Quenya zR5Ì#

-s

suffix. she, he, 3rd person singular, her, 3rd person singular neuter, it; him, it, [singular] 3, 3rd person objective singular, 3rd person singular animate

Variations of the word: -s, se, -sse.

[PE17/075.1801; PE17/075.4003; PE17/110.3408; PE17/190.2804; VT49/16.3801; VT49/48.3603; PE17/057.2601; PE17/057.2501; VT49/51.2702; PE22/161.2710; VT49/28.4103] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ssë⁴

suffix. he, she, it

se

he, she, it

se (1) pron. "he, she, it" also object "him, her, it", 3rd person sg. Used "of living things including plants" (VT49:37; the corresponding inaimate pronoun is sa). The pronoun comes directly from se as the original stem-form (VT49:50). Stressed form , VT49:51, attested in object position in melin sé "I love him" (VT49:21). Ósë "with him/her", VT43:29; see ó-. Long dative/allative sena "[to/for] him" or "at him", VT49:14, allative senna "to him/her" (VT49:45, 46). Compare the reflexive pronoun insë *"himself, herself".

se

pronoun. it, s[ingular] 3, animate, he, she, it (animate), independent 3rd person pronoun, him

Variations of the word: se.

Imported inflections

WordFormGlossSource
sen(na)allativeto himPE17/091.4105
senadativeto himVT49/14.1807
sennaallative-VT49/45.3910

Element in: Q. insë

[PE17/129.3809; VT49/15.0501; VT49/32.4506; VT49/37.2113; VT49/15.1602; VT49/51.0901; PE17/091.4105; VT49/14.1807; VT49/45.3910] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ro

he

-ro pronominal ending "he", in antaváro, q.v. In Tolkiens later Quenya, the ending -s covers both "he", "she" and "it".

essë

he

essë (2) pron? "he" (and also "she, it"?), possible emphatic 3rd sg. emphatic pronoun, attested in the sentence essë úpa nas "he is dumb" (PE17:126)

Sindarin iT2#7T5

e

pronoun. he

The meaning "he" is deduced from the apparent function of this word in the so-called "King's Letter", but it also seems possible to interpret it as "indeed" (as in Q. e, LR/63, VT/45:11), used here in a way of formal address expressing the wishes or the will of the King

[SD/129-31] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

e

he

1) e (SD:128-31), 2) ho, hon, hono. (The distinctions between these forms are unclear. Possibly ho is the nominative ”he”, whereas hon is the accusative ”him”. Hono could be an emphatic form. It may be that all of these pronouns, except e, are ”Noldorin” and were not maintained in Sindarin proper.)

e

pronoun. he

Element in: S. Roch-cheruin, S. Taur e-Ndaedelos

[SD/129.0306; SD/129.0403] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Telerin 1RjR7T5

-s

suffix. definite article

[PE21/78.1307] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Adûnaic

-s

suffix. dative (draft)

The suffix used for the draft-dative case (SD/438). It is attested in the Lament of Akallabêth (first draft) in a plural form: [avalōi-si](/w/arpharazōn azgaranādu avalōi-{men >>}si) “Powers on” (SD/311). In a later conceptual stage, it may have become the ordinary prepositional suffix -zê “at”.
Variations of the word: -s/-se.

Imported inflections

WordFormGlossSource
-sipluralonSD/311.36041

[SD/438.3303; SD/311.36041] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-n

suffix. predicate suffix, is

A suffix appearing at the end of several words in the first draft of [Lament of Akallabêth](/w/Lament of Akallabêth (first draft)), variously glossed with different forms of the verb “to be”: burudan “heavy-is”, rōkhī-nam “bent-are”, īdōn “now is” (SD/312). Evidentally the suffix -n “is” is the singular form and -nam “are” is plural. The plural form probably includes the plural verbal suffix -m. This use of the suffix -n is probably no longer be valid in later versions of Adûnaic, as discussed below.

Carl Hostetter and Patrick Wynne suggested (VSH/36) that -nam maybe related to Q. ná- “to be”, but they fail to analyze the singular forms of the suffix. Andreas Moehn (LGtAG) does connect the singular instances of the suffix -n to the plural -nam, but without connecting it to Q. ná-. I think both authors got part of the story right: the suffixal form -na is mostly likely derived from the same Elvish root √ as Q. ná-, losing its final a in the singular form but preserving it in the plural form when the plural suffix -m is added.

