. Published by

balaniā

noun. Balaniā
Primitive elvish [Let/427] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ber

root. to mate, be mated, joined in marriage

In earlier writings, the root of marriage-related words appeared as either √BES and √BED. The later forms Q. veru “husband” and Q. veri “wife” (VT49/45) could have been derived from either root, since both ✶[d] and ✶[s] became Q. [r] between vowels. If, however, we wish to preserve other derivatives of the earlier roots, which include some very important Noldorin/Sindarin words, the only reasonable option is to use √BES. @@@

Primitive elvish [VT49/45] Group: Eldamo. Published by

preposition. as, like
Primitive elvish [VT49/10; VT49/32] Group: Eldamo. Published by

imbĭ

preposition. between
Primitive elvish [PE17/092.3703; VT47/30.2902] Group: Eldamo. Published by

kantaya

ordinal. 4th
Primitive elvish [VT42/26.1408] Group: Eldamo. Published by

kun

root. lord, to lead

This root appears the Etymologies in the extended form ᴹ√KUNDU, from which ᴹQ. †kundu, N. †cunn “prince” and N. Felagund “Lord of Caves” were derived. In later writings (PE17/113, 117), Tolkien explored the possibility of connecting Felagund to the names of Fingon and Turgon, deriving all three from a primitive form ✶kondō (<< ✶kundō) and using a new form of this root: √KON (<< √KUN). He even went so far as to change the first of these names to Felegond with an “o” (PE17/118).

However, in still later writings (PM/345), Tolkien established that the element -gon “lord” in S. Fingon and Turgon was ultimately derived from Q. cáno “commander”. In the same text, he revised the etymology of S. Felagund so that it was derived from a Khuzdul name Kh. Felakgundu “Cave-hewer” (PM/352), as described in The Silmarillion index (SI/Felagund). These revisions make it likely that Tolkien abandoned the form √KON.

The later status of earlier √KUN is unclear, however. √KUN might have been rejected along with √KON, or Tolkien may have restored it. As evidence of its restoration, †cund remained as an element in two older (Sindarin?) names: Baragund and Belegund. Furthermore, its Quenya derivative Q. cundo appears as an element in the later name Q. Carma-cundo, albiet with a new gloss “guardian”.

If we accept the restoration of √KUN, its Quenya derivative cundo “prince, lord, guardian” could be considered valid, possibly along with the verb cunya- “to rule”. Its Sindarin derivative †cund “prince” should probably be considered archaic, however, replaced by the time of the Third Age with caun¹.

Primitive elvish [PE17/113.1503; PE17/113.2704; PE17/158.1101] Group: Eldamo. Published by

thangasyandō

proper name. throng-cleaver, throng-hewer
Primitive elvish Group: Eldamo. Published by

abar(o)

noun. refuser, recusant, one who refuses to act as advised or commanded
Primitive elvish [VT47/13; VT47/24; WJ/361; WJ/371; WJ/380; WJ/411] Group: Eldamo. Published by

akkal-

verb. to blaze, shine (suddenly and) brilliantly
Primitive elvish [PE18/085; PE18/088; PE18/107] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aklar(a)

noun. radiance, brilliance, glory
Primitive elvish [PE17/024; PE17/105; PE17/124; PE18/085; PE18/087; VT47/13] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ama

root. addition, increase, plus
Primitive elvish [PE17/091; PE17/146] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ambu(na)

adjective. *hilly
Primitive elvish [PE17/092] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ai

suffix. plural of adjectives
Primitive elvish [PE17/076] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-da

suffix. motion to or towards a point, allative suffix
Primitive elvish [PE21/76; VT49/18; WJ/366] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-dā

suffix. product of an action
Primitive elvish [PE17/051; PE17/052; PE17/068; PE17/106; PE19/090] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-vā

suffix. possessive, adjectival
Primitive elvish [WJ/407.1501] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ı̯ā

suffix. present participle
Primitive elvish [PE17/068.2209] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ada

root. alongside, by the side of, beside, alongside, by, by, beside, alongside
Primitive elvish [PE17/071.0808; PE17/145.2701; PE17/145.4701; VT43/33.1503; VT49/25.3001; VT49/25.3009] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aika-nār-

masculine name. Fell Fire
Primitive elvish [PM/347] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aklāra

adjective. brilliant, glorious
Primitive elvish [PE18/087] Group: Eldamo. Published by

al(a)

