Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Qenya 

á

particle. imperative particle

Variations

  • ā ✧ PE22/105
  • á ✧ PE22/126; PE22/127
  • A ✧ SD/047

Element in

Qenya [PE22/105; PE22/126; PE22/127; SD/047] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ananta

conjunction. but yet, and yet

Variations

  • a-nanta ✧ Ety/NDAN

Derivations

  • ᴹ√(N)DAN “back, backwards” ✧ Ety/NDAN

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√NDAN > a-nanta[a-ndanta] > [a-nanta]✧ Ety/NDAN
Qenya [Ety/NDAN; LR/072] Group: Eldamo. Published by

andatelko

noun. long stem, long leg

Variations

  • anda telko ✧ PE22/022; PE22/051
Qenya [PE22/020; PE22/022; PE22/051; PE22/061] Group: Eldamo. Published by

avalóna

place name. Outer Isle

Another name for Tol Eressea, a variant of Avallon.

Elements

WordGloss
ava“outside, beyond; outer, exterior”
lóna“island, remote land difficult to reach”
Qenya [Ety/AWA; Ety/LONO] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ninqitáre

noun. whitening, whitewashing

Variations

  • niñqitáre ✧ PE22/110

Elements

WordGloss
ninqita-“to whiten, make white; to shine white”
-(á)re“general action verbal suffix”

tintila-

verb. *to sparkle

Element in

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
-atintilaraorist plural-✧ VT28/11
atintillinaraorist plural-✧ VT28/11
tintilaraorist plural-✧ VT28/11

angwion ie uman enwa

the existence of dragons at one time (is) a fact

Variations

  • Angwion ie uman enwa ✧ PE22/124

kalaqendi

collective name. *Light Elves

Variations

  • Kalaquendi ✧ PE19/029

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
Kalaqendiplural“Light-elves”✧ LR/197
Qenya [Ety/KAL; LR/197; LRI/Kalaqendi; PE19/029] Group: Eldamo. Published by

mindon

noun. (isolated) tower

Variations

  • mindo ✧ Ety/MINI; PE21/08

Derivations

  • ᴹ√MIN “stand alone, stick out” ✧ Ety/MINI

Cognates

  • N. minnas “tower” ✧ Ety/MINI
  • N. mindon “tower, isolated hill (especially a hill with a watchtower)” ✧ Ety/MINI

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√MINI > mindo[mindon]✧ Ety/MINI
Qenya [Ety/MINI; LR/222; PE21/08; PE22/125] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nolwe

noun. wisdom, (secret) lore

Variations

  • ñolwe ✧ Ety/ÑGOL; EtyAC/ÑGOL
  • ŋolwe ✧ PE22/022

Changes

  • nolweñolwe ✧ Ety/ÑGOL

Derivations

  • ᴹ√ÑGOL “wise, wisdom, be wise” ✧ Ety/ÑGOL

Cognates

  • N. golw “lore” ✧ Ety/ÑGOL
  • Ilk. (n)golo “magic, lore” ✧ Ety/ÑGOL

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√ÑGOL > ñolwe[ŋgolwe] > [ŋolwe] > [nolwe]✧ Ety/ÑGOL
Qenya [Ety/ÑGOL; EtyAC/ÑGOL; PE22/022] Group: Eldamo. Published by

au(ve)

adverb. might (have), would (have)

Variations

  • auve ✧ PE22/120; PE22/121
  • au ✧ PE22/120; PE22/121

Element in

Qenya [PE22/120; PE22/121] Group: Eldamo. Published by

artuile

noun. dayspring, early morn

Elements

WordGloss
are“day”
tuile“spring, spring-time”

nandele

noun. harping, *repetition

Variations

  • ñandele ✧ Ety/ÑGAN

Element in

  • ᴹQ. vorongandele “continual repetition, (lit.) harping on one tune”

Elements

WordGloss
nande“harp”
-le“abstract noun”

ainulindale

proper name. Music of the Ainur

Variations

  • Ainulindalë ✧ LR/156; SDI2/Ainulindalë; TII/Ainulindalë

Elements

WordGloss
Ainu“holy one, angelic spirit”
lindale“music”
Qenya [Ety/AYAN; LR/156; SDI2/Ainulindalë; TII/Ainulindalë] Group: Eldamo. Published by

antaro

noun. high mountain, peak, high mountain, peak, *(lit.) great height

A word appearing in The Feanorian Alphabet of the 1930s (PE22/22) and 1940s (PE22/52) with the glosses “high mountain, peak”. It appeared in The Etymologies of the 1930s as a proper name Antaro for a mountain in Valinor, but this name did not appear in the narratives or the maps (EtyAC/N, TĀ). Based on the entries in The Etymologies, it is an intensive noun form of ᴹQ. tára “lofty, high”, so literally means “*great height”.

Variations

  • Antaro ✧ EtyAC/N; EtyAC/TĀ

Elements

WordGloss
an-“intensive prefix”
tára“lofty, high”
Qenya [EtyAC/N; EtyAC/TĀ; PE22/022; PE22/052] Group: Eldamo. Published by

lor-

verb. to sleep, to sleep, [ᴱQ.] slumber

Derivations

  • ᴹ√(O)LOR “sleep; dream”

Element in

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
loralyarimperfect-participle plural“asleep”✧ VT27/07

nandelle

noun. little harp, little harp, *lyre

Variations

  • ñandelle ✧ Ety/ÑGAN

Cognates

  • Ilk. gangel “harp” ✧ Ety/ÑGAN
  • N. gannel “harp” ✧ Ety/ÑGAN

Elements

WordGloss
nande“harp”
?

avarin

proper name. language(s) of the Avari

Elements

WordGloss
Avar(o)“Refuser, One who does not go forth”
-rin“-ian, racial-adjective, language”
Qenya [PE18/024; PE19/019] Group: Eldamo. Published by

alta-

verb. to (make) grow

Derivations

  • ᴹ√GAL “grow, thrive” ✧ EtyAC/GAL²; EtyAC/GAL(AS)

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√GAL² > alta-[galta-] > [ɣalta-] > [alta-]✧ EtyAC/GAL²
Qenya [EtyAC/GAL²; EtyAC/GAL(AS)] Group: Eldamo. Published by

elli yas atintilar

*wherein the stars tremble

Changes

  • elli yas atintilaryasse tintilar i{n} eleni ✧ VT28/11

yasse tintilar i eleni

*wherein the stars tremble

Variations

  • yasse tintilar i{n} eleni ✧ VT28/11

ante

noun. giver (f.)

Derivations

  • ᴹ√NĀ/ANA “to, towards” ✧ Ety/ANA¹

Element in

  • ᴹQ. Aryante “Day-bringer” ✧ Ety/ANA¹

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√ANA¹ > ante[ante]✧ Ety/ANA¹

anto

noun. giver (m.)

Derivations

  • ᴹ√NĀ/ANA “to, towards” ✧ Ety/ANA¹

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√ANA¹ > anto[anto]✧ Ety/ANA¹
Qenya [Ety/ANA¹; PE22/050] Group: Eldamo. Published by

fasta-

verb. to tangle

Variations

  • fasta- ✧ Ety/PHAS

Derivations

  • ᴹ√PHAS “*tangle, shag, fringe” ✧ Ety/PHAS

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√PHAS > fasta-[pʰasta-] > [ɸasta-] > [fasta-]✧ Ety/PHAS

alaninqitálima

adjective. that cannot be made white (again)

Variations

  • alaniñkwitálima ✧ PE22/111

Elements

WordGloss
al(a)-“not, negative prefix”
ninqita-“to whiten, make white; to shine white”
-ima“able to be done, -able, -ible”

ata

adverb. again, *(lit.) a second time

Derivations

  • ᴹ√AT “back, again, twice; two” ✧ Ety/AT(AT)

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√AT(AT) > ata[ata]✧ Ety/AT(AT)
Qenya [Ety/AT(AT)] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aule

masculine name. Cræftfréa

Variations

  • Aulë ✧ LRI/Aulë; SDI2/Aulë; SM/208; SMI/Aulë

Cognates

  • N. Gaul “Aule” ✧ Ety/GAWA
Qenya [Ety/GAWA; LRI/Aulë; PE22/023; SDI2/Aulë; SM/208; SMI/Aulë] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aule

noun. invention

Derivations

  • ᴹ√GAW “think out, devise, contrive” ✧ Ety/GAWA

Element in

  • ᴹQ. Aule “Cræftfréa” ✧ Ety/GAWA

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√GAWA > aule[gaule] > [ɣaule] > [aule]✧ Ety/GAWA

ette

pronoun. he (emphatic)

Variations

  • ette ✧ PE22/121; PE22/122

Element in

Qenya [PE22/121; PE22/122] Group: Eldamo. Published by

are veruen

proper name. Day of the Spouses, third day of the Valian week

The Quenya name for the 3rd day of the Valian 5-day week, a combination of are “day” and the genitive of dual form veru “spouses”, referring to Aule and Yavanna (Ety/BES, LEP).

Variations

  • Arveruen ✧ Ety/BES
  • (Ar(e))Veruen ✧ Ety/LEP
  • (Ar)Veruen ✧ EtyAC/LEP

Cognates

  • N. Ar Vedhwen “Day of the Spouses, third day of the Valian week” ✧ Ety/LEP

Elements

WordGloss
are“day”
veru“husband and wife, married pair”
Qenya [Ety/BES; Ety/LEP; EtyAC/LEP] Group: Eldamo. Published by

a

pronoun. it, one, indefinite subject

Variations

  • -a ✧ PE21/66
  • a ✧ PE22/094; PE22/107 (a); PE22/108; PE22/123 (a); PE22/124; PE22/125

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶ga “indefinite subject” ✧ PE21/66; PE22/094

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶-ʒa > -a[ɣa] > [a]✧ PE21/66
ᴹ✶ga > a[ga] > [ɣa] > [a]✧ PE22/094
Qenya [PE21/66; PE22/094; PE22/107; PE22/108; PE22/123; PE22/124; PE22/125] Group: Eldamo. Published by

an-

prefix. intensive prefix

Variations

  • an ✧ EtyAC/A; PE18/042; PE19/055
  • am ✧ EtyAC/A; PE18/042; PE19/055
  • ✧ EtyAC/A; PE19/055
  • um ✧ EtyAC/N
  • ✧ EtyAC/N
  • ✧ PE18/042

Derivations

  • ᴹ√A “intensive prefix” ✧ EtyAC/A
  • ᴹ√N- “intensive” ✧ EtyAC/N; PE19/055

Element in

  • ᴹQ. ampano “building (especially of wood), wooden hall, construction, edifice” ✧ EtyAC/N
  • ᴹQ. Ankale “Radiant-one, Sun, (lit.) The Very Bright” ✧ EtyAC/A; EtyAC/N
  • ᴹQ. antaro “high mountain, peak, high mountain, peak, *(lit.) great height” ✧ EtyAC/N
  • ᴹQ. parka “dry; thirsty” ✧ EtyAC/A
  • ᴹQ. tára “lofty, high” ✧ EtyAC/N
  • ᴹQ. unqale “death agony, agony, death” ✧ EtyAC/N

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√A > an[an-]✧ EtyAC/A
ᴹ√N- > an-[ṇd-] > [and-]✧ EtyAC/N
ᴹ√N- > um[ṃb-] > [umb-]✧ EtyAC/N
ᴹ√N- > [ŋ̣g-] > [iŋg-]✧ EtyAC/N
ᴹ√nŏ- > > > an[ṇd-] > [and-]✧ PE19/055
Qenya [EtyAC/A; EtyAC/N; PE18/042; PE19/055] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ma

adverb. interrogative particle

Derivations

  • MA “interrogative base, interrogative base; [ᴱ√] root of indef[inite]”

Element in

  • ᴹQ. malka “how great”
  • ᴹQ. mallo “whence” ✧ PE22/124
  • ᴹQ. man “what”
  • ᴹQ. manima “of what kind, of what sort”
  • ᴹQ. manna “whither” ✧ PE22/124
  • ᴹQ. masse “where”

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
Mannaallative“whither”✧ PE22/124
Malloablative“whence”✧ PE22/124

an(a)

preposition. to, towards

Variations

  • an/ana/na ✧ Ety/NĀ¹
  • na ✧ EtyAC/NĀ¹ (na); VT27/10

Changes

  • naan/ana/na “at, by, near” ✧ Ety/NĀ¹

Derivatives

  • ᴹQ. ana- “to, towards” ✧ Ety/NĀ¹

Derivations

  • ᴹ√NĀ/ANA “to, towards” ✧ Ety/NĀ¹

Cognates

  • N. na “with, by; of” ✧ Ety/NĀ¹

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√NĀ¹ > an/ana/na[nā] > [na]✧ Ety/NĀ¹
Qenya [Ety/NĀ¹; EtyAC/NĀ¹; VT27/10] Group: Eldamo. Published by

anta-

verb. to give

Variations

  • anta ✧ EtyAC/YAN² (anta)

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶anta- “to give, present” ✧ Ety/ANA¹
    • ᴹ√NĀ/ANA “to, towards” ✧ Ety/ANA¹
  • ᴹ√YAN “give” ✧ EtyAC/YAN²

Cognates

  • N. anna- “to give” ✧ Ety/ANA¹

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶anta- > anta-[anta]✧ Ety/ANA¹
ᴹ√YAN² > anta[janta] > [anta]✧ EtyAC/YAN²

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
antavárofuture 3rd-sg-masc“will he give”✧ LR/063
antarótapresent 3rd-sg-masc with-sg-object“he gave it”✧ LR/072 [past tense in the gloss conflicts with form]
antarpresent plural“they gave”✧ LR/072 [past tense in the gloss conflicts with form]
antávafuture“will ... give”✧ LR/072
antaltopresent 3rd-pl“they gave”✧ LR/072 [past tense in the gloss conflicts with form]
e·antaaorist 3rd-sg“he gives”✧ PE22/044
antāsaorist with-sg-object“give it”✧ PE22/092
Qenya [Ety/ANA¹; EtyAC/YAN²; LR/063; LR/072; PE22/044; PE22/092] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nissa

noun. lady

Derivations

  • ᴹ√NIS “woman”

sahte

noun. [unglossed]

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
saksinnominative plural-✧ PE21/07

soron

noun. eagle

Variations

  • sorne ✧ Ety/THOR

Derivations

  • ᴹ√THOR(ON) “come swooping down” ✧ Ety/THOR

Cognates

  • N. thoron “eagle” ✧ Ety/THOR; Ety/THOR
  • Ilk. thorn “eagle” ✧ Ety/THOR
  • On. thoron “eagle” ✧ Ety/THOR

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√THÓRON > sorne[tʰorone] > [tʰorne] > [θorne] > [sorne]✧ Ety/THOR

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
sorniplural-✧ Ety/THOR; SD/290
sornengenitive-✧ Ety/THOR
soronnominative“eagle”✧ PE21/34
soronaaccusative-✧ PE21/34
soronendative-✧ PE21/34
soronogenitive-✧ PE21/34
sorunweninstrumental-✧ PE21/34
soruntaallative-✧ PE21/34
†soronuntaallative-✧ PE21/34
soronulloablative-✧ PE21/34
†[sor]ulloablative-✧ PE21/34
soronesselocative-✧ PE21/34
sorunwapossessive-✧ PE21/34
sorundonsimilative-✧ PE21/34
†soronundonsimilative-✧ PE21/34
soronuntnominative dual-✧ PE21/34
soroninnominative plural-✧ PE21/34
†sorullinominative plural-✧ PE21/34
soronardative-✧ PE21/34
Sorniplural“Eagles”✧ SD/290
Soroniplural-✧ SD/290
Qenya [Ety/THOR; PE21/33; PE21/34; SD/290] Group: Eldamo. Published by

a laituvar, laituvar

praise them

Variations

  • A laituvar, laituvar ✧ SD/047

Changes

  • A laituvar, laituvarA laita te, laita te “praise them” ✧ SD/047

e

pronoun. he, she, it

Variations

  • é ✧ PE22/121 (é)

Changes

  • éette “hé” ✧ PE22/121

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶e “he, she, it”

Cognates

  • S. e “he”

Element in

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
iestative-✧ PE22/123
énestative-past-✧ PE22/123
Qenya [PE22/096; PE22/097; PE22/100; PE22/106; PE22/108; PE22/110; PE22/116; PE22/118; PE22/119; PE22/120; PE22/121; PE22/122; PE22/123; VT27/07] Group: Eldamo. Published by

he tulir á

he tulir á

Variations

  • he tulir ā́ ✧ PE22/106

laitalle, laitalle

praise them

Variations

  • Laitalle, laitalle ✧ SD/047

Changes

  • Laitalle, laitalleA laituvar, laituvar “praise them” ✧ SD/047

númenóre

place name. Westernesse

Variations

  • Númenor ✧ LR/014; LR/025; LR/072; LRI/Númenor; RS/215; RSI/Númenor; SDI1/Númenor; SDI2/Númenor; TII/Númenor; WRI/Númenor
  • nūmenōre ✧ LR/047
  • nūmenor ✧ LR/056
  • Númenórë ✧ LRI/Númenor; TII/Númenor
  • Númenórea ✧ PE22/019
  • Nūmenōre/Nūmenor ✧ SD/240
  • númenóre ✧ SD/247
  • númenor/númenóre ✧ SD/303
  • Nūmenor/Nūmenōre ✧ SD/305
  • Nūmenōre ✧ SD/310
  • Nūmenōrē ✧ SD/343
  • Nûmenôrë ✧ SD/361

Cognates

  • Ad. Anadûnê “Westernesse” ✧ SD/240; SD/305; SD/361

Element in

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
nūmenorennaallative“to-Númenor”✧ LR/056
Númenórengenitive“of the West”✧ LR/060
Qenya [Ety/NDŪ; LR/014; LR/025; LR/047; LR/056; LR/060; LR/072; LRI/Númenor; PE22/019; RS/215; RSI/Númenor; SD/240; SD/247; SD/303; SD/305; SD/310; SD/343; SD/361; SDI1/Númenor; SDI2/Númenor; TII/Númenor; WRI/Númenor] Group: Eldamo. Published by

áratenkele

noun. writing of A, (lit.) daywriting

Variations

  • árateñkele ✧ PE22/047

ólamaite

adjective. consonantal

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
ólama“consonant”
-ite“(verbal) adjective ending”

aldalemnar

proper name. Week of the Trees

Name of a holiday week in The Etymologies from the 1930s (Ety/LEP), a compound of alda “tree” and lemnar “week” (Ety/GALAD, LEP).