In its first two appearances in the draft version of the Lament, this suffix is attached to the predicate of a copula (a linguistic term for a “to be” expression). For that reason, this lexicon uses the term “predicate suffix” for this use of the -n suffix:

<ul> <li><a l="ad" v="agannūlo burudan nēnum">agannūlo buruda<u>n</u> nēnum</a> “death-shade heavy-<u>is</u> on-us”<br/>subject agannūlo “death-shade”, predicate buruda “heavy” + -n “is”.</li> <li><a l="ad" v="īdō kathī batānī rōkhī-nam">īdō kathī batānī rōkhī-<u>nam</u></a> “lo! now all ways bent-<u>are</u>”<br/>subject batānī “ways”, predicate rōkhī “bent” + -nam “are”.</li> </ul> The suffix’s second two appearances in the draft version of the Lament are more ambiguous.

<ul> <li><a l="ad" v="ēphalek īdōn akallabēth">ēphalek īdō<u>n</u> akallabēth</a> “far away lo!now <u>is</u> She-that-is-fallen”.</li> <li><a l="ad" v="ēphal ēphalek īdōn athanātē">ēphal ēphalek īdō<u>n</u> athanātē</a> “far far away <u>is</u> now the Land of Gift”.</li> </ul> Going by word order alone, it seems that the -n is attached to the predicate in both of these sentences as well. However, as Andreas Moehn points out (LGtAG), īdō could be the subject of both sentences if the predicates are the final word of each sentence, which is more consistent with the later subjective inflection.

In the later version of Adûnaic described in Lowdham’s Report, the suffix -n has a new function, namely as the common subjective suffix: -an/-n. This new use differs from the older one in that it applies to the subject of a copula instead of the predicate. Despite this grammatical change from draft-Adûnaic, the word form īdōn appears in all later versions of the Lament of Akallabêth except the final manuscript version.

<ul> <li>[Ēphalak īdōn Yōzāyan](/w/êphalak îdô Yôzâyan) “far away now (is) Land of Gift” (SD/247).</li> <li>[Ēphal ēphalak īdōn hi-Akallabēth](/w/êphal êphalak îdô hi-Akallabêth) “far far away now (is) She-that-hath-fallen” (SD/247).</li> </ul> These later appearances of īdōn still have the gloss “now (is)”, so it seems possible that these they are remnants of the predicate suffix from draft Adûnaic. Moehn, Hostetter and Wynne all suggested (LGtAG, AAD/16) that these later appearances of īdōn can be reinterpreted as a subjective inflection. However, this interpretation is still problematic, since îdô would surely be a neuter instead of a common noun, whose subjective form would therefore be *îdôwa.

The suffix -n did not appear after īdō in the final manuscript version of the Lament, and the gloss “is” was removed as well:
<ul> <li>[Ēphalak īdō Yōzāyan](/w/êphalak îdô Yôzâyan) “far away now Gift-land” (VT24/12).</li> <li>[Ēphal-ēphalak īdō hi Akallabēth](/w/êphal êphalak îdô hi-Akallabêth) “far far away now She that hath Fallen” (VT24/12).</li> </ul> It is my belief that Tolkien eventually decided that the suffix -n could no longer be used in this context and removed it.

Imported inflections

WordFormGlossSource
-nampluralareSD/312.0503

[SD/247.25021; SD/312.01041; SD/312.07011; SD/312.09031; SD/312.0503] Group: Eldamo. Published by

suffix. genitive (draft)

The suffix used for the draft-genitive case, with a plural form -ōm (SD/438). In a later conceptual stage, it became the ordinary prepositional suffix .
Variations of the word: ō.

[SD/438.3209] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-a-

suffix. subjective inflection, subjective suffix

The inflection used to put neuter nouns into the subjective case (SD/430), used either as a suffix (for weak-nouns) or augmenting the last vowel (for strong-nouns). See the entry on the subjective case for further details.

[SD/430.0402] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-an

suffix. common subjective suffix

The subjective suffix for singular common-nouns, reduced to -n when the noun ends in a vowel (SD/430, 436).

Element in: AD. anadûni

[SD/436.1512; SD/430.0602] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-at

suffix. dual suffix

The suffix for dual-nouns in Adûnaic, with the a lengthened to â in subjective duals (SD/428-430). In later (Exhilic?) Adûnaic, the â was long in all cases (SD/431). See the entry on dual-nouns for further details. Carl Hostetter and Patrick Wynne suggested (AAD/11) that -at is derived from the same Primitive Elvish form ✶ata as the Quenya dual.
Variations of the word: -āt.

[SD/428.0702; SD/429.3806; SD/431.2604] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-im

suffix. gendered plural subjective suffix

A suffix used in plural subjective inflections of gendered-nouns, in most cases blending with the plural ending to become -îm (SD/430).