root. good (physically), blessed, fortunate, prosperous, health(y)
Primitive elvish [PE17/059; PE17/146; PE17/149; PE17/150; PE17/153; PE17/158; PE17/162; PE17/170; PE17/172; VT42/33] Group: Eldamo. Published by

am-

prefix. intensive prefix
Primitive elvish [PE17/090; PE17/092] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ari

root. good, excellent, noble
Primitive elvish [PE17/147] Group: Eldamo. Published by

au-

prefix. au-
Primitive elvish [WJ/361] Group: Eldamo. Published by

awā

adverb. away
Primitive elvish [WJ/361; WJ/366] Group: Eldamo. Published by

bal

root. power, powerful, mighty, have power
Primitive elvish [PE17/048; PE17/149; PE17/154; SA/val] Group: Eldamo. Published by

dal

root. bottom, ground, *[ᴹ√] flat

@@@ might survive as a Quenya-only inversion of √LAD, as basis for lára “flat”

Primitive elvish [PE17/150] Group: Eldamo. Published by

dat

root. fall down, fall to ground
Primitive elvish [PE17/062; PE17/151; VT47/29; VT48/24; VT48/30] Group: Eldamo. Published by

day

root. great
Primitive elvish [PE17/151.0201; VT42/11.2312] Group: Eldamo. Published by

day

root. *great
Primitive elvish [PE17/151; VT42/11] Group: Eldamo. Published by

etkuiwē

noun. awakening
Primitive elvish Group: Eldamo. Published by

kab

root. hold, contain, retain, hold, contain, retain, possess, have in hand
Primitive elvish [VT47/07.3309; VT47/20.3806; VT47/20.4514] Group: Eldamo. Published by

lat

root. at ground level, low; lowlying, low, at ground level, low, at ground level, lowlying, open, unenclosed, free to entry
Primitive elvish [PE17/159.1201; PE17/159.1501; PE17/171.1106; VT41/05.2801; VT41/06.1206; VT47/29.3804; VT48/24.0712; VT48/30.3508] Group: Eldamo. Published by

law

root. flourish (green), grow
Primitive elvish [PE22/156.0715] Group: Eldamo. Published by

mis

root. wet
Primitive elvish Group: Eldamo. Published by

misik

root. wet
Primitive elvish Group: Eldamo. Published by

nar

root. fire, fire, flame
Primitive elvish [Let/425.3610; PE17/038.1812; PE17/147.3401; PE17/166.0601] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nay

root. cause bitter grief or pain, cause bitter grief or pain, lament
Primitive elvish [PE17/099.1406; PE17/151.0312; PE17/166.0801; PE17/166.1001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nid

root. force, press(ure), thrust
Primitive elvish [PE22/165.0415; PE22/165.1605; VT41/13.2204; VT41/17.1107] Group: Eldamo. Published by

rat²

root. tower up
Primitive elvish [PE17/182; PE17/186] Group: Eldamo. Published by

raw

root. roar
Primitive elvish Group: Eldamo. Published by

rik

root. put forth effort, strive, endeavour, strive, try
Primitive elvish [PE17/093.4509; PE17/167.1602; PE17/182.2101; PE17/182.2501] Group: Eldamo. Published by

run

root. red, glowing
Primitive elvish [PM/366.1401] Group: Eldamo. Published by

sab

root. believe (that statements, reports, traditions, etc. are) true, accept as fact
Primitive elvish [PE22/158.0301; VT49/27.3501] Group: Eldamo. Published by

sar

root. score, incise, score, incise; write, write
Primitive elvish [WJ/396.0911; WJ/417.3301] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tor

root. secrete, hide
Primitive elvish [PE17/188.0201] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ăwă

preposition. from
Primitive elvish [PE17/148] Group: Eldamo. Published by

mazgō/ŭ

noun. sticky substance
Primitive elvish [PE19/101.1407] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ab(a)sene-

verb. ab(a)sene-
Primitive elvish [VT43/18] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ala-ā-mene

noun. ala-ā-mene
Primitive elvish [PE17/162] Group: Eldamo. Published by

niñkwitā-

verb. make white, whiten
Primitive elvish [PE22/135.2014] Group: Eldamo. Published by

skalatirnō̆

noun. fish watcher
Primitive elvish Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ayā

suffix. present continuative
Primitive elvish [PE17/077; PE17/186; PE22/164] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-b(iy)ē

suffix. -ing
Primitive elvish [PE22/129] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aba-

verb. refuse, forbid
Primitive elvish [PE22/163; WJ/370; WJ/372] Group: Eldamo. Published by