Cognates

Elements

WordGloss
alda“tree”
lemnar“(Valarin five-day) week”
Qenya [Ety/GALAD; Ety/LEP; Ety/YEN] Group: Eldamo. Published by

losse

noun. (white) blossom, flower

Derivations

  • ᴹ√LOT(H) “flower” ✧ Ety/GOLÓS; Ety/LOT(H)

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√LOS > losse[lotʰse] > [loθse] > [losse]✧ Ety/GOLÓS
Qenya [Ety/GOLÓS; Ety/LOT(H)] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aista-

verb. to dread

Variations

  • aista ✧ EtyAC/GÁYAS

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶gais- “to dread” ✧ Ety/GÁYAS
    • ᴹ√GAYAS “fear” ✧ Ety/GÁYAS

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶gais- > aista-[gaista-] > [ɣaista-] > [aista-]✧ Ety/GÁYAS
Qenya [Ety/GÁYAS; EtyAC/GÁYAS] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aiwe

noun. (small) bird

Derivations

  • ᴹ√AIWĒ “(small) bird” ✧ Ety/AIWĒ

Cognates

  • N. aew “(small) bird” ✧ Ety/AIWĒ

Element in

  • ᴹQ. Aiwenóre “Birdland, lower air” ✧ Ety/AIWĒ

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√AIWĒ > aiwe[aiwē] > [aiwe] > [aiwe]✧ Ety/AIWĒ

aldar olar sana nóresse

trees grow in that land

Variations

  • aldar {alar >>} olar i·nóresse ✧ PE22/116 (aldar {alar >>} olar i·nóresse)

Changes

  • aldar {alar >>} olar i·nóressealdar olar sana nóresse “trees grow {on earth >>} in the land” ✧ PE22/116

Elements

WordGloss
alda“tree”
ola-“to grow, grow up, reach its prime, become”
sana“that”
nóre“land, country, region where certain people live; clan, race, folk, kindred”

andon

noun. great gate, great gate, [ᴱQ.] door, gate

Cognates

  • N. annon “great gate, door” ✧ Ety/AD

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
andondiplural-✧ Ety/AD

andúnie

place name. Sunset(land)

Variations

  • Andúnië ✧ LR/014; LR/025; LRI/Andúnië; SD/333; SDI2/Andúnië
  • Undúnië ✧ SD/333 (Undúnië); SDI2/Andúnië (Undúnië)
  • Andūniē ✧ SD/344

Changes

  • UndúniëAndúnië ✧ SD/333
  • UndúniëAndúnië ✧ SDI2/Andúnië

Elements

WordGloss
andúne“sunset”
-ie“abstract noun”
Qenya [Ety/NDŪ; LR/014; LR/025; LRI/Andúnië; SD/333; SD/344; SDI2/Andúnië] Group: Eldamo. Published by

arkandavā-le qantamalle tūlier

arkandavā-le qantamalle tūlier

Element in

astula

adjective. bony

Element in

  • ᴹQ. Astulat “Bony Ridge” ✧ PE21/27

at(a)-

prefix. back, again, re-

Variations

  • ata- ✧ Ety/AT(AT)
  • at- ✧ Ety/AT(AT)
  • atta- ✧ Ety/TATA (atta-)

Derivations

  • ᴹ√AT “back, again, twice; two” ✧ Ety/AT(AT); Ety/TATA

Cognates

  • N. ad- “back, again, re-” ✧ Ety/AT(AT)

Element in

  • ᴹQ. attul- “to come back, return”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√AT(AT) > ata-[ata-]✧ Ety/AT(AT)
ᴹ√AT(AT) > atta-[atta-]✧ Ety/TATA
Qenya [Ety/AT(AT); Ety/TATA] Group: Eldamo. Published by

a yonya inye tye-méla

and I too, my son, I love thee

Variations

  • A yonya inye tye-méla ✧ LR/061

kaita-

verb. to lie

Derivations

  • ᴹ√KAY “lie (down)” ✧ PE22/126

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√KAY > kaita-[kaita-]✧ PE22/126

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
kakainenpast“were lying”✧ VT27/07
Qenya [PE22/126; VT27/07] Group: Eldamo. Published by

laqe[t]-

verb. [unglossed]

Variations

  • laqe[t] ✧ EtyAC/LA (laqe[t])

Elements

WordGloss
“no, not”
qet-“to say”

halatir(no)

noun. kingsfisher, (lit.) fish-watcher

A noun in The Etymologies of the 1930s appearing as halatir(no) “fish-watcher, kingsfisher”, a combination of ᴹQ. hala “fish” and an agental form ᴹQ. tirno “watcher” of the root ᴹ√TIR “watch” (Ety/SKAL², TIR). Fish-watcher is the literal translation of the name, and kingfisher is the name of the terrestrial species.

Variations

  • halatir ✧ Ety/KHAL¹ (halatir); Ety/TIR

Derivations

Cognates

  • N. heledir(n) “kingsfisher, (lit.) fish-watcher” ✧ Ety/KHAL¹; Ety/SKAL²; Ety/TIR

Elements

WordGloss
hala“(small) fish”
tir-“to watch”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶khalatirnō̆ > halatir[kʰalatirno] > [kʰalatirn] > [xalatirn] > [halatirn] > [halatir]✧ Ety/TIR

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
halatirnengenitive-✧ Ety/TIR
Qenya [Ety/KHAL¹; Ety/SKAL²; Ety/TIR] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ahtumat

noun. supper, supper, *(lit.) maker’s meal

Elements

WordGloss
ahto“wright, maker”
mat“food, meal, meal, [ᴱQ.] meal time; [ᴹQ.] food”

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
ahtumātaaccusative-✧ PE21/32
ahtumatsinnominative plural-✧ PE21/32; PE21/37
[ahtu]mātstem-✧ PE21/37
[ahtu]mattstem-✧ PE21/37
ahtumatnominative-✧ PE21/37
[ahtu]mátaaccusative-✧ PE21/37
[ahtu]mattaaccusative-✧ PE21/37
[ahtu]mátendative-✧ PE21/37
[ahtu]mattendative-✧ PE21/37
[ahtu]mátogenitive-✧ PE21/37
[ahtu]mattogenitive-✧ PE21/37
[ahtu]matweninstrumental-✧ PE21/37
[ahtu]mátaneninstrumental-✧ PE21/37
[ahtu]mattaneninstrumental-✧ PE21/37
[ahtu]mattaallative-✧ PE21/37
[ahtu]matuntaallative-✧ PE21/37
[ahtu]matulloablative-✧ PE21/37
†[ahtu]matyoablative-✧ PE21/37
†[ahtu]mātuloablative-✧ PE21/37
[ahtu]matselocative-✧ PE21/37
[ahtu]matesselocative-✧ PE21/37
[ahtu]mātuvapossessive-✧ PE21/37
[ahtu]mattuvapossessive-✧ PE21/37
[ahtu]matundonsimilative-✧ PE21/37
[ahtu]mattanonsimilative-✧ PE21/37
[ahtu]mátanonsimilative-✧ PE21/37
ahtumátuntnominative dual-✧ PE21/37
ahtumatúmetinstrumental dual-✧ PE21/37
ahtumattumetinstrumental dual-✧ PE21/37
ahtumátulinnominative plural-✧ PE21/37
[ahtu]mattulinnominative plural-✧ PE21/37
Qenya [PE21/32; PE21/33; PE21/37] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tárinar

noun. *alternate name of Valanya

Changes

  • TárinarTárion ✧ PM/138

Cognates

  • N. Ardórin “?Day of Kings” ✧ PM/130

ahto

noun. wright, maker

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶aktō “artificer, maker, wright” ✧ PE18/062
    • ᴹ√KAT “shape, make” ✧ PE18/062

Element in

  • ᴹQ. ahtumat “supper, supper, *(lit.) maker’s meal”
  • ᴹQ. kiryahto “shipwright” ✧ PE18/062
  • ᴺQ. parmahto “author”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶-k’tō > -ahto[aktō] > [axtō] > [axto]✧ PE18/062

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
-ahtosuffix“maker, wright”✧ PE18/062

are fanturion

proper name. Day of the Fanturi, fourth day of the Valian week

The Quenya name for the 4th day of the Valian 5-day week, a combination of are “day” and the genitive plural of Fantur, the common title of Lórien and Mandos (Ety/LEP).

Variations

  • (Ar(e))Fanturion ✧ Ety/LEP
  • (Ar)Fanturion ✧ EtyAC/LEP

Cognates

  • N. Ar Fennuir “Day of the Fanturi, fourth day of the Valian week” ✧ Ety/LEP

Elements

WordGloss
are“day”
Fantur“Lord of Cloud”
Qenya [Ety/LEP; EtyAC/LEP] Group: Eldamo. Published by

attólamaite

proper name. biconsonantal

Elements

WordGloss
atta“two”
ólamaite“consonantal”

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
attólamaisiplural-✧ PE18/036
Qenya [PE18/033; PE18/036] Group: Eldamo. Published by

haryon

noun. prince (heir)

Variations

  • aryon ✧ EtyAC/ƷAR (aryon)

Changes

  • aryonharyon “heir, prince” ✧ Ety/ƷAR

Derivations

  • ᴹ√ƷAR “have, hold” ✧ Ety/ƷAR

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√ƷAR > haryon[ɣarjon] > [harjon]✧ Ety/ƷAR
Qenya [Ety/ƷAR; EtyAC/ƷAR] Group: Eldamo. Published by

landa

adjective. wide, wide, [ᴱQ.] broad

Variations

  • landa ✧ Ety/LAD

Derivations

  • ᴹ√LAD “lie flat, be flat” ✧ Ety/LAD

Cognates

  • N. lhann “wide, wide, [ᴱN.] broad” ✧ Ety/LAD
  • S. land “wide, broad, wide, broad; [N.] open space, level”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√LAD > landa[landa]✧ Ety/LAD

nóla

adjective. wise, learned

Variations

  • ñóla ✧ Ety/ÑGOL
  • nóla ✧ EtyAC/ÑGOL (nóla)

Changes

  • nólañóla ✧ Ety/ÑGOL

Derivations

  • ᴹ√ÑGOL “wise, wisdom, be wise” ✧ Ety/ÑGOL

Cognates

  • N. goll “wise” ✧ Ety/ÑGOL
  • Ilk. (n)gôl “wise, magical” ✧ Ety/ÑGOL

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√ÑGOL > ñóla[ŋgōla] > [ŋōla] > [nōla]✧ Ety/ÑGOL
Qenya [Ety/ÑGOL; EtyAC/ÑGOL] Group: Eldamo. Published by

astulat

place name. Bony Ridge

A name appearing only in linguistic notes from the 1930s (PE21/27, 37), a combination of astula “bony” and hat “ridge”.

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
Astulahtaallative“to Astulat”✧ PE21/27
Astulatnominative“Bony Ridge”✧ PE21/37
Astulahtaaccusative-✧ PE21/37
[Astul]ahtendative-✧ PE21/37
[Astul]ahtogenitive-✧ PE21/37
[Astul]ahtaneninstrumental-✧ PE21/37
[Astul]ahtaallative-✧ PE21/37
[Astul]ahtuntaallative-✧ PE21/37
[Astul]ahtyoablative-✧ PE21/37
[Astul]ahtulloablative-✧ PE21/37
[Astul]akselocative-✧ PE21/37
[Astul]ahtesselocative-✧ PE21/37
[Astul]ahtuvapossessive-✧ PE21/37
[Astul]ahtyapossessive-✧ PE21/37
[Astul]ahtanonsimilative-✧ PE21/37
[Astul]ahtuntnominative dual-✧ PE21/37
[Astul]aksinnominative plural-✧ PE21/37
[Astul]ahtulinnominative plural-✧ PE21/37
Qenya [PE21/27; PE21/37] Group: Eldamo. Published by

orta-

verb. to rise

Variations

  • orta- ✧ Ety/ORO
  • órt(a) ✧ PE22/106 (órt(a))
  • órta ✧ PE22/107; PE22/115
  • ort(a) ✧ PE22/114
  • orta ✧ PE22/115

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶orta- “to rise”
    • ᴹ√RŌ/ORO “rise, up, high” ✧ PE22/098
  • ᴹ√RŌ/ORO “rise, up, high” ✧ Ety/ORO

Cognates

  • On. or- “to rise” ✧ Ety/ORO
  • N. eria- “to rise” ✧ Ety/ORO

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√ORO > orta-[orta-]✧ Ety/ORO

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
ortaaorist“rises”✧ PE22/100; PE22/100
orontepast“rose”✧ PE22/100
ortalyanepast-imperfect“was rising”✧ PE22/100
ortuvafuture“will rise”✧ PE22/104; PE22/115
ortanwaperfective-participle“having risen on high; exalted”✧ PE22/106
-orteaactive-participle“rising”✧ PE22/106
ortalyaimperfect-participle-✧ PE22/107; PE22/115
ortuvainafuture-passive-participle-✧ PE22/109
-ortuvantafuture-passive-participle-✧ PE22/109
orteaactive-participle“rising, ascendent”✧ PE22/111; PE22/114
ortaaorist-✧ PE22/114
ortiegerund-✧ PE22/114
†rontēpast“rose”✧ PE22/115
orontepast“rose”✧ PE22/115
orontieperfect-✧ PE22/115 regular but rarer
Qenya [Ety/ORO; PE22/100; PE22/104; PE22/106; PE22/107; PE22/109; PE22/111; PE22/114; PE22/115] Group: Eldamo. Published by

un-/um-

prefix. intensive prefix with evil sense

Variations

  • uñ/um ✧ EtyAC/A
  • un/um ✧ EtyAC/A

Element in

  • ᴹQ. unqale “death agony, agony, death” ✧ EtyAC/A

ankale

proper name. Radiant-one, Sun, (lit.) The Very Bright

A name of the Sun appearing in The Etymologies from the 1930s (Ety/KAL;EtyAC/A, KAL) and linguistic notes from the 1940s (PE22/22, 52), apparently a compound of the intensifying prefix an- and some form of the root ᴹ√KAL “shine”.

Variations

  • ankale ✧ EtyAC/A; PE22/022; PE22/052
  • inkale ✧ EtyAC/N

Elements

WordGloss
an-“intensive prefix”
KAL“shine”
Qenya [Ety/KAL; EtyAC/A; EtyAC/KAL; EtyAC/N; PE22/022; PE22/052] Group: Eldamo. Published by

eruman

place name. desert N.E. of Valinor

Changes

  • ErumanAraman ✧ MR/123
  • ErumanAraman ✧ MRI/Eruman
  • ErumanAraman ✧ SMI/Araman
  • ErumanAraman ✧ SMI/Eruman
Qenya [Ety/ERE; LRI/Eruman; MR/123; MRI/Eruman; SMI/Araman; SMI/Eruman] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ananta úva táre fárea, ufárea

but yet it will not be enough, not enough

Element in

-ie

suffix. stative suffix

Variations

  • -ie ✧ EtyAC/YĒ

Derivations

  • ᴹ√ “to be” ✧ EtyAC/YĒ

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√ > -ie[-ije] > [-ie]✧ EtyAC/YĒ

arinya

adjective. morning, early

Elements

WordGloss
arin“morning”
-ya“adjective suffix”
Qenya [Ety/AR¹; EtyAC/AR¹] Group: Eldamo. Published by

orta-

verb. to raise, lift

Variations

  • orta- ✧ Ety/ORO
  • ortā́ ✧ PE22/106 (ortā́); PE22/106 (ortā́); PE22/114
  • ortā ✧ PE22/107

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶ortā- “to raise”
    • ᴹ√RŌ/ORO “rise, up, high” ✧ PE18/039; PE22/098
  • ᴹ√RŌ/ORO “rise, up, high” ✧ Ety/ORO

Cognates

  • On. orta- “to raise” ✧ Ety/ORO
  • N. ortha- “to raise” ✧ Ety/ORO

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√ORO > orta-[orta-]✧ Ety/ORO

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
ortávafuture“will raise”✧ PE22/104; PE22/105; PE22/109; PE22/117
ortávanepast-future-✧ PE22/105
ortanwaperfective-participle“upraised on high; exalted”✧ PE22/106
-ortáyaactive-participle-✧ PE22/106 seldom used
-ortaiaactive-participle-✧ PE22/106 seldom used
-ortavaactive-participle-✧ PE22/106; PE22/117
ortalyaimperfect-participle-✧ PE22/107; PE22/117
ortainaimperfect-passive-participle-✧ PE22/108 only belonging to causative <i>ortā</i>
-ortantaimperfect-passive-participle-✧ PE22/108 only belonging to causative <i>ortā</i>
ortavainafuture-passive-participle-✧ PE22/109
-ortavantafuture-passive-participle-✧ PE22/109
-ortanapassive-participle-✧ PE22/114
ortanepast“raised”✧ PE22/115; PE22/117
ortainfinitive-✧ PE22/117
ortaraorist plural-✧ PE22/117
ortalmeaorist with-1st-pl-object-✧ PE22/117
ortáteaorist with-sg-object-✧ PE22/117
ortáregerund-✧ PE22/117
ortalyelong-perfect“raising”✧ PE22/117
ortanieperfect-✧ PE22/117
ortanelyelong-perfect-✧ PE22/117
-ortavegerund-✧ PE22/117
-ortánieperfect-✧ PE22/117
Qenya [Ety/ORO; PE22/104; PE22/105; PE22/106; PE22/107; PE22/108; PE22/109; PE22/114; PE22/115; PE22/117] Group: Eldamo. Published by

á kela karit

do not make it!