[SD/430.0706] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-in

suffix. feminine subjective suffix

The subjective suffix for singular feminine-nouns, reduced to -n when the noun ends in a vowel (SD/430, 436).

[SD/430.0508; SD/436.1510] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ma

suffix. instrumental (draft), with

The suffix used for the draft-instrumental case, translated “with” (SD/438). In a later conceptual stage, it became the ordinary prepositional suffix -mâ. Carl Hostetter and Partick Wynne suggested (VSH/33, AAD/19) that the deleted form -men on SD/311 is a separate prepositional suffix “on” related to ᴹQ. men “place”, but I believe it is a variant of the plural instrumental form -main.

Imported inflections

WordFormGlossSource
-mainpluralwithSD/438.3312
-menplural-SD/311.3603

[SD/438.3310; SD/438.3312; SD/311.3603] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-u-

suffix. objective suffix, objective inflection

The inflection used to mark nouns in the objective case (SD/430), used either as a suffix (for weak-nouns) or replacing the last vowel (for strong-nouns). Feminine nouns sometimes use -i- instead for their objective forms (SD/432), owing to the association of the final vowel -u with masculinity.

[SD/430.0906] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-un

suffix. masculine subjective suffix

The subjective suffix for singular masculine-nouns (SD/430, 436), reduced to -n when the noun ends in a vowel.

[SD/430.0501; SD/436.1508] Group: Eldamo. Published by

an-

prefix. genitive prefix, of, of; genitive/adjectival prefix

A prefix translated as “of” (SD/247) and one of the ways that genitive relationships are expressed in Adûnaic (SD/429). According to Tolkien, “it is not a preposition ... it is the equivalent of an inflexion or suffix” (SD/435). As such, it is used to form adjectives from nouns, as anadûni “western, *of the West” from adûni “the West”. When following another noun, it is often elided so that the a is lost, as in Ârû ’nAdûnâi “King of the Númenóreans” (SD/429) and [Bâr ’nAnadûnê](/w/Ar-Pharazônun Bâr ’nAnadûnê) “Lord of Númenor” (SD/428). This elision occurs in most examples, but seems not to happen in some cases:

<ul> <li>When the an- is separated from the modified noun: [balîk hazad an-Nimruzîr](/w/balîk hazad an-Nimruzîr azûlada) “ships seven of-Nimruzîr” (SD/247).</li> <li>When the modified nouns is declined into the subjective case: [Bârim an-Adûn](/w/Bârim an-Adûn yurahtam dâira sâibêth-mâ Êruvô) “Lords of the West” (SD/247).</li> <li>However, when the subjective noun ends in a vowel, elision still occurs: [narîka ’nBâri ’nAdûn](/w/narîka ’nBâri ’nAdûn yanâkhim) “Eagles of the Lords of the West” (SD/251).</li> </ul> Tolkien used a dash to separate an- from the noun to which it is prefixed but omitted the dash when the prefix was elided. Carl Hostetter and Patrick Wynne suggested (AAD/10) that Ad. an- may be related to the Sindarin genitive marker S. na “with, by”

Imported inflections

WordFormGlossSource
’nelidedofSD/251.0302; SD/428.3905

Element in: AD. Zen’namân, AD. Zen’nabâr

[SD/251.0302; SD/428.3905; SD/247.0803; SD/247.1403; SD/429.3202; SD/435.2004; SD/251.0302|SD/428.3905] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-î-

suffix. plural inflection, plural suffix, plural inflexion

The inflection used to mark nouns as plural (S/429), used either as a suffix (for weak-nouns) or replacing the last vowel (for strong-nouns). According to Tolkien, the primitive form of this suffix was most likely ✶-yī (SD/424). See the entry on the plural-nouns case for further details.

[SD/429.3606; SD/424.2512] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Noldorin 5^mY7T5

ho

pronoun. he

[Ety/385, X/Z] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

ho

pronoun. he

Imported inflections

WordFormGlossSource
huinplural-Ety/S.022

[Ety/S.022; Ety/S.034] Group: Eldamo. Published by

hon

pronoun. he

[Ety/385, X/Z] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

hono

pronoun. he

[Ety/385, X/Z] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Primitive adûnaic

-yī

noun. plural inflexion, plural inflection

The likely primitive form of the Classical Adûnaic plural inflection -î- (SD/429), appearing in a few examples of primitive plurals in the form -yi: manaw+yi, izray+yi (SD/424). Tolkien gave no indication of whether the primitive inflection was also used as an infix, as was the case for Classical Adûnaic plurals of strong-nouns.