abar

noun. a refuser, recusant, one who refuses to act as advised or commanded, refuser
Primitive elvish [VT47/13.3902; VT47/24.4407; WJ/361.2013; WJ/361.2101; WJ/371.2203; WJ/380.0801; WJ/411.2307] Group: Eldamo. Published by

airē

noun. holiness, sanctity
Primitive elvish [PE17/149; VT43/14] Group: Eldamo. Published by

akas

root. neck, ridge
Primitive elvish [PE17/092; PE17/146] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aktō

noun. artificer, *[ᴹ✶] maker, *wright
Primitive elvish [PE18/085; PE18/087] Group: Eldamo. Published by

akwā

adverb. fully, completely, altogether, wholly
Primitive elvish [WJ/392; WJ/415] Group: Eldamo. Published by

alab

root. elm
Primitive elvish [PE17/146; PE17/153] Group: Eldamo. Published by

alak

root. rushing, *[ᴹ√] swift
Primitive elvish [PE18/100; SA/alqua] Group: Eldamo. Published by

amal

noun. mother
Primitive elvish [PE21/83; VT48/17; VT48/19] Group: Eldamo. Published by

amba

?. more
Primitive elvish [PE17/091] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ambō

noun. hill
Primitive elvish [PE17/092] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aras(sō)

noun. hart
Primitive elvish [PE21/82] Group: Eldamo. Published by

arat

root. good, excellent, noble
Primitive elvish [PE17/147; PE17/148; SA/ar(a)] Group: Eldamo. Published by

asa-

suffix. *beside
Primitive elvish [VT48/20] Group: Eldamo. Published by

auri

noun. heat, period of sun
Primitive elvish [PE17/148] Group: Eldamo. Published by

awa-

prefix. away
Primitive elvish [PE17/144; WJ/360; WJ/365] Group: Eldamo. Published by

bali(a)nōrē

proper name. Valian folk
Primitive elvish [PE17/026; WJ/413] Group: Eldamo. Published by

bā/aba

root. refuse, forbid, prohibit, say nay (in refusal or denial), *[ᴹ√] deny, *away, *go away, *depart
Primitive elvish [PE17/143; PE17/145; PE17/149; PE19/090; PE22/151; PE22/161; PE22/162; PE22/163; PE22/164; PE22/165; VT42/32; VT49/13; WJ/361; WJ/370; WJ/372; WJ/411] Group: Eldamo. Published by

delya

adjective. lovely, fine, beautiful
Primitive elvish [PE17/151] Group: Eldamo. Published by

del²

root. fair
Primitive elvish [PE17/145; PE17/151] Group: Eldamo. Published by

dāra

adjective. wise
Primitive elvish [PE17/102] Group: Eldamo. Published by

dē/lē

preposition. with
Primitive elvish [PE17/095] Group: Eldamo. Published by

khay

root. far, distant, remote
Primitive elvish Group: Eldamo. Published by

khot

root. gather, gather, (gather) together in confusion/jumble, gather, together in confusion, gather, together in confusion, jumble
Primitive elvish [PE17/039.1002; PE17/039.1315; PE17/157.1901] Group: Eldamo. Published by

m(b)as

root. bake
Primitive elvish [PE17/051.3004; PE17/165.0101] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ndol

root. head
Primitive elvish Group: Eldamo. Published by

niñkwi

adjective. white, pale
Primitive elvish [PE17/168.1110; PE17/186.3912-2; PE22/135.2011] Group: Eldamo. Published by

phin

root. clever, skillful, neat, fine, delicate, skill, dexterity, skillful, neat, clever
Primitive elvish [PE17/017.2911; PE17/119.0109; PE17/151.1504; PE17/181.1001; PE17/181.1301; PE17/181.1801] Group: Eldamo. Published by

skal

root. cover, conceal, cover, veil, cloak, conceal
Primitive elvish [PE17/184.1009; PE17/184.3209] Group: Eldamo. Published by

spar

root. hunt, hunt, pursue
Primitive elvish [PE17/083.1110; PE17/185.0901; PE18/094.2501] Group: Eldamo. Published by

syad

root. compress
Primitive elvish [PE18/101.1512; PE19/092.1405] Group: Eldamo. Published by

wĭnĭ

noun. child not yet full grown
Primitive elvish [VT47/26.2311] Group: Eldamo. Published by