Variations

  • kela kare ✧ PE22/127 (kela kare)
  • á kela karis ✧ PE22/127 (á kela karis)

Changes

  • kela kareá kela karis ✧ PE22/127
  • á kela karisá kela karit ✧ PE22/127

ñwe

pronoun. *we (inclusive)

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
ñwierstative plural-✧ PE22/123
ñwietstative dual-✧ PE22/123
ñwénerstative-past plural-✧ PE22/123
ñwénetstative-past dual-✧ PE22/123

yána

noun. holy place, fane, sanctuary

@@@ used as “shrine, sanctuary” in NQNT

Derivations

  • ᴹ√(A)YAN “*holy” ✧ Ety/YAN

Cognates

  • N. iaun “holy place, fane, sanctuary, holy place, fane, sanctuary, *shrine, temple” ✧ Ety/YAN

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√YAN > yána[jānā] > [jāna]✧ Ety/YAN

(a)larka

adjective. swift, rapid

Variations

  • larka ✧ Ety/LAK²; EtyAC/ÁLAK
  • alarka ✧ Ety/LAK²; EtyAC/ÁLAK

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶lakra “swift, rapid” ✧ Ety/LAK²
    • ᴹ√(A)LAK “swift, rushing” ✧ Ety/LAK²
  • ᴹ√(A)LAK “swift, rushing” ✧ EtyAC/ÁLAK

Cognates

  • N. lhagr “swift, rapid” ✧ Ety/LAK²

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶lakra > larka[lakra] > [larka]✧ Ety/LAK²
ᴹ√ÁLAK > larka[lakra] > [larka]✧ EtyAC/ÁLAK
Qenya [Ety/LAK²; EtyAC/ÁLAK] Group: Eldamo. Published by

alfírima

adjective. immortal

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
al(a)-“not, negative prefix”
fírima“mortal”

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
alphírimarplural“immortals”✧ PE22/124

alfírimo

noun. Immortal

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
al(a)-“not, negative prefix”
Fírimo“Mortal”

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
Alphírimorplural“Immortals”✧ PE22/124

ampan-

verb. to build

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
am-“up”
PAN“place, set, fix in place (especially of wood)”

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
ampanainaimperfect-passive-participle“while it was being built”✧ PE22/108
-ampanantaimperfect-passive-participle-✧ PE22/108

anarya

noun. Sunday, (lit.) Sun-day

Cognates

  • N. Aranor “*Sun-day” ✧ PM/130
Qenya [PM/130; PM/133] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aranaite

adjective. *kingly, royal

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
aran“king”
-ite“(verbal) adjective ending”

ar ulmon

proper name. Day of Ulmo, second day of the Valian week

The Quenya name for the 2nd day of the Valian 5-day week, a combination of are “day” and the genitive of Ulmo (Ety/LEP).

Variations

  • (Ar)Ulmon ✧ Ety/LEP

Cognates

  • N. Ar Uiar “Day of Ulmo, second day of the Valian week” ✧ Ety/LEP

Elements

WordGloss
are“day”
Ulmo

ataltare

noun. collapse

Elements

WordGloss
atalta-“to collapse, fall in, fall down, slip down in ruin”
-(á)re“general action verbal suffix”

atto

noun. father (hypocoristic)

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶atū “father” ✧ Ety/ATA
    • ᴹ√ATA “father” ✧ Ety/ATA

Cognates

  • N. ada “father (hypocoristic), father (hypocoristic), [G.] daddy” ✧ Ety/ATA
  • Ilk. adda “father (hypocoristic)” ✧ Ety/ATA

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶atū > atto[attu] > [atto]✧ Ety/ATA
Qenya [Ety/ATA; LR/059; PE22/023] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ava

adverb/adjective. outside, beyond; outer, exterior

Derivations

  • ᴹ√AWA “away, forth; out” ✧ Ety/AWA

Element in

  • ᴹQ. avahaira “*far beyond, very remote”
  • ᴹQ. Avakúma “Exterior Void” ✧ Ety/AWA; SM/241
  • ᴹQ. Avalóna “Outer Isle” ✧ Ety/AWA

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√AWA > ava[awa] > [ava]✧ Ety/AWA
Qenya [Ety/AWA; EtyAC/AWA; SM/241] Group: Eldamo. Published by

poinesse

noun. ?cleanliness

Derivations

  • ᴹ√POY “*clean”

tenna

noun. a letter

Variations

  • teñna ✧ PE19/043

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶tekna “a letter” ✧ PE19/043
    • ᴹ√TEK “write or draw (signs or letters), make a mark” ✧ PE19/043

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶tekna > teñna[tekna] > [tegna] > [teŋna] > [tenna]✧ PE19/043

tol-

verb. to stand

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
tollepast“stood”✧ PE22/117

auta-

verb. to invent, originate, devise

Variations

  • auta- ✧ Ety/GAWA
  • auta ✧ EtyAC/GAWA

Derivations

  • ᴹ√GAW “think out, devise, contrive” ✧ Ety/GAWA

Cognates

  • ᴺS. gauda- “to invent, originate, devise”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√GAWA > auta-[gauta-] > [ɣauta-] > [auta-]✧ Ety/GAWA
Qenya [Ety/GAWA; EtyAC/GAWA] Group: Eldamo. Published by

arvalin

place name. Outside Valinor

Changes

  • ArvalinVastuman ✧ MR/291
  • ArvalinVastuman ✧ MRI/Arvalin
  • ArvalinAvathar ✧ SMI/Arvalin
  • ArvalinAvathar ✧ SMI/Avathar

Elements

WordGloss
ar-“outside, beside”
Valinor“Land of the Valar”
Qenya [Ety/AR²; LRI/Arvalin; MR/291; MRI/Arvalin; SMI/Arvalin; SMI/Avathar] Group: Eldamo. Published by

atarinya tye-meláne

my father, I love thee

Variations

  • Atarinya tye-meláne ✧ LR/061; LR/070
Qenya [LR/061; LR/070] Group: Eldamo. Published by

al-

verb. to thrive

Variations

  • ’al ✧ Ety/GALA

Derivations

  • ᴹ√GAL “grow, thrive” ✧ Ety/GALA; EtyAC/GAL(AS)

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√GALA > ’al[gal-] > [ɣal-] > [al-]✧ Ety/GALA
ᴹ√GAL > al-[gal-] > [ɣal-] > [al-]✧ EtyAC/GAL(AS)
Qenya [Ety/GALA; EtyAC/GAL(AS)] Group: Eldamo. Published by

alataire

place name. Great Sea

Another name of the “Great Sea” (N. Belegoer) appearing in The Etymologies from the 1930s as compound of alta “great (in size)” and aire “sea” (Ety/ÁLAT, AY).

Cognates

  • N. Belegoer “Great Sea” ✧ Ety/ÁLAT; Ety/AY

Elements

WordGloss
alta“large, great in size”
aire“sea”
Qenya [Ety/ÁLAT; Ety/AY] Group: Eldamo. Published by

alómea

adjective. voiceless

Variations

  • Alómea ✧ PE18/030

Elements

WordGloss
al(a)-“not, negative prefix”
ómea“voiced”

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
Alómearplural“voiceless”✧ PE18/030

andatehta

noun. long mark

Variations

  • anda-tehta ✧ PE22/021; PE22/049

Cognates

Elements

WordGloss
anda“long”
tehta“mark (in writing), sign, diacritic”
Qenya [Ety/TEK; PE22/011; PE22/021; PE22/049; PE22/063] Group: Eldamo. Published by

andul

noun. long pole

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶andọl “long pole” ✧ PE21/34

Elements

WordGloss
anda“long”

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
andulnominative-✧ PE21/34
andulaaccusative-✧ PE21/34
andulendative-✧ PE21/34
andulogenitive-✧ PE21/34
andulmeninstrumental-✧ PE21/34
andultaallative-✧ PE21/34
anduluntaallative-✧ PE21/34
andulloablative-✧ PE21/34
andulesselocative-✧ PE21/34
andulwapossessive-✧ PE21/34
anduldonsimilative-✧ PE21/34
andulundonsimilative-✧ PE21/34
anduluntnominative dual-✧ PE21/34
andulúmentinstrumental dual-✧ PE21/34
†andulmetinstrumental dual-✧ PE21/34
andulinnominative plural-✧ PE21/34
andullinnominative plural-✧ PE21/34
andulintanallative plural-✧ PE21/34
[andul]illonablative plural-✧ PE21/34
[andul]issenlocative plural-✧ PE21/34
[andul]indonsimilative plural-✧ PE21/34
Qenya [PE21/33; PE21/34] Group: Eldamo. Published by

angulóke

noun. dragon

Cognates

  • N. amlug “dragon” ✧ Ety/LOK

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
ango“snake, dragon”
lóke“dragon”

arkimbele

place name. Rivendell

A Quenya name for Imladris(t) (Rivendell) appearing only in the locative form Arkimbelesse “at Rivendell” in linguistic notes from the 1940s (PE22/125). The etymology of the name is unclear, but it may be a combination of arka “narrow” and imbe “dell” as suggested to me by Lokyt in a Discord conversation from 2021-08-25.

Variations

  • Arkimbelesse ✧ PE22/125

Cognates

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
arka“narrow”
imbe“dell, deep vale, ravine, glen”

miksa

adjective. wet, wet, *damp

Variations

  • misse ✧ EtyAC/MISK (misse)

Derivations

  • ᴹ√MISIK “*wet” ✧ Ety/MISK

Cognates

  • N. mesg “wet” ✧ Ety/MISK; EtyAC/MISK

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√MISK > miksa[miska] > [miksa]✧ Ety/MISK
Qenya [Ety/MISK; EtyAC/MISK] Group: Eldamo. Published by

taima

noun. extension

Derivations

  • ᴹ√TAY “extend, make long(er), stretch”

Element in

  • ᴹQ. ómataima “vocalic extension” ✧ PE18/034

andalúme

adverb. for a long while

Element in

kolma

noun. ring (?on finger)

Variations

  • colma ✧ EtyAC/KOL (colma)

Derivations

  • ᴹ√KOL “round, (?rim)” ✧ EtyAC/KOL

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√KOL > colma[kolma]✧ EtyAC/KOL

ambon

noun. upward slope, hill-side

A noun in The Etymologies of the 1930s glossed “upward slope, hill-side” derived from the root ᴹ√AM “up” (Ety/AM²). As published in The Lost Road, this word had the form amban, but its actual form was ambon according to Carl Hostetter and Patrick Wynne (EtyAC/AM²).

Variations

  • amban ✧ EtyAC/AM²

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶amba- ✧ Ety/AM²
    • ᴹ√AM “up” ✧ Ety/AM²

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶amba- > ambon[ambon]✧ Ety/AM²
Qenya [Ety/AM²; EtyAC/AM²] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ar sauron túle nukumna númenórenna

and Sauron came humbled to Númenor

|1|   2   |   3   |4|5| |ar|O| |sauron| |lende|túle| |nūmenorenna|nahamna|{kamindon >> akamna >>}|nukumna|

Variations

  • ar sauron tūle nahamna ✧ LR/047
  • Ar Sauron lende nūmenorenna ✧ LR/056
  • O sauron túle nukumna ✧ SD/246; VT24/07
  • ar sauron túle nahamna ✧ SD/310
  • O sauron túle {kamindon >> akamna >>} nukumna ✧ SD/311

Changes

  • ar sauron tūle nahamnaar sauron túle nahamna “and ‽ came ‽” ✧ SD/310
  • Ar Sauron lende nūmenorennaar sauron tūle nahamna “And Sauron came to-Númenor” ✧ LR/047
  • ar sauron túle nahamnaO sauron túle {kamindon >> akamna >>} nukumna “and ‽ came ‽” ✧ SD/311
  • O sauron túle {kamindon >> akamna >>} nukumnaO sauron túle nukumna ✧ SD/246

Cognates

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
ar“and; but”
Sauron
tul-“to come”
nukumna“humbled”
Númenóre“Westernesse”
Qenya [LR/047; LR/056; SD/246; SD/310; SD/311; VT24/07] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-va

suffix. adjectival

Variations

  • va ✧ PE21/059

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶-ba “genitival adjective” ✧ PE21/059
Qenya [Ety/TER; PE21/059] Group: Eldamo. Published by

alqalonde

place name. Swan-haven

Variations

  • Alqualondë ✧ LR/224; LR/326; LRI/Alqualondë; SMI/Alflon; SMI/Alqualondë; TII/Alqualondë
  • Alqalondë ✧ SM/265; SMI/Alqualondë

Cognates

  • N. Alfobas “*Swan-harbourage” ✧ Ety/KHOP; TII/Alqualondë
  • N. Alflon “*Swan-haven” ✧ SMI/Alflon
  • N. Airlond “(?sea-stead)” ✧ Ety/LOD

Elements

WordGloss
alqa“swan”
londe“road (in sea), fairway, entrance to harbour; gulf”
Qenya [Ety/ÁLAK; Ety/KHOP; Ety/LOD; EtyAC/LOD; LR/113; LR/224; LR/326; LRI/Alqualondë; SM/265; SMI/Alflon; SMI/Alqualondë; TII/Alqualondë] Group: Eldamo. Published by

altankanta-

verb. to become unfixed

Variations

  • altañkanta- ✧ PE22/117

Elements

WordGloss
al(a)-“not, negative prefix”
tanka“firm, fixed, sure, firm, fixed, sure, [ᴱQ.] fast; steady, (stead)fast”
-nta“to become or be made”

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
altañkantalyaimperfect-participle-✧ PE22/117
altañkantanepast-✧ PE22/117
altañkantuvafuture-✧ PE22/117

ampanóta-

verb. to build, erect a (large) building

Variations

  • ampanóta ✧ PE22/114

Element in

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
ampanótainfinitive“construct (a building)”✧ PE22/118
ampanótiegerund-✧ PE22/118
ampanótaraorist plural-✧ PE22/118
ampanŏtalyaimperfect-participle-✧ PE22/118
ampanŏtainapassive-participle-✧ PE22/118
ampanótanepast-✧ PE22/118
ampanotelyelong-perfect-✧ PE22/118
ampanótuvafuture-✧ PE22/118
Qenya [PE22/114; PE22/118] Group: Eldamo. Published by

anka

noun. jaw, row of teeth

Variations

  • anca ✧ EtyAC/ÁNAK
  • añka ✧ PE22/051

Derivations

  • ᴹ√NAK “bite” ✧ Ety/ÁNAK
  • ᴹ✶ankā “jaw, row of teeth” ✧ Ety/NAK
    • ᴹ√NAK “bite” ✧ Ety/NAK

Cognates

  • N. anc “jaw, row of teeth” ✧ Ety/ÁNAK; Ety/NAK

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶an-kā́ > anka[ankā] > [aŋkā] > [aŋka]✧ Ety/NAK
Qenya [Ety/ÁNAK; Ety/NAK; EtyAC/ÁNAK; PE22/022; PE22/051] Group: Eldamo. Published by

are manwen

proper name. Day of Manwe, first day of the Valian week

The Quenya name for the 1st day of the Valian 5-day week, a combination of are “day” and the genitive of Manwe (Ety/LEP).

Variations

  • (Ar(e))Manwen ✧ Ety/LEP
  • (Ar)Manwen ✧ EtyAC/LEP

Cognates

  • N. Ar Vanwe “Day of Manwe, first day of the Valian week” ✧ Ety/LEP

Elements

WordGloss
are“day”
Manwe“on Taniqetil”
Qenya [Ety/LEP; EtyAC/LEP] Group: Eldamo. Published by

avallonde

place name. Haven of the Gods

A port city on Tol Eressea.

Variations

  • Avallondë ✧ SDI2/Avallondë
  • Avallon(de) ✧ SDI2/Avallónë (Avallon(de))

Changes

  • Avallon(de)Avallónë ✧ SDI2/Avallónë

Elements

WordGloss
?
londe“road (in sea), fairway, entrance to harbour; gulf”
Qenya [SDI2/Avallondë; SDI2/Avallónë] Group: Eldamo. Published by

kalarin(a)

adjective. *brilliant

Variations

  • calarin ✧ EtyAC/KAL
  • calar(i)na ✧ EtyAC/KAL

Cognates

  • N. celeir “brilliant” ✧ Ety/KAL

naneldarin

proper name. Naneldarin

A term for the language of the Danians in linguistic notes from the 1930s, first given as Pereldarin (PE18/26). It is a compound of nan and Eldarin.

Variations

  • Pereldarin ✧ PE18/026 (Pereldarin)

Elements

WordGloss
nan“but, on the contrary, on the other hand; again”
Eldarin“of the Elves, Elvish”

nis

noun. woman

Variations

  • nisse ✧ Ety/NDIS; Ety/NĪ¹; EtyAC/NIS (nisse)

Derivations

  • ᴹ√NDIS “*bride” ✧ Ety/NDIS
    • ᴹ√NĪ/INI “female” ✧ Ety/BES
    • ᴹ√NIS “woman” ✧ Ety/NIS
  • ᴹ√NIS “woman” ✧ Ety/NDIS; Ety/NĪ¹; Ety/NIS

Cognates

  • On. ndissa “young woman” ✧ Ety/NDIS; EtyAC/NIS
  • N. dess “young woman” ✧ Ety/NDIS

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√NDIS-SĒ/SĀ > nisse[ndisse] > [nisse]✧ Ety/NDIS
ᴹ√NIS/NĪ > nis[niss] > [nis]✧ Ety/NDIS
ᴹ√NIS > nis[niss] > [nis]✧ Ety/NĪ¹
ᴹ√NIS > nisse[nisse]✧ Ety/NĪ¹
ᴹ√NIS > nis[niss] > [nis]✧ Ety/NIS

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
nissiplural-✧ Ety/NĪ¹; Ety/NĪ¹; Ety/NIS; EtyAC/NDIS
plural-✧ PE21/08
Qenya [Ety/NDIS; Ety/NĪ¹; Ety/NIS; EtyAC/NDIS; EtyAC/NĪ¹; EtyAC/NIS; PE21/08] Group: Eldamo. Published by

no mīrinoite kallasilya valimar

no mīrinoite kallasilya Valimar

Element in

ambal

noun. shaped stone, flag

Derivations

  • ᴹ√MBAL “?crush, pound, [ᴱ√] crush, *pound; hurt, pain, damage, give maim to” ✧ Ety/MBAL

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√MBAL > ambal[ambal]✧ Ety/MBAL

am(ba)penda

adjective. uphill, uphill, *sloping up; [ᴱQ.] arduous, difficult, tiresome

An adjective meaning “uphill” in The Etymologies of the 1930s with variants ambapenda and shorter ampenda, a combination of amba “up(wards)” and penda “sloping” (Ety/AM²). More literally it means “sloping up”, versus plain penda which has an implication of “sloping down”. It also appeared in the Early Noldorin Dictionary of the 1920s as ᴱQ. ambapenda, where its cognate ᴱN. amvenn had the glosses “uphill; arduous, difficult, tiresome” (PE13/159). Perhaps ᴹQ. am(ba)penda* could colloquially have these meanings as well.