[SD/429.3706; SD/424.2510] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Primitive elvish

-s

suffix. inceptive (verbal suffix)

[PE22/135.0310] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-t

suffix. definite article

[PE21/78.0904] Group: Eldamo. Published by

sa

pronoun. this by me, of my (?concern), the thing, impersonal, 3 sg. neuter or abstract, it, she, he

[VT49/37.1514; VT49/52.1503; VT49/37.1311] Group: Eldamo. Published by

se

pronoun. he, 3 sg., s[ingular] 3, 3rd person singular pronoun, him, it, she

Variations of the word: sḗ, se, s(e), -sĕ.

Element in: P. sē tuli, tuli sḗ, āse tuli!

[VT49/17.0706; PE22/140.0805-2; VT47/13.4403; VT49/37.1602; VT49/52.1502; VT48/24.0703; VT49/20.4404; PE22/140.0801; PE22/140.0704; VT49/50.2411] Group: Eldamo. Published by

sū̆/sō̆

pronoun. he

Qenya zR5Ì#

e

pronoun. hé, it, he, she

Imported inflections

WordFormGlossSource
énestative-past-PE22/123.3709
iestative-PE22/123.3211

[PE22/096.1709; PE22/097.3504; PE22/100.2611; PE22/100.3008; PE22/106.0208; PE22/108.1702; PE22/110.2308-1; PE22/116.4801; PE22/118.1711; PE22/119.0116; PE22/120.2311; PE22/121.0102; PE22/122.0404; PE22/121.3715; PE22/123.3709; PE22/123.3211] Group: Eldamo. Published by

e

pronoun. he, she, it, hé

Imported inflections

WordFormGlossSource
énestative-past-PE22/123.3709
iestative-PE22/123.3211

[PE22/096.1709; PE22/097.3504; PE22/100.2611; PE22/100.3008; PE22/106.0208; PE22/108.1702; PE22/110.2308-1; PE22/116.4801; PE22/118.1711; PE22/119.0116; PE22/120.2311; PE22/121.0102; PE22/122.0404; PE22/121.3715; PE22/123.3709; PE22/123.3211] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tu

pronoun. he

[PE14/046.2303; PE14/079.3306] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Doriathrin

-a(n)

suffix. genitive

The Ilkorin genitive suffix (Ety/NAUK), attested in Dor. Tor Tinduma “King of Twilight” (Ety/TIN). It might have developed from the root ᴹ√NĀ/ANA, which is the source of the Quenya genitive suffix ᴹQ. -n and the Noldorin preposition N. na “of”. Helge Fauskanger suggested instead that it developed from a suffixal form of ᴹ✶ʒō (AL-Ilkorin/-a). This second derivation seems more plausible given its plural form -ion, though the plural could also have developed from (plural) ✶ī + (genitive) ✶āna > *✶-iān(a) > -iōn > -ion. See the entry on the genitive inflection for further discussion.

Conceptual Development: This suffix and its plural are the same as the Gnomish genitive suffix -a with plural -ion (GG/10). The derivation of the Gnomish genitive is closer to Mr. Fauskanger’s suggested etymology of the Ilkorin genitive, giving further support to his theory.

[Ety/NAUK.029] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-in

suffix. plural suffix

A suffix appearing in almost all attested Ilkorin plurals.

Conceptual Development: This suffix is the same as the most common Gnomish plural suffix -in (GG/10).

[Ety/BAL.088-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-th

suffix. plural suffix

A suffix appearing in one Ilkorin plural: Eglath “Elves” ← Egla (Ety/ELED). This example is notable as the only attested plural of an Ilkorin noun ending in a vowel. It may have the same origin as the Noldorin class-plural suffix -ath.

Conceptual Development: This suffix is the same as the common Gnomish plural suffix -th, also used with nouns ending in vowels (GG/10, 13-14).

[Ety/ELED.087-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Middle Primitive Elvish

e

pronoun. she, it, he

[PE22/094.1901; PE22/095.0417] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Gnomish

o-

conjunction. he

[GL/53.4804-1] Group: Eldamo. Published by

on

pronoun. he

Imported inflections

WordFormGlossSource
oninplural-GL/62.8301

[GL/51.0201-1; GL/62.8301; GL/62.8305] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Black Speech, Nandorin, Noldorin, Quendya, Quenya, Sindarin, Telerin are languages conceived by Tolkien and they do not belong to us; we neither can nor do claim affiliation with Middle-earth Enterprises nor Tolkien Estate.