áse

noun. sunlight
Primitive elvish [PE17/018] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ñar

root. by, beside, near
Primitive elvish [PE17/169] Group: Eldamo. Published by

akla-

verb. to shine out, flash
Primitive elvish [PE18/085; PE18/087] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aklari(n)kwā

adjective. full of glory
Primitive elvish [PE17/024] Group: Eldamo. Published by

suk/sok

root. drain, drink, drink, gulp, quaff, drain
Primitive elvish [PE18/094.3210; VT39/11.3703] Group: Eldamo. Published by

wis

root. alter, alter, change, shift, change, alter(nate)
Primitive elvish [PE17/145.4606; PE17/189.1203; PE17/191.1601; PE17/191.1901] Group: Eldamo. Published by

(o)los/r

root. dream, vision, sleep
Primitive elvish [PE17/088.2802; PE17/160.2601; PE17/170.1701; PE17/181.2901; PM/341.0701; UT/396.3001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-(a)lē

suffix. abstract noun, adverb
Primitive elvish [PE17/058; PE22/138; VT39/16] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-(a)rē

suffix. abstract noun
Primitive elvish [PE22/138] Group: Eldamo. Published by

abaro

noun. refuser
Primitive elvish [VT47/13.3814; VT47/24.4404; WJ/371.2201] Group: Eldamo. Published by

am(a)

adverb/conjunction. moreover, furthermore, to proceed
Primitive elvish [PE17/091] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ambar

noun. the settlement
Primitive elvish [PE17/104; PE17/105; PE17/124] Group: Eldamo. Published by

arphō

noun. seizer, thief
Primitive elvish [PE19/089] Group: Eldamo. Published by

arthā

?. arthā
Primitive elvish [PE19/089] Group: Eldamo. Published by

athmō

noun. good companion
Primitive elvish [PE22/166] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aurĭ-

noun. heat, period of sun
Primitive elvish [PE17/148.1013] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aw’tha

noun. a dim shape, spectral or vague apparition
Primitive elvish [VT42/09] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aþra-

verb. to cross (to and fro)
Primitive elvish [PE17/014] Group: Eldamo. Published by

barad

root. lofty, high, height combined with strength/size/majesty
Primitive elvish [PE17/022; PE17/065; PE17/066; PE17/150] Group: Eldamo. Published by

baradā

adjective. Varda
Primitive elvish [PE17/022] Group: Eldamo. Published by

baras

root. height combined with strength/majesty, height combined with strength/size/majesty
Primitive elvish [PE17/022.3708] Group: Eldamo. Published by

baras

root. height combined with strength/majesty
Primitive elvish [PE17/022; PE17/150] Group: Eldamo. Published by

barat

root. lofty, high, height combined with strength/size/majesty
Primitive elvish [PE17/022; PE17/065; PE17/066; PE17/150] Group: Eldamo. Published by

barathī

noun. queen
Primitive elvish [MR/387; PE17/023; PE17/066] Group: Eldamo. Published by

daira

adjective. large, great
Primitive elvish [VT42/11] Group: Eldamo. Published by

delkā

adjective. dense
Primitive elvish [PE17/017] Group: Eldamo. Published by

delwa

adjective. thick (of a single thing)
Primitive elvish [PE17/017] Group: Eldamo. Published by

g-lada-

verb. laugh
Primitive elvish [PM/359.4303] Group: Eldamo. Published by

galam

root. elm
Primitive elvish [PE17/153] Group: Eldamo. Published by

kuldā

adjective. hollow
Primitive elvish [WJ/414.2103] Group: Eldamo. Published by

kyelekā

adjective. hasty
Primitive elvish [VT41/10.2604] Group: Eldamo. Published by

lepet

root. finger
Primitive elvish Group: Eldamo. Published by

meldā

adjective. dear, beloved
Primitive elvish [PE17/041.0505; PE17/056.1005] Group: Eldamo. Published by

or-lā

preposition. over
Primitive elvish [PE17/065.1602] Group: Eldamo. Published by

rik(h)

root. twist
Primitive elvish [VT39/07.2510; VT39/09.3812] Group: Eldamo. Published by

skala

noun. fish
Primitive elvish Group: Eldamo. Published by

ungu-

root. spider word
Primitive elvish [PE22/160.1502] Group: Eldamo. Published by

wened

root. maiden, girl, virgin
Primitive elvish [PE17/191.0501; SA/wen.001; VT47/17.0104; VT47/42.2908; VT48/18.1401] Group: Eldamo. Published by

yul

root. drink
Primitive elvish [PE17/063.1403; PE17/180.0902; PE17/191.3701; PE22/155.1813; WJ/416.1008] Group: Eldamo. Published by