Variations

  • ambapenda ✧ Ety/AM²
  • ampenda ✧ Ety/AM²

Cognates

  • N. amben “uphill, uphill; [ᴱN.] arduous, difficult, tiresome” ✧ Ety/AM²

Elements

WordGloss
amba“up(wards)”
penda“sloping down, inclined”

-iel

suffix. -friend

Variations

  • -iel ✧ Ety/YEL (-iel)

Derivations

  • ᴹ√YEL “friend” ✧ Ety/YEL

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√YEL > -iel[-jel] > [-iel]✧ Ety/YEL

alda

noun. tree

Variations

  • Alda ✧ LR/041; SD/302
  • ’alda ✧ PE22/047; PE22/051

Derivations

  • ᴹ√GALAD “tree” ✧ Ety/GALAD; Ety/GALAD
    • ᴹ√GAL “grow, thrive” ✧ Ety/GALA
  • ᴹ✶galadā “tree” ✧ SD/302
    • ᴹ√GALAD “tree”
    • ᴹ√GAL “grow, thrive” ✧ Ety/GALA

Cognates

  • N. galadh “tree” ✧ Ety/GALAD; Ety/GALAD; LR/041; PE22/047; SD/302
  • Ilk. gald “tree” ✧ Ety/GALAD

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√GÁLAD > alda[galadā] > [galdā] > [ɣaldā] > [aldā] > [alda]✧ Ety/GALAD
ᴹ√GÁLAD > alda[galadā] > [galdā] > [ɣaldā] > [aldā] > [alda]✧ Ety/GALAD
ᴹ✶galadā > Alda[galadā] > [galdā] > [ɣaldā] > [aldā] > [alda]✧ SD/302

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
aldarplural“trees”✧ PE22/116; PE22/124; PE22/125
Qenya [Ety/GALAD; LR/041; PE22/021; PE22/022; PE22/047; PE22/051; PE22/116; PE22/124; PE22/125; SD/302; TMME/182] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ana-

prefix. to, towards

Derivations

  • ᴹQ. an(a) “to, towards” ✧ Ety/NĀ¹
    • ᴹ√NĀ/ANA “to, towards” ✧ Ety/NĀ¹

Cognates

  • N. an- “with, by” ✧ Ety/NĀ¹

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹQ. an/ana/na > ana-[ana-]✧ Ety/NĀ¹

angamanda

place name. Iron Prison, Hells of Iron

Variations

  • Angavanda ✧ EtyAC/ANGĀ (Angavanda); EtyAC/BAD² (Angavanda)

Cognates

  • N. Angband “Iron Prison, Hells of Iron” ✧ Ety/MBAD; EtyAC/ANGĀ; EtyAC/BAD²; LRI/Angband
  • N. Bannos “Mandos, Dread Imprisoner” ✧ EtyAC/MBAD

Elements

WordGloss
anga“iron”
manda“prison, *duress”
Qenya [Ety/MBAD; EtyAC/ANGĀ; EtyAC/BAD²; EtyAC/MBAD; LRI/Angband] Group: Eldamo. Published by

atsa

noun. tassel, fryse, fringe

Variations

  • atsa ✧ PE22/050

Derivations

  • ᴹ√TAS “*fringe” ✧ PE22/050

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√TAS > atsa[atsa]✧ PE22/050

atsa

noun. claw, catch, hook

Variations

  • atsa ✧ Ety/GAT; PE22/022; PE22/050 (atsa)

Changes

  • atsaatsa “claw” ✧ PE22/050

Derivations

  • ᴹ√GAT “*catch” ✧ Ety/GAT

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√GAT > atsa[gatsa] > [ɣatsa] > [atsa]✧ Ety/GAT
Qenya [Ety/GAT; PE22/022; PE22/050] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ente

pronoun. [unglossed]

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
ensinominative-✧ VT36/08
enteaccusative-✧ VT36/08
entengenitive-✧ VT36/08
ensirdative-✧ VT36/08
entininstrumental-✧ VT36/08
entíneninstrumental-✧ VT36/08
entíkopartitive-✧ VT36/08
ententaallative-✧ VT36/08
entesselocative-✧ VT36/08
[ent]ess-case-✧ VT36/08
ensinyelocative-✧ VT36/08
entelloablative-✧ VT36/08
ensilablative-✧ VT36/08
ensindonsimilative-✧ VT36/08
ensihtapartitive-✧ VT36/08
ensiapossessive-✧ VT36/08
enyapossessive-✧ VT36/08

luina

adjective. pale

Derivations

  • ᴹ√LUG “*blue” ✧ EtyAC/LUY

Cognates

  • Ilk. lûn “pale” ✧ EtyAC/LUY

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√LUY > luina[luina]✧ EtyAC/LUY

tyue

noun. [unglossed]

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
†tyuinnominative plural-✧ PE21/06
tyuelinnominative plural-✧ PE21/06
tyuiogenitive-✧ PE21/07
tyuevapossessive-✧ PE21/07
Qenya [PE21/06; PE21/07] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ambar

noun. Earth, World

Variations

  • a-mbar ✧ Ety/MBAR
  • ambaron ✧ EtyAC/MBAR
  • ambar ✧ EtyAC/MBAR; EtyAC/SIL; SM/241

Derivations

  • ᴹ√MBAR “dwell, inhabit” ✧ Ety/MBAR; EtyAC/SIL
    • ᴹ√BAR “raise; uplift, save, rescue(?)” ✧ Ety/BAR

Cognates

  • N. amar “Earth” ✧ Ety/MBAR

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√MBAR > a-mbar[ambara]✧ Ety/MBAR
ᴹ√[?mbar] > ambar[ambara]✧ EtyAC/SIL

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
ambarengenitive-✧ Ety/MBAR
Ambarengenitive-✧ SM/241
Qenya [Ety/MBAR; EtyAC/MBAR; EtyAC/SIL; LRI/Ambar; SD/056; SM/235; SM/236; SM/241; SMI/Ambar] Group: Eldamo. Published by

andave laita

andave laita

Changes

  • andave laitaAndave laituvalme ✧ SD/047

arda

place name. Earth, world

Variations

  • arda ✧ SD/246; SD/310

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
arda“realm, region”
Qenya [LRI/Arda; SD/246; SD/310; SD/401; SDI2/Arda; SMI/Arda] Group: Eldamo. Published by

arendien

proper name. Midyear’s Day

Name of the mid-year holidays from drafts of the Lord of the Rings appendices (PM/134). It seems to be a combination of are “day”, ende “middle” and yén “year”, the last of these supported by its stem form Arendién- as seen in its plural Arendiéni.

Variations

  • Arendiën ✧ PM/134

Elements

WordGloss
are“day”
ende“centre, middle, core”
yén“year”

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
Arendiéniplural-✧ PM/134

asea

noun. *healing herb

Element in

atalante

proper name. Downfall(en)

Variations

  • Atalantë ✧ LR/011; LR/014; LR/025; LRI/Atalantë; SD/375
  • atalante ✧ LR/047; LR/047; PE18/035; SD/247; SD/310

Derivations

  • ᴹ√TALAT “to slip or slide down, incline, slope, lean, tip, topple over” ✧ SD/249

Cognates

  • Ad. Akallabêth “Downfallen” ✧ SD/375; SDI2/Akallabêth

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
atalta-“to collapse, fall in, fall down, slip down in ruin”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√talat > Atalante[atalante]✧ SD/249
Qenya [Ety/DAT; Ety/TALÁT; LR/011; LR/014; LR/025; LR/047; LRI/Atalantë; PE18/035; SD/247; SD/249; SD/310; SD/375; SDI2/Akallabêth; SDI2/Atalante] Group: Eldamo. Published by

alya

adjective. rich, prosperous, abundant, blessed

Derivations

  • ᴹ√ALA “*blessed” ✧ Ety/ÁLAM; EtyAC/AL
  • ᴹ√GAL “grow, thrive” ✧ Ety/GALA; EtyAC/GAL(AS)

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√AL > alya[alja]✧ Ety/ÁLAM
ᴹ√GALA > alya[galja] > [ɣalja] > [alja]✧ Ety/GALA
ᴹ√AL > alya[alja]✧ EtyAC/AL
ᴹ√GAL > alya[galja] > [ɣalja] > [alja]✧ EtyAC/GAL(AS)
Qenya [Ety/ÁLAM; Ety/GALA; EtyAC/AL; EtyAC/GAL(AS); PE22/021; PE22/023; PE22/052] Group: Eldamo. Published by

al(a)-

prefix. not, negative prefix

Variations

  • ala- ✧ Ety/GALA; EtyAC/LA (ala-)
  • al(a) ✧ EtyAC/ALA (al(a))
  • al- ✧ EtyAC/LA (al-); PE19/056

Derivations

  • ᴹ√LA “no, not; to be not” ✧ EtyAC/ALA; EtyAC/LA
  • ᴹ✶la- “no, not, negative prefix” ✧ PE19/056
    • ᴹ√LA “no, not; to be not” ✧ Ety/LA; EtyAC/LA

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√ALA > al(a)[ala-]✧ EtyAC/ALA
ᴹ√ALA > ala-[ala-]✧ EtyAC/LA
ᴹ✶ > > al-[ḷ-] > [al-]✧ PE19/056
Qenya [Ety/GALA; EtyAC/ALA; EtyAC/LA; PE19/056] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aini

noun. holy one, angelic spirit (f.), holy one, angelic spirit (f.); [ᴱQ.] (pagan) goddess

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶aı̯an- “holy” ✧ Ety/AYAN
    • ᴹ√(A)YAN “*holy” ✧ Ety/AYAN

Cognates

  • ᴺS. Aeni “(female) angel”

Elements

WordGloss
Ainu“holy one, angelic spirit”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶aı̯an- > Aini[aini]✧ Ety/AYAN

aiqa

adjective. steep, steep, [ᴱQ.] tall; high, lofty, sublime; chief

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶aikwā “tall, steep”
    • ᴹ√AYAK “sharp, pointed”
  • ᴹ√AYAK “sharp, pointed” ✧ Ety/AYAK

Element in

apsa-

verb. to away, go away

Variations

  • apsa ✧ PE19/045

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶abtā- “to away, go away” ✧ PE19/045
    • ᴹ√AB “refuse, deny, say no; away, go away, depart” ✧ PE19/045

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶abtā > apta > apsa[abta-] > [apta-] > [apsa-]✧ PE19/045

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
apsanepast-✧ PE19/045

auta-

verb. to away, go away

Variations

  • auta ✧ PE19/045

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶abtā- “to away, go away” ✧ PE19/045
    • ᴹ√AB “refuse, deny, say no; away, go away, depart” ✧ PE19/045

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶abtā > avante[abante] > [aβante] > [avante]✧ PE19/045

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
avantepast-✧ PE19/045

nande

noun. harp

Variations

  • ñande ✧ Ety/ÑGAN
  • ñanda ✧ EtyAC/ÑGAN (ñanda)
  • nanda ✧ EtyAC/ÑGAN (nanda)

Changes

  • ñandañande ✧ Ety/ÑGAN
  • nandanande ✧ EtyAC/ÑGAN

Derivations

  • ᴹ√ÑGAN(AD) “play (on stringed instrument)” ✧ Ety/ÑGAN

Element in

  • ᴺQ. cungandë “violin, (lit.) bow-harp”
  • ᴺQ. langandë “stringed instrument with a neck (lute, guitar, etc.)”
  • ᴹQ. nandele “harping, *repetition” ✧ Ety/ÑGAN
  • ᴹQ. nandelle “little harp, little harp, *lyre” ✧ Ety/ÑGAN
  • ᴹQ. tyalangan “harp-player”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√ÑGANAD > ñande[ŋgande] > [ŋande] > [nande]✧ Ety/ÑGAN
ᴹ√ÑGANAD > nande[ŋgande] > [ŋande] > [nande]✧ Ety/ÑGAN
Qenya [Ety/ÑGAN; EtyAC/ÑGAN] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nauro

noun. werewolf

Variations

  • ñauro ✧ Ety/ÑGAW

Derivations

  • ᴹ√ÑGAW “howl” ✧ Ety/ÑGAW

Cognates

  • N. gaur “werewolf” ✧ Ety/ÑGAW

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√ÑGAW > ñauro[ŋgauro] > [ŋauro] > [nauro]✧ Ety/ÑGAW

nóle

noun. wisdom

Variations

  • ñóle ✧ Ety/ÑGOL

Changes

  • nóleñóle ✧ Ety/ÑGOL

Derivations

  • ᴹ√ÑGOL “wise, wisdom, be wise” ✧ Ety/ÑGOL

Cognates

  • N. gûl “magic” ✧ Ety/ÑGOL

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√ÑGOL > ñóle[ŋgōle] > [ŋōle] > [nōle]✧ Ety/ÑGOL
Qenya [Ety/ÑGOL; EtyAC/ÑGOL] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tanta

adjective. double

Derivations

  • ᴹ√TATA “two” ✧ Ety/TATA

Cognates

  • N. tadol “double” ✧ Ety/TATA

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√TATA > tanta[tanta]✧ Ety/TATA

tante

noun. [unglossed]

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
tansinnominative plural-✧ PE21/07

tenna

preposition. until

Element in

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
kenn’elided“until”✧ SD/056
tenn’elided“until”✧ SD/056

teren

adjective. slender, slender; [ᴱQ.] lissom, lithe

Variations

  • terene ✧ Ety/TER

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶terēn(ē) “slender” ✧ Ety/TER
    • ᴹ√TER “pierce” ✧ Ety/TER

Element in

  • ᴹQ. Terendul “Slender and Dark” ✧ Ety/TER

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶terēn(ē) > teren[terēn] > [teren]✧ Ety/TER
ᴹ✶terēn(ē) > terene[terēnē] > [terenē] > [terene]✧ Ety/TER

yelme

noun. [unglossed]

Variations

  • yelme ✧ Ety/YEL (yelme)

Derivations

  • ᴹ√YEL “friend” ✧ Ety/YEL

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√YEL > yelme[jelme]✧ Ety/YEL

ambor

noun. breast, breast, *chest

The word ᴹQ. ambor “breast” appeared in the Declension of Nouns from the early 1930s, derived from ᴹ✶amƀus (PE21/33). This word shows the Early Qenya sound change whereby [[eq|final [s] became [r]]]; in Tolkien’s later writings this change applied mainly to intervocalic [s]. This word also had the unusual development of u to o in final syllables, a sound change Tolkien used for Quenya in the Declension of Nouns but nowhere else.

Conceptual Development: In the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s Tolkien gave ᴱQ. ambar “breast” with stems ambar- or ambas- (QL/30); the word also appeared in the Poetic and Mythological Words of Eldarissa, but only with the stem ambas- (PME/30). ᴱQ. ambos was glossed “breast” in Early Qenya Word-lists of the 1920s (PE16/136), and in Early Noldorin Word-lists of the 1920s, ᴱQ. ambos (ambost-) appeared as a word related to both ᴱN. bost “back, from shoulder to shoulder” and ᴱN. amoth “shoulder” (PE13/137, 139, 159), the latter with primitive forms ᴱ✶a-mbod-t’ (PE13/137) or ᴱ✶a-mbos-t (PE13/159).

ᴱQ. ambar reappeared in the phrase ᴱQ. níve qímari ringa ambar “the pale phantoms in her cold bosom” from the Oilima Markirya poem written around 1930. Early 1930s ᴹQ. ambor seems to be the last published iteration of this word, as discussed above.

Neo-Quenya: For purposes of Neo-Quenya, I would adapt this word as ᴺQ. ambos (ambor-) “breast, chest” to fit better with later Quenya phonology. It might be an ancient combination of √AM “up” and ᴹ√OS “around”, perhaps with the original sense “upper enclosure (of the body)”.

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶amƀus “breast” ✧ PE21/33

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶amƀus- > ambor[amβus] > [ambus] > [ambur] > [ambor]✧ PE21/33

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
ambornominative-✧ PE21/33
amboraaccusative-✧ PE21/33
amborendative-✧ PE21/33
amborogenitive-✧ PE21/33
amborneninstrumental-✧ PE21/33
ambostaallative-✧ PE21/33
†ambustaallative-✧ PE21/33
amborulloablative-✧ PE21/33
†ambulloablative-✧ PE21/33
amboresselocative-✧ PE21/33
†ambusselocative-✧ PE21/33
amborwapossessive-✧ PE21/33
amborundonsimilative-✧ PE21/33
†ambussonsimilative-✧ PE21/33
amboruntnominative dual-✧ PE21/33
amborinnominative plural-✧ PE21/33

arda

noun. realm, region

Variations

  • harda ✧ Ety/EN; EtyAC/EN; EtyAC/ƷAR (harda); EtyAC/ƷARA (harda)

Changes

  • ardaharda ✧ EtyAC/EN
  • ardaarda “day (period of 12 hours)” ✧ PE22/021

Derivations

  • ᴹ√ƷAR “have, hold” ✧ Ety/EN; EtyAC/ƷARA
  • ᴹ√GAR “keep, hold, possess; maintain, defend” ✧ Ety/ƷAR|GAR
  • ᴹ√GARAT ✧ EtyAC/ƷAR
    • ᴹ√GAR “keep, hold, possess; maintain, defend” ✧ Ety/ƷAR; EtyAC/GAR

Cognates

  • N. ardh “realm” ✧ EtyAC/ƷARA
  • Ilk. garth “realm” ✧ EtyAC/ƷARA

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√ƷAR > harda[ɣarda] > [harda]✧ Ety/EN
ᴹ√GAR > arda[garda] > [ɣarda] > [arda]✧ Ety/ƷARGAR
ᴹ√ƷARA > harda[ɣarda] > [harda]✧ EtyAC/ƷARA
Qenya [Ety/EN; Ety/ƷAR|GAR; EtyAC/EN; EtyAC/ƷAR; EtyAC/ƷARA; PE22/021; PE22/022; PE22/051] Group: Eldamo. Published by

avakúma

place name. Exterior Void

Name of the “Exterior Void” beyond the world in Silmarillion drafts from the 1930s (SM/241), also appearing in The Etymologies as combination of ava “exterior” and kúma “void” (Ety/AWA, OY).

Variations

  • Ava-kúma ✧ LRI/Ava-kúma

Elements

WordGloss
ava“outside, beyond; outer, exterior”
kúma“void”
Qenya [Ety/AWA; Ety/OY; LRI/Ava-kúma; SM/241; SMI/Avakúma] Group: Eldamo. Published by

et ëarello endorenna nilendie

Out of the Great Sea to Middle-earth have I come

Variations

  • Et Ëarello Endorenna lendien ✧ SD/056
  • Et Ëarello Endorenna nilendie ✧ SD/056

Changes

  • Et Ëarello Endorenna lendienEt Ëarello Endorenna nilendie “Out of the Great Sea to Middle-earth have I come” ✧ SD/056
  • Et Ëarello Endorenna nilendieEt Eärello Endorenna utúlien “Out of the Great Sea to Middle-earth have I come” ✧ LotR/0967

kelya-

verb. to rain; (lit.) to send running down

Variations

  • kelya ✧ PE22/114

Derivations

  • ᴹ√KEL “flow, flow away (downhill), run (of water or rivers), run away especially downwards or at end” ✧ PE22/114

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√KEL > kelya[kelja-]✧ PE22/114

tauretavárea-tumbalemorna tumbaletaurea landataváre

Tauretavárea-tumbalemorna Tumbaletaurea landataváre

Variations

  • Taurelilómea-tumbalemorna Tumbaletaurea lómeamor ✧ TI/419

Changes

  • Tauretavárea-tumbalemorna Tumbaletaurea landataváreTaurelilómea-tumbalemorna Tumbaletaurea lómeamor ✧ TI/419
Qenya [TI/415; TI/419] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-(u)va

suffix. future suffix

Variations

  • -vā̆- ✧ PE22/097
  • uvā ✧ PE22/097
  • -uva ✧ VT48/32

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶-bā ✧ PE22/097
    • ᴹ√BA(N) “go, proceed” ✧ PE22/097
  • ᴹ√UB “ponder, have in mind” ✧ VT48/32

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶-bā > -vā̆-[-bā] > [-βā] > [-βa] > [-va]✧ PE22/097
ᴹ√UB > -uva[-uba] > [-uβa] > [-uva]✧ VT48/32
Qenya [PE22/097; VT48/32] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-inqa

suffix. *-ful, complete

Element in

  • ᴹQ. alkarinqa “radiant, glorious” ✧ Ety/AKLA-R

ai! laurie lantar lassi sūrinen

ai! laurie lantar lassi sūrinen

Variations

  • Ai! laurie lantar lassi sūrinen ✧ TI/284

Element in

aikale

noun. peak

A word in The Etymologies of the 1930s glossed “a peak”, an abstract noun formation of ᴹQ. aika “sharp” (Ety/AYAK).

Elements

WordGloss
aika“sharp”
-le“abstract noun”

alalme

noun. elm-tree

Variations

  • lalme ✧ Ety/ÁLAM

Derivations

  • ᴹ√(L)ALAM “elm-tree” ✧ Ety/ÁLAM; Ety/LÁLAM

Cognates

  • N. lalf “elm-tree” ✧ Ety/ÁLAM
  • Ilk. lalm “elm-tree” ✧ Ety/ÁLAM; Ety/LÁLAM
  • Dan. alm “elm-tree” ✧ Ety/ÁLAM
  • N. lalven “elm-tree” ✧ Ety/LÁLAM
  • N. lhalorn “elm-tree” ✧ Ety/LÁLAM

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√ÁLAM > alalme[alalme]✧ Ety/ÁLAM
ᴹ√LÁLAM > alalme[alalme]✧ Ety/LÁLAM
Qenya [Ety/ÁLAM; Ety/LÁLAM] Group: Eldamo. Published by

alasse

noun. joy, merriment

Changes

  • alassealasse “joy, mirth, merriment” ✧ Ety/GALÁS

Derivations

  • ᴹ√GALAS “joy, be glad” ✧ Ety/GALÁS
    • ᴹ√GAL “grow, thrive” ✧ Ety/GALA

Cognates

  • N. glass “joy, *happiness” ✧ Ety/GALÁS

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√GALÁS > alasse[galasse] > [ɣalasse] > [alasse]✧ Ety/GALÁS
Qenya [Ety/GALÁS; EtyAC/GALÁS] Group: Eldamo. Published by

almare

noun. blessedness, blessings, good fortune, bliss

@@@ probably better reconceived as a derivative of √AL(A)

Variations

  • almie ✧ Ety/GALA; EtyAC/AL (almie); EtyAC/GAL(AS) (almie)

Derivations

  • ᴹ√GAL “grow, thrive” ✧ Ety/GALA; EtyAC/GAL(AS)
  • ᴹ√ALA “*blessed” ✧ EtyAC/AL

Cognates

  • ᴺS. alvar “(good) luck, fortune”

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√GALA > almare[galmare] > [ɣalmare] > [almare]✧ Ety/GALA
ᴹ√AL > almare[almare]✧ EtyAC/AL
ᴹ√GAL > almare[galmare] > [ɣalmare] > [almare]✧ EtyAC/GAL(AS)
Qenya [Ety/GALA; EtyAC/AL; EtyAC/GAL(AS)] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ambale

noun. yellow bird, yellow hammer

A word for a yellow bird in The Etymologies of the 1930s, apparently the species yellowhammer, derived from ᴹ✶asmalē as an elaboration of the root ᴹ√SMAL “yellow” (Ety/SMAL). Tolkien later changed this root to √MAL, but ammale might still be plausibly derived from that root.

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶asmalē “yellow bird, ‘yellow hammer’” ✧ Ety/SMAL
    • ᴹ√SMAL “yellow” ✧ Ety/SMAL

Cognates

  • On. ammale “yellow bird, ‘yellow hammer’” ✧ Ety/SMAL
  • On. ammalinde “yellow bird, ‘yellow hammer’” ✧ Ety/SMAL
  • N. emlin “yellow bird, yellow hammer” ✧ Ety/SMAL

andúne

noun. sunset

Variations

  • andūne ✧ Ety/NDŪ

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶ṇdūnē “sunset” ✧ Ety/NDŪ
    • ᴹ√NDŪ “go down, sink, set (of Sun)” ✧ Ety/NDŪ

Element in

  • ᴹQ. Andúnie “Sunset(land)” ✧ Ety/NDŪ

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶ṇdūnē > andūne[ṇdūnē] > [andūnē] > [andūne]✧ Ety/NDŪ

arta

noun. fort, fortress

Derivations

  • ᴹ√GARAT ✧ Ety/ƷAR|GARAT
    • ᴹ√GAR “keep, hold, possess; maintain, defend” ✧ Ety/ƷAR; EtyAC/GAR

Cognates

  • N. garth “fort, fortress” ✧ Ety/ƷAR|GARAT

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√GARAT > arta[garta] > [ɣarta] > [arta]✧ Ety/ƷARGARAT
Qenya [Ety/ƷAR|GARAT] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ataqe

noun. construction, building

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶atakwē “construction, building” ✧ Ety/TAK
    • ᴹ√TAK “fix, make fast, make” ✧ Ety/TAK

Cognates

  • N. adab “building, house” ✧ Ety/TAK

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶atakwē > ataqe[atakwē] > [atakwe]✧ Ety/TAK

atar

noun. father

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶atar “father” ✧ Ety/ATA
    • ᴹ√ATA “father” ✧ Ety/ATA

Cognates

  • N. adar “father” ✧ Ety/ATA
  • Ilk. adar “father” ✧ Ety/ATA

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶atar > atar[atar]✧ Ety/ATA

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
atariplural-✧ Ety/ATA
Atarinya1st-sg-poss“my father”✧ LR/061
ataretta3rd-sg-poss“his father”✧ PE22/118
atarella2nd-sg-polite-poss“your father”✧ PE22/119
Qenya [Ety/ATA; LR/061; PE22/018; PE22/046; PE22/047; PE22/118; PE22/119] Group: Eldamo. Published by

atwa

adjective. double

Derivations

  • ᴹ√AT “back, again, twice; two” ✧ Ety/AT(AT)

Cognates

  • S. adu “double”
  • Ilk. ado “double” ✧ Ety/AT(AT)

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√AT(AT) > atwa[atwa]✧ Ety/AT(AT)
Qenya [Ety/AT(AT); PE22/023; PE22/052] Group: Eldamo. Published by

firiel

masculine name. Firiel

Changes

  • FirielAnárion ✧ SD/401
Qenya [SD/401; SDI2/Firiel] Group: Eldamo. Published by

lango

noun. throat

Variations

  • lango ✧ Ety/LANK (lango); EtyAC/LANK (lango); PE21/08
  • langwi ✧ EtyAC/LANK (✶langwi)

Changes

  • langolanko “neck” ✧ Ety/LANK

Derivations

  • ᴹ√LAK “swallow” ✧ Ety/LANK

Cognates

  • N. lhanc “throat” ✧ Ety/LANK

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√LANG > lango[laŋgo]✧ Ety/LANK

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
-langwiplural-✧ Ety/LANK
langostagenitive dual-✧ PE21/08
langoitapartitive plural-✧ PE21/08
Qenya [Ety/LANK; EtyAC/LANK; PE21/08] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nanda-

verb. to harp

Variations

  • ñanda- ✧ Ety/ÑGAN

Derivations

  • ᴹ√ÑGAN(AD) “play (on stringed instrument)” ✧ Ety/ÑGAN

Cognates

Element in

  • ᴹQ. nandaro “harper” ✧ Ety/ÑGAN

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√ÑGANAD > ñanda-[ŋganda-] > [ŋanda-] > [nanda-]✧ Ety/ÑGAN

nornea

adjective. *of oak

Derivations

  • ᴹ√DORON “oak” ✧ Ety/DÓRON

Element in

  • ᴹQ. lindornea “having many oak-trees” ✧ Ety/DÓRON

Elements

WordGloss
norno“oak”
-a“adjectival suffix”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√DÓRON > dornea[dornea] > [nornea]✧ Ety/DÓRON

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
#dorneasuffix-✧ Ety/DÓRON

uruite

adjective. fiery

A word in The Etymologies of the 1930s glossed “fiery”, an adjectival form of ᴹQ. úr “fire” under the root ᴹ√UR “be hot”, but these words were deleted when the meaning of the root was revised to “wide, large, great” (Ety/UR).

Conceptual Development: A similar word ᴱQ. uruvoite “fiery, having fire” appeared in the Qenya Lexicon under the early root ᴱ√URU (QL/98).

Neo-Quenya: The word úr “fire” was restored in some later writings, and this adjective may have been restored with it, but I prefer ᴺQ. úruva for “fiery”; see that entry for discussion.

Derivations

  • ᴹ√UR “be hot” ✧ Ety/UR

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√UR > uruite[uruite]✧ Ety/UR

alan

noun. daytime

Derivations

  • ᴹ√GALAN “bright” ✧ EtyAC/GAL¹

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√GALÁN > alan[galan] > [ɣalan] > [alan]✧ EtyAC/GAL¹

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
-alanengenitive-✧ EtyAC/GAL¹
Qenya [EtyAC/GAL¹] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aldarya

noun. *Tuesday

Changes

  • AldaryaAldauya ✧ PM/138

Cognates

Element in

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
aldaryass-case“by Monday [sic]”✧ PE22/121
Qenya [PE22/121; PM/130] Group: Eldamo. Published by

alwara

adjective. useless

Element in

aláriel

masculine name. Eadwine

Apparently a rejected variant of Herendil “Fortune-friend” appearing in The Etymologies from the 1930s as compound of (rejected) ᴹ✶alā́ri “bliss” and the (rejected) suffix -el “friend” (EtyAC/LAR, ÑEL).

Elements

WordGloss
alā́ri“bliss”
-el“friend”
Qenya [EtyAC/LAR; EtyAC/ÑEL] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ampende

noun. upward slope

A noun meaning “upward slope” in The Etymologies of the 1930, a combination of am- “up” and pende “slope” (Ety/PEN).

Cognates

  • N. amben “uphill, uphill; [ᴱN.] arduous, difficult, tiresome” ✧ Ety/PEN

Elements

WordGloss
am-“up”
pende“slope, downslope, declivity”

an(ner)

adverb. at hand

Variations

  • an ✧ SD/290
  • anner ✧ SD/290

Derivations

Element in

anaróre

noun. sunrise

Elements

WordGloss
Anar“Sun”
óre“rising, rising, *rise; [ᴱQ.] dawn, Sunrise, East”

arie

noun. daytime

@@@ may be reconceived as a derivative of AS.

Derivations

  • ᴹ√AR “day” ✧ Ety/AR¹

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√AR¹ > arie[arie]✧ Ety/AR¹

aryante

feminine name. Day-bringer

A female name (possible a variant of Árien) appearing in The Etymologies from the 1930s as compound of arya “day” and ante “giver (f.)” (Ety/ANA¹, AR¹).

Variations

  • Ariante ✧ EtyAC/YAN² (Ariante)

Cognates

  • N. Eriant “Day-bringer” ✧ Ety/AR¹

Elements

WordGloss
arya“day (twelve hours)”
ante“giver (f.)”
Qenya [Ety/ANA¹; Ety/AR¹; EtyAC/YAN²] Group: Eldamo. Published by

atalta-

verb. to collapse, fall in, fall down, slip down in ruin

Variations

  • atalta ✧ Ety/TALÁT

Derivations

  • ᴹ√TALAT “to slip or slide down, incline, slope, lean, tip, topple over” ✧ SD/249

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√talat > ataltane[ataltane]✧ SD/249

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
ataltanepast“down-fell”✧ LR/047; SD/247; SD/249; SD/310
atalantepast“down-fell”✧ LR/056
Qenya [Ety/TALÁT; LR/047; LR/056; SD/247; SD/249; SD/310] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ava-

prefix. without

Variations

  • au- ✧ Ety/AWA

Derivations

  • ᴹ√AWA “away, forth; out” ✧ Ety/AR²; Ety/AWA

Element in

  • ᴺQ. avamarwa “homeless”
  • ᴹQ. avanóte “without number, numberless” ✧ Ety/AR²; Ety/AWA
  • ᴹQ. avaqet- “to refuse, forbid”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√AWA > ava-[awa-] > [ava-]✧ Ety/AWA
Qenya [Ety/AR²; Ety/AWA] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ereáma

?. [unglossed]

Variations

  • ĕrĕāma ✧ PE22/018

filinke

noun. *finch

Derivations

Cognates

  • N. flinc “*finch” ✧ PE21/56

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶philínkē > filinke[pʰiliŋke] > [ɸiliŋke] > [filiŋke]✧ PE21/56

hondo

adjective. *hearted

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
hón“heart (physical)”

sáro

noun. saviour

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶thārō “saviour” ✧ LR/188
    • THĀ/ATHA “ease, comfort, heal; be helpful; be willing to assist (in any work, etc.), agree, consent, ease, comfort, heal; be helpful; be willing to assist (in any work, etc.), agree, consent; [ᴹ√] forward”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶thārō > sáro[tʰārō] > [θārō] > [θāro] > [sāro]✧ LR/188

-r

suffix. *archaic allative

Element in

  • ᴹQ. mir “to the inside, into”
  • ᴹQ. tar “thither, beyond”

ef-

verb. to emerge (especially from water)

Variations

  • EPH- ✧ PE22/127 (EPH-)

Derivations

  • ᴹ√EPH “emerge (especially from water, opp[osite] of dive)” ✧ PE22/127

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√EPH- > EPH-[epʰ-] > [eɸ-] > [ef-]✧ PE22/127

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
éphapresent“it emerges”✧ PE22/127
empepast-✧ PE22/127
emphepast-✧ PE22/127

farina

adjective. fugitive, hunted

An adjective meaning “fugitive, hunted”, base on the verb ᴹQ. fara- “to hunt” (PE22/111).

Element in

haran

noun. king, chieftain, lord or king of a specified region

Derivations

  • ᴹ√ƷAR “have, hold” ✧ Ety/ƷAR; Ety/TĀ; EtyAC/ƷARA

Cognates

  • N. aran “king, lord (of a specific region)” ✧ Ety/TĀ
  • Ilk. garon “lord” ✧ EtyAC/ƷARA

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√ƷAR > haran[ɣaran] > [haran]✧ Ety/ƷAR
ᴹ√ƷAR > harni[ɣarani] > [ɣarni] > [harni]✧ Ety/ƷAR
ᴹ√ƷAR > haran[ɣaran] > [haran]✧ Ety/TĀ
ᴹ√ƷARA > haran[ɣaran] > [haran]✧ EtyAC/ƷARA

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
harniplural-✧ Ety/ƷAR
-harniplural-✧ EtyAC/ƷARA
Qenya [Ety/ƷAR; Ety/TĀ; EtyAC/ƷARA] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aiano

noun. stranger

Element in

alkar(e)

noun. radiance, brilliance

Variations

  • alkar ✧ Ety/AKLA-R
  • alkare ✧ Ety/AKLA-R
  • aklar ✧ PE18/036

Derivations

  • ᴹ√AKLA(R) “radiance, splendour” ✧ Ety/AKLA-R; PE18/036
    • ᴹ√KAL “shine” ✧ Ety/AKLA-R; Ety/KAL
    • ᴹ√KALAR “be radiant” ✧ PE18/036; PE18/062
    • ᴹ√KAL “shine” ✧ Ety/KAL; PE18/036

Cognates

  • N. aglar “glory, splendour” ✧ Ety/AKLA-R; PE18/036

Element in

  • ᴹQ. alkarinqa “radiant, glorious” ✧ Ety/AKLA-R
  • ᴹQ. Alkar “Radiant”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√AKLA-R > alkar[aklar] > [alkar]✧ Ety/AKLA-R
ᴹ√aklar(a) > aklar[aklara] > [aklar] > [alkar]✧ PE18/036
Qenya [Ety/AKLA-R; PE18/036] Group: Eldamo. Published by

amaldume

noun. [unglossed]

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
amaldumelintanallative plural-✧ PE21/07
amaldum(el)inwapossessive plural-✧ PE21/07

amatikse

noun. dot or point placed above the line of writing

Variations

  • amatekse ✧ EtyAC/UNU (amatekse)

Elements

WordGloss
amba“up(wards)”
tikse“dot, tiny mark, point”
Qenya [Ety/TIK; EtyAC/UNU] Group: Eldamo. Published by

andamunda

noun. elephant

A noun for “elephant” in The Etymologies of the 1930s, a combination of ᴹQ. anda “long” and an adjectival form of ᴹQ. mundo “snout” (Ety/MBUD), hence literally “long snouted”.

Conceptual Development: In the Quenya Lexicon of the 1910s, Tolkien gave ᴱQ. hunto “elephant” (QL/41).

Derivations

Cognates

  • N. annabon “elephant” ✧ Ety/MBUD

Elements

WordGloss
anda“long”
mundo“snout, nose; cape [of land]”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶andambundā > andamunda[anda-mbundā] > [anda-mundā] > [anda-munda]✧ Ety/MBUD

avar(o)

proper name. Refuser, One who does not go forth

Variations

  • Avar/Avaro ✧ Ety/AB

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶abāro “refuser, one who does not go forth” ✧ Ety/AB
    • ᴹ√ABAR “*refuser” ✧ Ety/AB

Cognates

  • N. Afor “Refuser, an Elf who did not journey to Aman” ✧ Ety/AB; Ety/AB
  • On. abōro “refuser, one who does not go forth” ✧ Ety/AB

Element in

  • ᴹQ. Avarin “language(s) of the Avari”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶ábārō̆ > Avar/Avaro[abāro] > [abār] > [aβār] > [aβar] > [avar]✧ Ety/AB

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
Avariplural“Elves who never left Middle-earth or began the march”✧ Ety/AB; LR/170; LR/200; LR/214; LRI/Avari; PE18/024; WRI/Avari
-Avariplural“Elves who left Middle-earth”✧ Ety/AB
Qenya [Ety/AB; LR/170; LR/200; LR/214; LRI/Avari; PE18/024; WRI/Avari] Group: Eldamo. Published by

interjection. (?please)

Variations

  • ✧ EtyAC/LAƷ ()

Derivations

  • ᴹ√LAƷ ✧ EtyAC/LAƷ

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√LAƷ > [lāɣ] > [lā]✧ EtyAC/LAƷ
Qenya [EtyAC/LAƷ] Group: Eldamo. Published by

namárie

interjection. farewell

Variations

  • Namárië ✧ TII/Namárië
Qenya [TII/Namárië] Group: Eldamo. Published by

númenos

proper name. Númenos

This name appeared in tales of the Fall of Númenor from the 1930s, first as the name of the island (LR/11) and then as the name of its capital city (LR/14). This name is a compound of númen “west” and osto “city”.