áwa-

verb. áwa-
Primitive elvish [PE17/063; WJ/361; WJ/366] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ñgay

root. gape, become wide, open, vast
Primitive elvish [PE17/027.2513; PE17/153.4101; PE17/169.2901] Group: Eldamo. Published by

(a)lak

root. rushing
Primitive elvish [PE18/100.1804; SA/alqua.010] Group: Eldamo. Published by

(au)be

adverb. not so
Primitive elvish [PE22/139] Group: Eldamo. Published by

(m)beleke

adjective. mighty, large, great, big
Primitive elvish [PE17/115.0309] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aklara

noun. glory, splendour, radiance, brilliance, glory
Primitive elvish [PE17/024.3406; PE17/105.0706; PE17/124.1602; PE18/085.1802; PE18/085.3911; PE18/087.1810; VT47/13.1612] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ammat-

verb. to devour, eat up
Primitive elvish [PE18/085; PE18/088] Group: Eldamo. Published by

asmarō

noun. *neighbor
Primitive elvish [VT48/20] Group: Eldamo. Published by

at(ar)

root. father
Primitive elvish [VT48/19] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aumat-

verb. to devour, eat up
Primitive elvish [PE22/136] Group: Eldamo. Published by

awā-da

adverb. awā-da
Primitive elvish [WJ/366] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aþayā

noun. beneficial‽
Primitive elvish [PE17/049; PE22/165] Group: Eldamo. Published by

barath

root. height combined with strength/size/majesty
Primitive elvish [PE17/022; PE17/150] Group: Eldamo. Published by

bor(on)

root. endure
Primitive elvish Group: Eldamo. Published by

dalath

noun. deep valley or valley enclosed with woods
Primitive elvish [PE21/71] Group: Eldamo. Published by

em

root. depict, portray
Primitive elvish [PE17/152.4001; PE17/179.2706] Group: Eldamo. Published by

kot(h)

root. strive, quarrel

There is evidence that the later form of this root may have been √ÑGOTH. See ✶kottō for a discussion.

Another variation, √KHOT “be wroth, quarrel; hate” appears in notes on root formations (PE18/62, 85, 87), but its only derivative ✶ok(h)tā could just as easily come from √KOT(H).

In order to retain all the derivatives from the Etymologies, this lexicon assumes that the root form remains √KOTH.

Primitive elvish [PE18/085.3914; PE18/087.1607; PE18/087.3808] Group: Eldamo. Published by

kwel

root. fade (away), die away, grow faint, fade, die away, grow faint, wither
Primitive elvish [PE18/103.1317] Group: Eldamo. Published by

o-men-

verb. move to a common point, meet
Primitive elvish [PE17/013.1806] Group: Eldamo. Published by

riñgi

adjective. chill
Primitive elvish [PE21/81.0714] Group: Eldamo. Published by

teler-

noun. Teleri
Primitive elvish [PE17/139.2905] Group: Eldamo. Published by

weg-tē

noun. activity, occupation
Primitive elvish [PE17/189.3603] Group: Eldamo. Published by

árātō

noun. lord
Primitive elvish [PE17/118] Group: Eldamo. Published by

awādelo

noun. awādelo
Primitive elvish [WJ/360; WJ/363] Group: Eldamo. Published by

gal(ab)

root. flower
Primitive elvish [PE17/153.2203] Group: Eldamo. Published by

wil

root. fly, float in air
Primitive elvish Group: Eldamo. Published by

ke

root. may (be)
Primitive elvish [PE22/158.1603] Group: Eldamo. Published by

phal(as)

root. foam, splash
Primitive elvish [PE17/062.2001; PE17/073.0503; PE17/173.1801] Group: Eldamo. Published by

yuyuŋal

noun. twilight
Primitive elvish [PE17/169.1703] Group: Eldamo. Published by

reth/res

root. remain in same place
Primitive elvish [PE17/182.1401] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-yē

suffix. abstract noun, adverb
Primitive elvish [PE17/058.4302; VT49/48.0509] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aba-kar ā

don’t do it
Primitive elvish [WJ/371] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aw(a)delo

noun. aw(a)delo
Primitive elvish [WJ/360; WJ/363; WJ/364] Group: Eldamo. Published by