Changes

  • NúmenosArmenelos ✧ LR/030
  • NúmenosArmenelos ✧ PMI/Númenos

Elements

WordGloss
númen“west”
osto“city, town with wall round, fort”
Qenya [LR/011; LR/014; LR/030; LRI/Númenos; PMI/Númenos; SDI2/Númenos] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tatalta-

verb. [unglossed]

Variations

  • tatalta ✧ PE22/115 (tatalta)

Elements

WordGloss
talta-“to slip (down), fall, slide down, slope”

nóla

noun. round head, knoll, round hilltop; summit, round head, knoll, round hilltop; summit, [ᴱQ.] top (only used of mountains etc.); crown of head

A word for a type of hill, a “round head, knoll”, appearing in The Etymologies of the 1930s as a derivative of ᴹ√NDOL (Ety/NDOL).

Conceptual Development: This word was mentioned quite frequently in Tolkien’s early writings, appearing as ᴱQ. nōla “head, hill” in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s derived from ᴱ√NOHO “extended” (QL/67), and appearing in many word lists from the 1910s through early 1930s with glosses like “round hill” (PME/67), “head, summit” (PE15/73), “top (only used of mountains etc.)” (PE15/78), or “summit, round hilltop, head” (PE21/8). In the English-Qenya Dictionary of the 1920s Tolkien clarified that it “is not used of human head except colloquially” (PE15/73). Tolkien’s ongoing use of its cognate S. dol(l) “head, hill” in later writings indicates is ongoing validity.

Neo-Quenya: For purposes of Neo-Quenya, I would limit this word to round hills and knolls and not use it for mountain tops.

Variations

  • nóla ✧ Ety/NDOL; PE21/08

Derivations

  • ᴹ√NDOL “*head” ✧ Ety/NDOL

Cognates

  • N. dôl “head, hill” ✧ Ety/NDOL
  • On. ndolo “head” ✧ Ety/NDOL

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√NDOL > nóla[ndōla] > [nōla]✧ Ety/NDOL
Qenya [Ety/NDOL; PE21/08] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-a

suffix. adjectival suffix

Element in

  • ᴹQ. eressea “lonely” ✧ Ety/ERE
  • ᴹQ. fárea “enough, sufficient”
  • ᴹQ. hiswa “grey, grey [of weather], *foggy, overcast; [ᴱQ.] dim, fading”
  • ᴹQ. kaimassea “bedridden, sick, bedridden, sick, [ᴱQ.] confined to bed, a-bed”
  • ᴹQ. kuivea “wakening”
  • ᴹQ. lintyulussea “having many poplars”
  • ᴹQ. lúmeqentalea “historical”
  • ᴹQ. mailea “lustful”
  • ᴹQ. naikelea “painful, painful, [ᴱQ.] agonizing”
  • ᴹQ. nengwea “nasal”
  • ᴹQ. nornea “*of oak”
  • ᴹQ. rinda “circular”
  • ᴹQ. toa “of wool, woollen”
  • ᴹQ. valya “having (divine) authority or power, having (divine) authority or power, *authorized, official”
  • ᴹQ. vórea “continuous, enduring, lasting; continuant”
  • ᴹQ. yalúmea “olden”
  • ᴹQ. yárea “olden”

apsa

noun. meat, cooked food

Variations

  • apsa ✧ Ety/AP; PE22/021; PE22/022; PE22/050 (apsa)

Changes

  • apsaapsa “meat” ✧ PE22/050

Derivations

  • ᴹ√AP “?cook” ✧ Ety/AP

Cognates

  • N. aes “cooked food, meat” ✧ Ety/AP
  • Ilk. ass “cooked food, meat” ✧ Ety/AP

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√AP > apsa[apsa]✧ Ety/AP
Qenya [Ety/AP; PE22/021; PE22/022; PE22/050] Group: Eldamo. Published by

kemen

noun. soil, earth; Great Lands

Variations

  • kén ✧ Ety/KEM
  • Kemen ✧ RC/671; SD/402

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶kēm “*earth”
    • ᴹ√KEM “soil, earth” ✧ Ety/KEM
  • ᴹ√KEM “soil, earth” ✧ Ety/KEM

Cognates

  • N. coe “earth” ✧ Ety/KEM

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√KEM > kén[kēm] > [kēn]✧ Ety/KEM
Qenya [Ety/KEM; RC/671; SD/402] Group: Eldamo. Published by

a

preposition. [unglossed]

Variations

  • a ✧ PE21/03

aira

adjective. red, copper-coloured, ruddy

Derivations

  • ᴹ√GAY “red, copper-coloured, ruddy” ✧ Ety/GAY

Cognates

  • N. goer “red, copper-coloured, ruddy” ✧ Ety/GAY

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√GAY > aira[gaira] > [ɣaira] > [aira]✧ Ety/GAY

aiwenóre

proper name. Birdland, lower air

Region of the lower airs in Silmarillion drafts from the 1930s (SM/236), also appearing in The Etymologies as compound of aiwe “bird” and nóre “land” (Ety/AIWĒ).

Variations

  • Aiwenor ✧ Ety/AIWĒ; SM/240 (Aiwenor); SMI/Aiwenórë
  • Aiwenórë ✧ SM/236; SM/241; SMI/Aiwenórë

Changes

  • AiwenorAiwenórë ✧ SM/236
  • AiwenorAiwenórë ✧ SMI/Aiwenórë

Elements

WordGloss
aiwe“(small) bird”
nóre“land, country, region where certain people live; clan, race, folk, kindred”
Qenya [Ety/AIWĒ; SM/236; SM/240; SM/241; SMI/Aiwenórë] Group: Eldamo. Published by

alama

noun. [unglossed]

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
alamalintanallative plural-✧ PE21/08

almáriel

feminine name. Almáriel

Name of a Númenórean girl from Tolkien’s unfinished story “The Lost Road” (LR/59). In The Etymologies, the name was given as a compound of almare “blessedness” and (perhaps) -iel “daughter” (Ety/GALA, EtyAC/AL).

Elements

WordGloss
almare“blessedness, blessings, good fortune, bliss”
-iel“daughter”
Qenya [Ety/GALA; EtyAC/AL; LRI/Almáriel] Group: Eldamo. Published by

anaristya

noun. [unglossed]

Elements

WordGloss
Anar“Sun”
istya“knowledge”

andalóke

proper name. Long Serpent

Earlier name for Alcarondas from Númenórean stories from the 1940s (SD/350), apparently a compound of anda “long” and lóke “dragon”.

Elements

WordGloss
anda“long”
lóke“dragon”
Qenya [SDI2/Aglarrâma; SDI2/Andalóke] Group: Eldamo. Published by

arya

noun. day (twelve hours)

Variations

  • arda ✧ EtyAC/AR¹ (arda)

Changes

  • ardaarya ✧ Ety/AR¹

Derivations

  • ᴹ√AR “day” ✧ Ety/AR¹

Cognates

  • N. arad “daytime, a day” ✧ Ety/AR¹

Element in

  • ᴹQ. Aryante “Day-bringer” ✧ Ety/AR¹

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√AR¹ > arya[arja]✧ Ety/AR¹
Qenya [Ety/AR¹; EtyAC/AR¹; PE22/023; PE22/052] Group: Eldamo. Published by

asea aranaite

noun. *kingsfoil

Cognates

  • N. athelas “a healing plant” ✧ WR/394

assa

pronoun. [unglossed]

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
assantnominative dual-✧ VT36/08
assataccusative dual-✧ VT36/08
assaugenitive dual-✧ VT36/08
†assugenitive dual-✧ VT36/08
assordative dual-✧ VT36/08
assurdative dual-✧ VT36/08
assaimetinstrumental dual-✧ VT36/08
assahtopartitive dual-✧ VT36/08
assantaallative dual-✧ VT36/08
[assant]asallative dual-✧ VT36/08
assanye(t)locative dual-✧ VT36/08
assalloablative dual-✧ VT36/08
[assall]utablative dual-✧ VT36/08
assandossimilative dual-✧ VT36/08
assapossessive dual-✧ VT36/08
assavapossessive dual-✧ VT36/08

asse

pronoun. [unglossed]

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
assintnominative dual-✧ VT36/08
assitaccusative dual-✧ VT36/08
assigenitive dual-✧ VT36/08
†assiogenitive dual-✧ VT36/08
assirdative dual-✧ VT36/08
assímetinstrumental dual-✧ VT36/08
assihtopartitive dual-✧ VT36/08
assintaallative dual-✧ VT36/08
[assint]asallative dual-✧ VT36/08
assinye(t)locative dual-✧ VT36/08
assilloablative dual-✧ VT36/08
[assill]utablative dual-✧ VT36/08
assindossimilative dual-✧ VT36/08
assiapossessive dual-✧ VT36/08
assivapossessive dual-✧ VT36/08

asso

pronoun. [unglossed]

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
assuntnominative dual-✧ VT36/08
assutaccusative dual-✧ VT36/08
assugenitive dual-✧ VT36/08
assurdative dual-✧ VT36/08
assuimetinstrumental dual-✧ VT36/08
assuhtopartitive dual-✧ VT36/08
assuntaallative dual-✧ VT36/08
[assunt]asallative dual-✧ VT36/08
assunye(t)locative dual-✧ VT36/08
assulloablative dual-✧ VT36/08
[assull]utablative dual-✧ VT36/08
assundossimilative dual-✧ VT36/08
assuvapossessive dual-✧ VT36/08

engwa

?. [unglossed]

Variations

  • eñgwa ✧ PE19/047
  • ḗma ✧ PE19/047

Derivations

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶eñ-ma > eñwa > eñgwa[eŋma] > [eŋgwā]✧ PE19/047

ento

pronoun. [unglossed]

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
entunominative-✧ VT36/08
entoaccusative-✧ VT36/08
entongenitive-✧ VT36/08
enturdative-✧ VT36/08
entoininstrumental-✧ VT36/08
entoineninstrumental-✧ VT36/08
entoikopartitive-✧ VT36/08
entontaallative-✧ VT36/08
entosselocative-✧ VT36/08
[ent]oss-case-✧ VT36/08
entunyelocative-✧ VT36/08
entolloablative-✧ VT36/08
entulablative-✧ VT36/08
entundonsimilative-✧ VT36/08
entuhtapartitive-✧ VT36/08
entuvapossessive-✧ VT36/08
enwapossessive-✧ VT36/08

mai(y)a

noun. [unglossed]

Variations

  • maia ✧ PE19/062
  • maiya ✧ PE19/062

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶magyā ✧ PE19/046; PE19/062
    • ᴹ√MAG “use, handle”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶magyā > mai(y)a[magjā] > [maɣjā] > [maijā] > [maija] > [maia]✧ PE19/046
ᴹ✶māya > mā̆iya > maia[māja] > [maija] > [maia]✧ PE19/062
Qenya [PE19/046; PE19/062] Group: Eldamo. Published by

maldo

noun. [unglossed]

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
maldundonsimilative-✧ PE21/11

nerno

?. [unglossed]

Derivations

  • ᴹ√(N)DER “adult male, man; bridegroom”

ololla-

verb. *to keep on growing

Elements

WordGloss
ola-“to grow, grow up, reach its prime, become”

o vanimar vanimalion ontari

O vanimar vanimalion ontari

Changes

  • O vanimar vanimalion ontariO vanimar vanimalion ontari ✧ SD/073
Qenya [SD/064; SD/073] Group: Eldamo. Published by

sarya

noun. [unglossed]

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
saryannominative-✧ VT28/08
saryarnominative plural-✧ VT28/08
sareaccusative-✧ VT28/08
sariaccusative plural-✧ VT28/08
saryogenitive-✧ VT28/08
saryarogenitive plural-✧ VT28/08
saryasdative-✧ VT28/08
saryaininstrumental-✧ VT28/08

sisíria-

verb. [unglossed]

Variations

  • sisíria ✧ PE22/115 (sisíria)

Elements

WordGloss
sirya-“to flow [smoothly]”

sóla

?. [unglossed]

Derivations

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶soglā > sóla[sogrā] > [soɣlā] > [sōlā] > [sōla]✧ PE19/046

varda telūmen falmar kīrien

Varda telūmen falmar kīrien

Element in

varinye

noun. [unglossed]

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
varinyeliaccusative plural-✧ PE21/07
varinyaineninstrumental plural-✧ PE21/07
varinyentanallative plural-✧ PE21/07
†varinyelintanallative plural-✧ PE21/07

ampano

noun. building (especially of wood), wooden hall, construction, edifice

Variations

  • umpano ✧ EtyAC/N; EtyAC/PAN (umpano)
  • ampanō̆ ✧ PE22/114

Changes

  • umpanoampano ✧ Ety/PAN

Element in

  • ᴹQ. ampanóta- “to build, erect a (large) building” ✧ PE22/114
Qenya [Ety/PAN; EtyAC/N; EtyAC/PAN; PE22/022; PE22/052; PE22/114] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ando

noun. gate, door

Variations

  • Ando ✧ EtyAC/LOƷ (Ando)

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶adnō “gate” ✧ Ety/AD
    • ᴹ√AD “entrance, gate” ✧ Ety/AD

Element in

  • ᴹQ. Ando Lómen “Door of Night” ✧ EtyAC/LOƷ (Ando Lómen); SM/241
  • ᴹQ. andon “great gate, great gate, [ᴱQ.] door, gate” ✧ Ety/AD

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶adnō > ando[adnō] > [andō] > [ando]✧ Ety/AD
Qenya [Ety/AD; EtyAC/LOƷ; PE22/022; PE22/050; SM/241] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ar

conjunction. and; but

Variations

  • ar(a) ✧ EtyAC/AR² (ar(a))
  • Ar ✧ LR/056
  • A ✧ LR/061
  • a ✧ LR/072

Changes

  • ar(a)ar “and” ✧ Ety/AR²

Derivations

  • ᴹ√AR “beside, outside” ✧ Ety/AR²

Cognates

  • N. a “and”

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√AR² > ar[ar]✧ Ety/AR²
Qenya [Ety/AR²; EtyAC/AR²; LR/047; LR/056; LR/061; LR/072; PE22/124; SD/056; SD/310] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nambarauto

masculine name. Hammerer of Copper

Cognates

  • N. Damrod “hammerer of copper” ✧ Ety/NDAM; Ety/RAUTĀ

Elements

WordGloss
namba“hammer”
rauta“metal”
Qenya [Ety/NDAM; Ety/RAUTĀ] Group: Eldamo. Published by

árien

feminine name. Sun-maiden

Variations

  • Arien ✧ Ety/AR¹; LR/243; LRI/Arien
  • Ārien ✧ PE22/017
  • árien ✧ PE22/019
  • ārien ✧ PE22/047

Changes

  • ÁrienArien ✧ LR/243

Elements

WordGloss
AR“day”
-ien“daughter”
Qenya [Ety/AR¹; LR/243; LRI/Arien; PE22/017; PE22/019; PE22/047; SM/099; SM/168; SMI/Árien; SMI/Úrien] Group: Eldamo. Published by

úrien

feminine name. Sun-maiden

An earlier name for Q. Arien (SM/97, LR/243). Its initial element seems to be Ûr, an early name Tolkien used for “Sun”.

Variations

  • Úrien ✧ LR/243; LRI/Arien; LRI/Úrien; SM/097; SM/099 (Úrien); SM/170; SMI/Árien; SMI/Úrien; SMI/Urwen

Changes

  • ÚrienÁrien ✧ LR/243
  • ÚrienÁrien ✧ LRI/Arien
  • ÚrienÁrien ✧ SM/099
  • ÚrienÁrien ✧ SM/168
  • ÚrienÁrien ✧ SMI/Árien
Qenya [LR/243; LRI/Arien; LRI/Úrien; SM/097; SM/099; SM/170; SMI/Árien; SMI/Úrien; SMI/Urwen] Group: Eldamo. Published by

alfárima

adjective. impossible to pursue

Elements

WordGloss
al(a)-“not, negative prefix”
fara-“to hunt”
-ima“able to be done, -able, -ible”

alla earendel elenion ankalima

*hail Earendel, brightest of stars

Variations

  • Alla elenion ancalima ✧ SD/030
  • Alla Earendel Elenion Ankalima ✧ WR/223
Qenya [SD/030; WR/223] Group: Eldamo. Published by

e falmalillon morne sindanōrie

e falmalillon morne sindanōrie

Element in

pole

noun. meal, flour

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
polı̯ǝstem“meal, flour”✧ PE21/12
polenominative-✧ PE21/13; PE21/13
†polinnominative-✧ PE21/13
†poleaccusative-✧ PE21/13
polyaaccusative-✧ PE21/13; PE21/13
†polirdative-✧ PE21/13
polyendative-✧ PE21/13; PE21/13
polyogenitive-✧ PE21/13; PE21/13
polineninstrumental-✧ PE21/13; PE21/13
polintaallative-✧ PE21/13; PE21/13
polilloablative-✧ PE21/13
polisselocative-✧ PE21/13; VT28/08
polivapossessive-✧ PE21/13; PE21/13
polindonsimilative-✧ PE21/13
[pol]yuntnominative dual-✧ PE21/13
[pol]yutaccusative dual-✧ PE21/13
[pol]yudative dual-✧ PE21/13
[pol]ihtagenitive dual-✧ PE21/13
[pol]imetinstrumental dual-✧ PE21/13
[pol]intauallative dual-✧ PE21/13
[pol]innominative plural-✧ PE21/13
[pol]iaccusative plural-✧ PE21/13
[pol]irdative plural-✧ PE21/13
[pol]iongenitive plural-✧ PE21/13
[pol]īneninstrumental plural-✧ PE21/13
[pol]inta(n)allative plural-✧ PE21/13
[pol]īkapartitive-plural-✧ PE21/13
poliliplural-✧ PE21/13
[pol]yuntaallative-✧ PE21/13
polinnominative plural-✧ PE21/13
poliaccusative plural-✧ PE21/13; VT28/08
polilinnominative plural-✧ PE21/13
políneninstrumental plural-✧ PE21/13; VT28/08
políkapartitive-plural-✧ PE21/13
polinnominative-✧ VT28/08
polirnominative plural-✧ VT28/08
poleaccusative-✧ VT28/08
poliogenitive-✧ VT28/08
poliongenitive plural-✧ VT28/08
polisdative-✧ VT28/08
polisdative plural-✧ VT28/08
polininstrumental-✧ VT28/08
polisserlocative plural-✧ VT28/08
polīkapartitive-✧ VT28/08
Qenya [PE21/12; PE21/13; VT28/08] Group: Eldamo. Published by

alka

noun. ray of light, ray of light, [ᴱQ.] light of day; shining

A word for “ray of light” in The Etymologies of the 1930s derived from the root ᴹ√AKLA-R (Ety/AKLA-R).