buzbu

root. *large fly
Primitive elvish [PE18/093] Group: Eldamo. Published by

buzbō

noun. large fly
Primitive elvish [PE19/101] Group: Eldamo. Published by

niñkwis-

verb. (begin to) grow pale
Primitive elvish [PE22/135.0504; PE22/135.0709; PE22/135.0802] Group: Eldamo. Published by

arāt-chír

masculine name. Noble Lord
Primitive elvish [VT41/09] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ber

root. to mate, be mated, joined in marriage

In earlier writings, the root of marriage-related words appeared as either √BES and √BED. The later forms Q. veru “husband” and Q. veri “wife” (VT49/45) could have been derived from either root, since both ✶[d] and ✶[s] became Q. [r] between vowels. If, however, we wish to preserve other derivatives of this root, the only reasonable option is √BES. @@@

Primitive elvish [VT49/45.3408; VT49/45.3801] Group: Eldamo. Published by

srag/srak

root. awkward, hard, difficult
Primitive elvish [PE17/154.0707; PE17/154.1805; PE17/158.3604; PE17/172.2902; PE17/185.1401; PE17/185.1601; PE17/185.1901; PE17/185.1905] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ur

root. heat, be hot
Primitive elvish [PE17/120.0105; PE17/148.1001; PE17/188.3501; PE22/160.1406; SA/ur.001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

kub

root. hide, secrete
Primitive elvish [PE22/155.1815] Group: Eldamo. Published by

os

root. making a hissing foaming noise
Primitive elvish [PE17/138.3501; PE17/171.0701] Group: Eldamo. Published by

kim

root. edge, brink of
Primitive elvish [PE22/149.0301; PE22/149.3601; PE22/149.3602] Group: Eldamo. Published by

dede

pronoun. 2nd person dual
Primitive elvish [VT49/33; VT49/46] Group: Eldamo. Published by

der

root. hard, difficult
Primitive elvish [PE17/151.1801; PE17/154.0706; PE17/154.2014] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ros

root. spindrift, spray
Primitive elvish [PM/368.0707] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ugu/umu

root. expressing privation
Primitive elvish [PE17/143.0903; PE17/172.1501; PE17/188.2702; PE17/188.3101; VT42/32.2703; VT43/24.0711; VT49/29.0510] Group: Eldamo. Published by

skor

root. rough, marred, unequal or unsymmetrical in shape
Primitive elvish [PE17/184.3505; PE17/184.4101] Group: Eldamo. Published by

wē̆

preposition. 2nd person plural inclusive pronoun
Primitive elvish [PE17/130.0203; PE17/130.3311] Group: Eldamo. Published by

adverb. from [?being] {near, behind, past[?] >>} as described[?] by a [?genitive], from, coming from, as described by a genitive
Primitive elvish [PE22/168.1502; PE22/168.1802; WJ/361.2510; WJ/368.2405; WJ/369.4008; WJ/370.0104] Group: Eldamo. Published by

de

pronoun. you (pl.)
Primitive elvish [VT48/24; VT49/50; VT49/51; WJ/363] Group: Eldamo. Published by

* tirnō̆

noun. watcher
Primitive elvish Group: Eldamo. Published by

* bar

root. [ᴹ√] raise, uplift, save, rescue(?)
Primitive elvish [PE17/150] Group: Eldamo. Published by

* askōlimā

adjective. equivalent, (lit.) beside-bear-able
Primitive elvish Group: Neologism. Published by

* askō

noun. bone
Primitive elvish Group: Neologism. Published by

* benet

root. chin
Primitive elvish Group: Neologism. Published by

* srō

root. east
Primitive elvish Group: Eldamo. Published by

* balad

root. *worth, value
Primitive elvish Group: Neologism. Published by

* kottō

noun. foe

This primitive word is attested in the form ñgothō as part of a later version of the ancient name of Morgoth, but it difficult to reconcile with attested derivatives. It would have produced S. *goth instead of attested coth and Q. ñotho instead of attested kotumo. It probably also means that the root ᴹ√KOT(H) and all of its derivatives would need to be altered to have an initial ✶ñg-.

Rather than eliminate all of these derivatives, this lexicon uses the unattested form ✶kottō as the primitive word for "foe".

Primitive elvish [PE19/081.2704] Group: Eldamo. Published by

* yulnā

adjective. drunk
Primitive elvish Group: Eldamo. Published by

* belu

root. unroll
Primitive elvish Group: Neologism. Published by

* bes

root. to wed
Primitive elvish Group: Neologism. Published by