Conceptual Development: ᴱQ. alka “ray” appeared in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s as a derivative of the early root ᴱ√ḶKḶ; its primitive form ᴱ✶ak’lā indicated a historical development similar to that of The Etymologies (QL/30). The phrase ᴱQ. alkarissen oilimain “in the last rays of light” appeared in some of the versions of the Oilima Markirya poem from around 1930 (MC/221), but here the form was alkar as in alkar-issen = “ray-(locative-plural)”. The word alkar appeared in one of the glossaries of Oilima Markirya drafts with the translation “shining, light of day” (PE16/75). By The Etymologies of the 1930s, however, the form and meaning seem to have reverted to alka “ray of light” (see above).

Derivations

  • ᴹ√AKLA(R) “radiance, splendour” ✧ Ety/AKLA-R
    • ᴹ√KAL “shine” ✧ Ety/AKLA-R; Ety/KAL
    • ᴹ√KALAR “be radiant” ✧ PE18/036; PE18/062
    • ᴹ√KAL “shine” ✧ Ety/KAL; PE18/036

Cognates

  • ᴺS. aglann “ray of light”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√AKLA-R > alka[akla] > [alka]✧ Ety/AKLA-R
Qenya [Ety/AKLA-R] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ambarenya

place name. Middle-earth

Name for Middle Earth appearing as ambar-endya in notes for Silmarillion drafts from the 1930s (SM/241), and also appearing as Ambarenya in The Etymologies, apparently a compound of Ambar “Earth” and enya “middle” (Ety/MBAR).

Variations

  • ambar-endya ✧ SM/241
  • Ambar-endya ✧ SMI/Ambar-endya

Cognates

  • N. Emerin “Middle-earth” ✧ Ety/MBAR

Elements

WordGloss
Ambar“Earth, World”
enya“middle”
Qenya [Ety/MBAR; SM/241; SMI/Ambar-endya] Group: Eldamo. Published by

askat-

verb. to rend, break asunder

Derivations

  • ᴹ√SKAT “break asunder”

Element in

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
sakkantepast“rent”✧ SD/246
askantepast“sunder-broke”✧ SD/310
Qenya [SD/246; SD/310] Group: Eldamo. Published by

menelmin(do)

place name. Pillar of Heaven

Variations

  • Menelmindon ✧ PM/146; PMI/Meneltarma
  • Menelminda ✧ SD/302; SDI2/Menelmin
  • Menelmindo ✧ SD/315; SDI2/Menelmin
  • Menelmin ✧ SD/335; SDI2/Menelmin

Changes

  • MenelmindonMeneltarma ✧ PM/146
  • MenelmindonMeneltarma ✧ PMI/Meneltarma
  • MenelmindaMeneltyúla ✧ SD/302
  • MenelmindoMeneltyúla ✧ SD/315

Cognates

Elements

WordGloss
menel“the heavens, firmament, sky”
mindon“(isolated) tower”
Qenya [PM/146; PMI/Meneltarma; SD/302; SD/315; SD/335; SDI2/Menelmin] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ar antaróta mannar valion: númessier

and he gave it into the hands of the Lords: they are in the West

Variations

  • ar antaróta mannar {Valion númenyaron >>} Valion: númessier ✧ LR/072

Element in

Qenya [LR/063; LR/072] Group: Eldamo. Published by

avahaira

adjective. *far beyond, very remote

Elements

WordGloss
ava“outside, beyond; outer, exterior”
haira“remote, far”
Qenya [Ety/KHAYA; EtyAC/KHAYA] Group: Eldamo. Published by

oi-

verb. to live, pass one’s days

Derivations

  • ᴹ√OY “live, pass one’s days” ✧ PE22/125

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√OY > oia[oja] > [oia]✧ PE22/125

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
oianerpast-imperfect plural“lived”✧ PE22/125
oiarpresent plural“do live”✧ PE22/125
oiapresent-✧ PE22/125
oianepast-imperfect-✧ PE22/125
oinepast“live”✧ PE22/125
oineperfect“have lived”✧ PE22/125

ango

noun. snake, dragon

A noun in The Etymologies of the 1930s glossed “snake” derived from the root ᴹ√ANGWA of the same meaning, with a plural form angwi (Ety/ANGWA). This plural form reappeared in the Quenya Verbal System of the 1940s, but there it was translated “dragons”.

Conceptual Development: A similar form ᴱQ. oqi “snake” appeared in the Qenya Lexicon and Poetic and Mythological Words of Eldarissa of the 1910s as a derivative of the early root ᴱ√OQO “curve, bend” (QL/70).

Neo-Quenya: The word Q. leuca “snake” from The Lord of the Rings appendices is more commonly used for “snake” in Neo-Quenya.

Derivations

  • ᴹ√ANGWA “snake” ✧ Ety/ANGWA

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√ANGWA > ango[aŋgu] > [aŋgo]✧ Ety/ANGWA

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
angwiplural-✧ Ety/ANGWA
Angwiongenitive plural“of dragons”✧ PE22/124
Angwiplural-✧ PE22/124
Qenya [Ety/ANGWA; PE22/124] Group: Eldamo. Published by

fíriel’s song

Fíriel’s Song

A poem appearing in the Lost Road (LR/72), sung by the maiden Fíriel. The version presented here is the one appearing on LR/72 with the revisions noted by Christopher Tolkien in lines 4-6 lines added, but excluding the change of Melko >> Alkar made after the typescript was completed. @@@

Elements

WordGloss
Ilu Ilúvatar en káre eldain a fírimoin“the Father made the World for Elves and Mortals”
ar antaróta mannar Valion: númessier“and he gave it into the hands of the Lords: they are in the West”
toi aina, mána, meldielto — enga morion: talantie“they are holy, blessed, and beloved — save the dark one: he is fallen”
Melko Mardello lende: márie“Melko has gone from Earth: it is good.”
en kárielto eldain Isil, hildin Úr-anar; toi írimar“for Elves they made the Moon, but for Men the red Sun; which are beautiful”
ilyain antalto annar lestanen Ilúvatáren“to all they gave in measure the gifts of Ilúvatar”
Ilu vanya, fanya, eari, i-mar, ar ilqa ímen“the World is fair, the sky, the seas, the earth, and all that is in them”
írima ye Númenor“lovely is Númenor”
nan úye sére indo-ninya símen, ullume“but my heart resteth not here for ever”
ten sí ye tyelma, yéva tyel ar i narqelion“for here is ending, and there will be an end and the Fading”
íre ilqa yéva nótina, hostainiéva, yallume“when all is counted, and all numbered at last”
ananta úva táre fárea, ufárea“but yet it will not be enough, not enough”
man táre antáva nin Ilúvatar, Ilúvatar?“what will the Father, O Father, give me”
enyáre tar i tyel, íre Anarinya qeluva“in that day beyond the end, when my Sun faileth”

kalakilya

place name. Pass of Light

Changes

  • KalakilyaKalakirya ✧ MR/102

Cognates

  • N. Cilgalad “Pass of Light” ✧ Ety/KIL

Elements

WordGloss
kala“light”
kilya“cleft, pass between hills, gorge; chasm”
Qenya [Ety/KAL; Ety/KIL; LR/173; LR/223; LRI/Kalakilya; MR/102; MRI/Kalakiryan; TII/Calacirian] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ási, sí

come now, now

Variations

  • āsi, sí ✧ PE22/105

aire

noun. sea

Changes

  • aireairen “sea” ✧ PE22/023

Derivations

  • ᴹ√AY(AR) “sea” ✧ Ety/AY

Cognates

  • N. oer “sea” ✧ Ety/AY

Element in

  • ᴹQ. Alataire “Great Sea” ✧ Ety/AY

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√AI̯R > aire[aira]✧ Ety/AY
Qenya [Ety/AY; PE22/023] Group: Eldamo. Published by

airen

noun. sea

Derivations

  • ᴹ√AY(AR) “sea” ✧ Ety/AY

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√AI̯R > airen[airen]✧ Ety/AY
Qenya [Ety/AY; PE22/023] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ala

noun. day

Derivations

  • ᴹ√GALAN “bright” ✧ EtyAC/GAL¹

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√GALÁN > ala[gala] > [ɣala] > [ala]✧ EtyAC/GAL¹

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
-allengenitive-✧ EtyAC/GAL¹
Qenya [EtyAC/GAL¹] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aldarwa

adjective. having trees, tree-grown

Elements

WordGloss
alda“tree”
arwa“possessing, having, in control of”
Qenya [Ety/ƷAR|GAR] Group: Eldamo. Published by

am-

prefix. up

Derivations

  • ᴹ√AM “up” ✧ Ety/AM²

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√AM² > am-[am-]✧ Ety/AM²

anar

noun. Sun

Variations

  • anar ✧ PE22/019; PE22/023

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶Anār “Sun” ✧ Ety/ANÁR; SD/306
    • ᴹ√NAR “flame, fire” ✧ Ety/ANÁR
  • ᴹ√NAR “flame, fire” ✧ Ety/NAR¹

Cognates

  • Ad. ûri “sun” ✧ SD/306
  • N. Anor “Sun” ✧ Ety/ANÁR; Ety/NAR¹; LR/041; LRI/Anar; SD/306; SDI2/Anar
  • S. Anor “Sun” ✧ SDI2/Anar

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶anār- > Anar[anār] > [anar]✧ Ety/ANÁR
ᴹ√NAR¹ > Anar[anār] > [anar]✧ Ety/NAR¹
ᴹ✶Anār > Anar[anār] > [anar]✧ SD/306

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
Anarinya1st-sg-poss“my Sun”✧ LR/072
Qenya [Ety/ANÁR; Ety/NAR¹; EtyAC/ANÁR; LR/041; LR/072; LR/240; LRI/Anar; PE22/019; PE22/023; SD/306; SDI2/Anar] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ar-

prefix. outside, beside

Derivations

  • ᴹ√AR “beside, outside” ✧ Ety/AR²

Cognates

  • Ilk. ar- “outside, beside” ✧ Ety/AR²
  • N. ar- “outside, beside; without” ✧ Ety/AR²

Element in

  • ᴹQ. Arvalin “Outside Valinor” ✧ Ety/AR²

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√AR² > ar-[ar-]✧ Ety/AR²

are

noun. day

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶ari “day” ✧ Ety/AR¹
    • ᴹ√AR “day” ✧ Ety/AR¹

Cognates

  • N. ar- “day” ✧ Ety/AR¹

Element in

  • ᴹQ. Are Fanturion “Day of the Fanturi, fourth day of the Valian week”
  • ᴹQ. Are Manwen “Day of Manwe, first day of the Valian week”
  • ᴹQ. Arendien “Midyear’s Day”
  • ᴹQ. Are Veruen “Day of the Spouses, third day of the Valian week”
  • ᴹQ. artuile “dayspring, early morn”
  • ᴹQ. Ar Ulmon “Day of Ulmo, second day of the Valian week”
  • ᴹQ. enar “tomorrow”
  • ᴹQ. Mettare “Year’s end”
  • ᴹQ. sinar “today, this morning”
  • ᴹQ. Tuilear “Springdays”
  • ᴹQ. yáre “former days”
  • ᴹQ. Koirear “Stirringdays”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶ari- > are[ari] > [are]✧ Ety/AR¹

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
ariplural-✧ Ety/AR¹

min

cardinal. one

Variations

  • mine ✧ Ety/MINI

Derivations

  • ᴹ√MIN “stand alone, stick out” ✧ Ety/MINI

Cognates

  • N. min “one” ✧ Ety/MINI

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√MINI > mine[mine]✧ Ety/MINI
ᴹ√MINI > min[min]✧ Ety/MINI
Qenya [Ety/MINI; EtyAC/MINI] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nai

interjection. alas

Derivations

  • ᴹ√NAY “lament” ✧ Ety/NAY

Cognates

  • N. nae “alas” ✧ Ety/NAY

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√NAY > nai[nai]✧ Ety/NAY

qen

noun. Elf

Variations

  • qen ✧ PE21/19; PE21/25

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶kwenedē “Elf” ✧ PE21/25; PE21/25
    • ᴹ√KWEN(ED) “Elf” ✧ Ety/KWEN(ED)

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶qend(ǝ)mēn > qenwen[kwendemēn] > [kwendmēn] > [kwenmēn] > [kwenwēn] > [kwenwen]✧ PE21/25

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
qend-stem-✧ PE21/19
qennominative-✧ PE21/25
qendaaccusative-✧ PE21/25
qendendative-✧ PE21/25
qendogenitive-✧ PE21/25
qendaneninstrumental-✧ PE21/25
qenduntaallative-✧ PE21/25
qendulloablative-✧ PE21/25
qendesselocative-✧ PE21/25
†qendataallative-✧ PE21/25
qenduloablative-✧ PE21/25
qenduvapossessive-✧ PE21/25
qendanonsimilative-✧ PE21/25
qenduntnominative dual-✧ PE21/25
qendutaccusative dual-✧ PE21/25
qendudative dual-✧ PE21/25
qendumetinstrumental dual-✧ PE21/25
qendullutablative dual-✧ PE21/25
qenduntauallative dual-✧ PE21/25
qendussetlocative dual-✧ PE21/25
qenduhtagenitive dual-✧ PE21/25
qendinnominative plural-✧ PE21/25
qendiaccusative plural-✧ PE21/25
qendirdative plural-✧ PE21/25
qendiongenitive plural-✧ PE21/25
qendintanallative plural-✧ PE21/25
qendillonablative plural-✧ PE21/25
qendissenlocative plural-✧ PE21/25
qendinwapossessive plural-✧ PE21/25
qendindonsimilative plural-✧ PE21/25
qendíkapartitive-plural-✧ PE21/25
qendíneninstrumental plural-✧ PE21/25
qendilinnominative plural-✧ PE21/25
†qenweninstrumental-✧ PE21/25
†qentaallative-✧ PE21/25
†qenselocative-✧ PE21/25
†qendyoablative-✧ PE21/25 only in OQ
†qentauallative dual-✧ PE21/25
†qentanallative plural-✧ PE21/25
†qendyutablative dual-✧ PE21/25
†qendyonablative plural-✧ PE21/25
†qensetlocative dual-✧ PE21/25
†qenwetinstrumental dual-✧ PE21/25
†qendessetinstrumental dual-✧ PE21/25
†qendardative-✧ PE21/25
Qenya [PE21/19; PE21/25] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ter

preposition. through

Variations

  • tere ✧ Ety/TER

Derivations

  • ᴹ√TER “pierce” ✧ Ety/TER

Cognates

  • N. trî “through” ✧ Ety/TER

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√TER > tere[tere]✧ Ety/TER

interjection. *lo!

Variations

  • ✧ SD/057

ainu

noun. holy one, angelic spirit

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶aı̯an- “holy” ✧ Ety/AYAN
    • ᴹ√(A)YAN “*holy” ✧ Ety/AYAN

Element in

  • ᴹQ. Aini “holy one, angelic spirit (f.), holy one, angelic spirit (f.); [ᴱQ.] (pagan) goddess”
  • ᴹQ. Ainulindale “Music of the Ainur” ✧ Ety/AYAN

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶aı̯an- > Ainu[ainu]✧ Ety/AYAN

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
Ainurplural-✧ Ety/AYAN; LR/156; LRI/Ainur; SMI/Ainur
Qenya [Ety/AYAN; LR/156; LRI/Ainur; SMI/Ainur] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aksa

noun. ravine, narrow path; edge

A noun in The Etymologies of the 1930s given as ᴹQ. aksa “narrow path, ravine” derived from the root ᴹ√AK “narrow, confined” (Ety/AK). It was also the name of a tengwa in notes on The Feanorian Alphabet from the 1930s with the gloss “ravine” (PE22/22), and it reappeared in a later version of these notes from the 1940s, but its gloss was changed: {“ravine” >>} “edge” (PE22/51).

Neo-Quenya: For purposes of Neo-Quenya, I’d avoid this word and instead use Q. (a)nacca for “narrow path” and Q. címa for “edge”.

Changes

  • aksaaksa “ravine” ✧ PE22/051

Derivations

  • ᴹ√AK “narrow, confined” ✧ Ety/AK

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√AK > aksa[aksa]✧ Ety/AK
Qenya [Ety/AK; PE22/022; PE22/051] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ala-

verb. to grow

Variations

  • ’alā- ✧ PE22/098

Changes

  • ala-ola- ✧ PE22/113

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶galā- “to grow” ✧ PE22/098; PE22/106
    • ᴹ√GAL “grow, thrive” ✧ PE22/098

Element in

  • ᴹQ. aldar olar sana nóresse “trees grow in that land” ✧ PE22/116 (aldar {alar >>} olar i·nóresse)
  • ᴹQ. i·aldar hinna ólar “the tree is still growing” ✧ PE22/116 (i·aldar hinna {alarye >>} olarye)
  • ᴹQ. alanwa “fully grown, adult, mature” ✧ PE22/112

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶galā > ’alā-[gala-] > [ɣala-] > [ala-]✧ PE22/098
ᴹ✶galā́ > ala-[gala-] > [ɣala-] > [ala-]✧ PE22/106

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
alanwaperfective-participle“full-grown, mature, adult”✧ PE22/106
-aláyaactive-participle-✧ PE22/106; PE22/106 seldom used
-alaryaimperfect-participle-✧ PE22/107
alavainafuture-passive-participle-✧ PE22/109
-alavantafuture-passive-participle-✧ PE22/109
-alávafuture-✧ PE22/109; PE22/116
alanwaperfective-participle“fully grown, adult, mature”✧ PE22/112
-alaraorist plural“grow”✧ PE22/116
-alaryepresent-✧ PE22/116
-alanepast-✧ PE22/116
-allepast-✧ PE22/116
-(al)álieperfect-✧ PE22/116
-alaryaneconsuetudinal-past-✧ PE22/116
-alávegerund-✧ PE22/116
-alávaactive-participle“growing”✧ PE22/116
Qenya [PE22/098; PE22/106; PE22/107; PE22/109; PE22/112; PE22/113; PE22/116] Group: Eldamo. Published by

alla

interjection. hail!

Variations

  • ala/alar/alla ✧ EtyAC/AL (ala/alar/alla)
  • alar ✧ EtyAC/GALÁS (alar); EtyAC/GAL(AS) (alar)
  • ala/alla ✧ EtyAC/GAL(AS) (ala/alla)
  • Alar ✧ EtyAC/LAR (Alar)
  • alasse ✧ EtyAC/LAR (alasse)
  • Alla ✧ SD/030; WR/223

Changes

  • AllaAiya ✧ SD/030

Derivations

  • ᴹ√ALA “*blessed” ✧ EtyAC/AL
  • ᴹ√GALAS “joy, be glad” ✧ Ety/GALÁS; EtyAC/GAL(AS)
    • ᴹ√GAL “grow, thrive” ✧ Ety/GALA
  • ᴹ√GAL “grow, thrive” ✧ EtyAC/GAL(AS)
  • ᴹ✶alar-si “hail!” ✧ EtyAC/LAR
    • ᴹ√LAR “rich, fat” ✧ EtyAC/LAR

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√AL > ala/alar/alla[alla]✧ EtyAC/AL
ᴹ√GALÁS > alasa > alar[galasa] > [galas] > [ɣalas] > [alas] > [alar]✧ Ety/GALÁS
ᴹ√GAL > ala/alla[galla] > [ɣalla] > [alla]✧ EtyAC/GAL(AS)
ᴹ√GALAS > alar[galas] > [ɣalas] > [alas] > [alar]✧ EtyAC/GAL(AS)
Qenya [EtyAC/AL; EtyAC/GALÁS; EtyAC/GAL(AS); EtyAC/LAR; PE22/023; SD/030; WR/223] Group: Eldamo. Published by

alma

noun. good fortune, weal, wealth, *well-being

@@@ probably better reconceived as a derivative of √AL(A)

Derivations

  • ᴹ√ALA “*blessed” ✧ Ety/ÁLAM; EtyAC/AL
  • ᴹ√GAL “grow, thrive” ✧ Ety/GALA; EtyAC/GAL²; EtyAC/GAL(AS)

Cognates

  • N. galw “?increase, growth” ✧ EtyAC/GAL²

Element in

  • ᴺQ. almien “cheers, (lit.) to good fortune”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√AL > alma[alma]✧ Ety/ÁLAM
ᴹ√GALA > alma[galma] > [ɣalma] > [alma]✧ Ety/GALA
ᴹ√AL > alma[alma]✧ EtyAC/AL
ᴹ√GAL² > alma[galma] > [ɣalma] > [alma]✧ EtyAC/GAL²
ᴹ√GAL > alma[galma] > [ɣalma] > [alma]✧ EtyAC/GAL(AS)
Qenya [Ety/ÁLAM; Ety/GALA; EtyAC/AL; EtyAC/GAL²; EtyAC/GAL(AS); PE22/017; PE22/046] Group: Eldamo. Published by

alqa

noun. swan

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶alkwā “swan” ✧ Ety/ÁLAK
    • ᴹ√(A)LAK “swift, rushing” ✧ Ety/ÁLAK; PE18/050

Cognates

  • ᴹT. alpa “swan” ✧ Ety/ÁLAK
  • On. alpha “swan” ✧ Ety/ÁLAK
  • N. alf “swan” ✧ Ety/ÁLAK
  • Ilk. alch “swan” ✧ Ety/ÁLAK
  • Dan. ealc “swan” ✧ Ety/ÁLAK

Element in

  • ᴹQ. Alqalonde “Swan-haven” ✧ Ety/ÁLAK

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶alk-wā > alqa[alkwā] > [alkwa]✧ Ety/ÁLAK

alta

adjective. large, great in size

Variations

  • alat- ✧ EtyAC/ÁLAT

Derivations

  • ᴹ√ALAT “large, great in size” ✧ Ety/ÁLAT

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√ÁLAT > alta[alta]✧ Ety/ÁLAT

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
alat-prefix“large, great in size”✧ Ety/ÁLAT
Qenya [Ety/ÁLAT; EtyAC/ÁLAT] Group: Eldamo. Published by

alwa

adjective. well-grown

Derivations

  • ᴹ√GAL “grow, thrive” ✧ EtyAC/GAL(AS)

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√GAL > alwa[galwa] > [ɣalwa] > [alwa]✧ EtyAC/GAL(AS)
Qenya [EtyAC/GAL(AS); PE22/011; PE22/023] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ambo

noun. hill

Derivations

  • ᴹ√AM “up” ✧ Ety/AM²

Cognates

  • N. amon “hill” ✧ Ety/AM²

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√AM² > ambo[ambo]✧ Ety/AM²
Qenya [EtyAC/AM²] Group: Eldamo. Published by

amil

noun. mother

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶amī̆l “mother”
    • ᴹ√AM “mother”
  • ᴹ√AM “mother” ✧ Ety/AM¹

Cognates

  • Ilk. aman “mother” ✧ Ety/AM¹
  • N. emil “mother” ✧ Ety/AM¹

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√AM¹ > amil[amil]✧ Ety/AM¹

amme

noun. mother

Derivations

  • ᴹ√AM “mother” ✧ Ety/AM¹

Cognates

  • Ad. ammê “mother”
  • Ilk. aman “mother” ✧ Ety/AM¹

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√AM¹ > amme[amme]✧ Ety/AM¹
Qenya [Ety/AM¹; PE22/023] Group: Eldamo. Published by

anna

noun. gift

Derivations

  • ᴹ√NĀ/ANA “to, towards” ✧ Ety/ANA¹

Cognates

  • N. ant “gift” ✧ Ety/ANA¹

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√ANA¹ > anna[anna]✧ Ety/ANA¹

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
annarplural“gifts”✧ LR/072; LR/072
Qenya [Ety/ANA¹; LR/072; PE22/023; PE22/052] Group: Eldamo. Published by

anta

noun. face

Changes

  • antaanta “jaw” ✧ PE22/021

Derivations

  • ᴹ√NĀ/ANA “to, towards” ✧ Ety/ANA¹
  • ᴹ√ANAT ✧ EtyAC/ANA¹

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√ANA¹ > anta[anta]✧ Ety/ANA¹
ᴹ√ANAT > anta[anta]✧ EtyAC/ANA¹
Qenya [Ety/ANA¹; EtyAC/ANA¹; PE22/021; PE22/022; PE22/050] Group: Eldamo. Published by

apsa

noun. juice

Variations

  • apsa ✧ PE22/050

Derivations

  • ᴹ√PAS “*juice” ✧ PE22/050

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√PAS > apsa[apsa]✧ PE22/050

arat

noun. weed

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
arak-stem“weed”✧ PE21/35
aratnominative-✧ PE21/35
arakaaccusative-✧ PE21/35
arakendative-✧ PE21/35
arakogenitive-✧ PE21/35
aruqeninstrumental-✧ PE21/35
†arankeninstrumental-✧ PE21/35
arakaneninstrumental-✧ PE21/35
arahtaallative-✧ PE21/35
arukuntaallative-✧ PE21/35
arukulloablative-✧ PE21/35
†arityoablative-✧ PE21/35
†aratyoablative-✧ PE21/35
arakselocative-✧ PE21/35
arakesselocative-✧ PE21/35
aratyapossessive-✧ PE21/35
†arityapossessive-✧ PE21/35
arakundonsimilative-✧ PE21/35
araksonsimilative-✧ PE21/35
arakuntaallative-✧ PE21/35
arakulloablative-✧ PE21/35
arukuntnominative dual-✧ PE21/35
arakuntnominative dual-✧ PE21/35
arakinnominative plural-✧ PE21/35
arakítapartitive-plural-✧ PE21/35
Qenya [PE21/33; PE21/35] Group: Eldamo. Published by

as

noun. bone

Element in

  • ᴹQ. astula “bony” ✧ PE21/27

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
astŭ-stem“bone”✧ PE21/27

assa

noun. hole, perforation, opening, mouth

Variations

  • assa ✧ Ety/GAS; PE22/021

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶gassā “hole, gap” ✧ Ety/GAS
    • ᴹ√GAS “yawn, gape” ✧ Ety/GAS

Cognates

  • N. gas “hole, gap” ✧ Ety/GAS

Element in

  • ᴺQ. catassa “anus, arsehole, *(lit.) behind-hole”
  • ᴹQ. Ilmen-assa “Chasm of Ilmen” ✧ Ety/GAS

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶gassā > assa[gassā] > [ɣassā] > [assā] > [assa]✧ Ety/GAS
Qenya [Ety/GAS; PE22/021] Group: Eldamo. Published by

asto

noun. dust

A noun in The Etymologies of the 1930s glossed “dust” derived from the root ᴹ√ÁS-AT (Ety/ÁS-AT). It was also mentioned in The Feanorian Alphabet from the late 1930s with the same form and meaning (PE22/21-22), and in the revisions of that document from the 1940s, though there it was replaced with ᴹQ. osto as a name for one of the tengwar (PE22/50). This replacement may only have to do with tengwar names, and doesn’t necessarily invalidate asto “dust”.

Derivations

  • ᴹ√ASAT “*dust” ✧ Ety/ÁS-AT

Cognates

  • N. ast “dust” ✧ Ety/ÁS-AT

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√ÁS-AT > asto[asto]✧ Ety/ÁS-AT
Qenya [Ety/ÁS-AT; EtyAC/ÁS-AT; PE22/021; PE22/022; PE22/050] Group: Eldamo. Published by

atan

noun. Man

Element in

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
ataniplural“men”✧ PE22/125

atta

cardinal. two

Derivations

  • ᴹ√ATTA “two” ✧ Ety/AT(AT)
  • ᴹ√AT “back, again, twice; two” ✧ Ety/TATA

Cognates

  • N. tâd “two” ✧ Ety/AT(AT)

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√ATTA > atta[atta]✧ Ety/AT(AT)
ᴹ√AT(AT) > atta[atta]✧ Ety/TATA
Qenya [Ety/AT(AT); Ety/TATA; PE22/017; PE22/044] Group: Eldamo. Published by

kala

noun. light

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶k’lā “light” ✧ Ety/KAL
    • ᴹ√KAL “shine” ✧ Ety/KAL; PE18/038

Cognates

  • N. glaw “radiance” ✧ Ety/KAL

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶k’lā́ > kala[kala]✧ Ety/KAL

kermie

noun. July

Variations

  • Cermië ✧ PM/134

Cognates

kóma

noun. *ball

Variations

  • cṓma ✧ PE19/059

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶kōmā “[unglossed]” ✧ PE19/059; PE19/059

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶kṓmā > cṓma[kōmā] > [kōma]✧ PE19/059
ᴹ✶kṓmallṑ > cōmállō̆[kōmallō] > [kōmallo]✧ PE19/059

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
cōmállō̆ablative-✧ PE19/059

sinome

adverb. here

Variations

  • símen ✧ LR/072
  • Símane ✧ SD/056
  • Sinome ✧ SD/056

Element in

Qenya [LR/072; SD/056] Group: Eldamo. Published by

andalúme eldar oianer valinoresse, masse oiar sí

for a long while the Elves lived in Valinor, where are they/do they live now?

Variations

  • andalúme Eldar oianer Valinoresse, masse oiar sí? ✧ PE22/125

aika

adjective. sharp

Derivations

  • ᴹ√AYAK “sharp, pointed” ✧ Ety/AYAK

Cognates

  • N. oeg “sharp, pointed, piercing” ✧ Ety/AYAK

Element in

  • ᴹQ. aikale “peak” ✧ Ety/AYAK
  • ᴹQ. aikasse “mountain peak” ✧ Ety/AYAK
  • ᴺQ. alaica “blunt”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√AYAK > aika[aika]✧ Ety/AYAK

ailin

noun. pool, lake

Variations

  • Ailin ✧ Ety/LIN¹

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶ailin “pool, lake” ✧ Ety/AY

Cognates

  • N. oel “pool, lake” ✧ Ety/AY

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶ai-lin- > ailin[ailin]✧ Ety/AY

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
ailinengenitive-✧ Ety/AY
Qenya [Ety/AY; Ety/LIN¹] Group: Eldamo. Published by

alako

noun. rush, rushing flight, wild wind

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶álākō “rush, rushing flight, wild wind” ✧ Ety/ÁLAK
    • ᴹ√(A)LAK “swift, rushing” ✧ Ety/ÁLAK

Cognates

  • N. alag “rushing, impetuous” ✧ Ety/ÁLAK

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶álākō > alako[alākō] > [alakō] > [alako]✧ Ety/ÁLAK
Qenya [EtyAC/ÁLAK] Group: Eldamo. Published by

alari

proper name. Alari

A name appearing only in linguistic notes from the 1930s (PE21/41). Its primitive form ᴹ✶alarʒǝ was said to mean “very dread”.

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶alarʒǝ “very dread” ✧ PE21/41

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
Alarinominative-✧ PE21/41
Alaryaaccusative-✧ PE21/41
Alaryendative-✧ PE21/41
Alaryogenitive-✧ PE21/41
Alaryaneninstrumental-✧ PE21/41
Alaryuntaallative-✧ PE21/41
[Alary]ulloablative-✧ PE21/41
[Alary]esselocative-✧ PE21/41
Alaryauvapossessive-✧ PE21/41
Alaryundonsimilative-✧ PE21/41
Alaryanonsimilative-✧ PE21/41
[Ala]aryuntnominative dual-✧ PE21/41
[Ala]arinnominative plural-✧ PE21/41
[Ala]aryulinnominative plural-✧ PE21/41

alkar

masculine name. Radiant

A name for Melko appearing in the final version of the poem, Fíriel’s Song (LR/63, 72). According to Christopher Tolkien, it appeared nowhere else (LR/74 note 16). It seems to be alkar(e) “radiance” used as a name.

Elements

WordGloss
alkar(e)“radiance, brilliance”
Qenya [LR/063; LR/072; LRI/Alkar] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aran

noun. child

This word first appeared as ᴱQ. ar (arn-) “child” in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s (QL/32) and its stem form arn- appeared in the Poetic and Mythological Words of Eldarissa (PME/32). The word reappeared in Early Qenya Word-lists of the 1920s (PE16/135), but in the Early Noldorin Dictionary the Qenya form was given as arne. In the Declension of Nouns from the early 1930s, the word appeared as ᴹQ. aran (arn-) “child” (PE21/19), but there is no sign of it from this point forward, probably displaced by Q. aran “king”.

Variations

  • aran ✧ PE21/19

Derivations

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
arn-stem-✧ PE21/19

ender

noun. bridegroom, bridegroom, *groom

A word for “bridegroom” in The Etymologies derived from the root ᴹ√NDER, a strengthened form of the root ᴹ√DER “man” (Ety/NDER).

Conceptual Development: There is an unglossed word ᴱQ. vestaner the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s that is a combination of ᴱQ. vesta “marriage” and ᴱQ. ner “man” (QL/101). This Early Qenya word may likewise mean “(bride)groom”, as there is a distinct word for “husband” under the same root: ᴱQ. veru*.

Variations

  • Ender ✧ Ety/NDER

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶Endero “(?virile) young bridegroom” ✧ Ety/NDER
    • ᴹ√(N)DER “adult male, man; bridegroom” ✧ Ety/NDER

Element in

  • ᴹQ. Ender “Bridegroom” ✧ Ety/NDER

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶Endero > Ender[endero] > [ender]✧ Ety/NDER

marta

noun. home

Variations

  • marta ✧ PE21/25; PE21/27

Derivations

  • ᴹ√MBAR “dwell, inhabit”
    • ᴹ√BAR “raise; uplift, save, rescue(?)” ✧ Ety/BAR
Qenya [PE21/25; PE21/27] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nanno

masculine name. Nanno

Variations

  • Nano ✧ PE18/024 (Nano)

Changes

  • NanoNanno ✧ PE18/024

Cognates

  • Dan. Dan ✧ PE18/024

olar

noun. dream

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
olarnominative-✧ PE21/33
olaraaccusative-✧ PE21/33
olarendative-✧ PE21/33
olarogenitive-✧ PE21/33
olarneninstrumental-✧ PE21/33
†[olar]meninstrumental-✧ PE21/33
olartaallative-✧ PE21/33
olaruntaallative-✧ PE21/33
olarulloablative-✧ PE21/33
†olalloablative-✧ PE21/33
olaresselocative-✧ PE21/33
olarwapossessive-✧ PE21/33
olaruvapossessive-✧ PE21/33
olardonsimilative-✧ PE21/33
olarundonsimilative-✧ PE21/33
olaruntnominative dual-✧ PE21/33
†olarmetinstrumental dual-✧ PE21/33
olarúmetinstrumental dual-✧ PE21/33
olaruntauallative dual-✧ PE21/33
olarullutablative dual-✧ PE21/33
olarussetlocative dual-✧ PE21/33
olarinnominative plural-✧ PE21/33
olallinnominative plural-✧ PE21/33

tinga

noun. *flint

Element in

vakse

noun. stain

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶wahsē “stain” ✧ Ety/WAƷ
    • ᴹ√WAƷ “stain, soil” ✧ Ety/WAƷ

Cognates

  • On. wasse “stain” ✧ Ety/WAƷ
  • N. gwass “stain” ✧ Ety/WAƷ

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶wahsē > vakse[waxsē] > [waksē] > [wakse] > [vakse]✧ Ety/WAƷ

alkarinqa

adjective. radiant, glorious

Cognates

  • N. aglareb “glorious” ✧ Ety/AKLA-R
Qenya [Ety/AKLA-R] Group: Eldamo. Published by

andave

adverb. *long

Element in

arka

adjective. narrow

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶akrā “narrow” ✧ Ety/AK
    • ᴹ√AK “narrow, confined” ✧ Ety/AK

Cognates

  • N. agor “narrow” ✧ Ety/AK

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶akrā > arka[akrā] > [arkā] > [arkā]✧ Ety/AK

kuivie

noun. awakening

Variations

  • kuive ✧ Ety/KUY
  • kuivië ✧ SD/047

Derivations

  • ᴹ√KUY “come to life, awake” ✧ Ety/KUY

Cognates

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√KUY > kuive[kuiwe] > [kuive]✧ Ety/KUY
Qenya [Ety/KUY; SD/047] Group: Eldamo. Published by

lament of atalante

Lament of Atalante

This text appears in two different stories by Tolkien, both published posthumously: the “Lost Road” (LR/36-104) and “The Notion Club Papers” (SD/145-327). In both stories, a modern Englishmen retrieves the text from visions of the ancient past. The text summarizes the tale of the fall of Númenor. Tolkien did not himself name the text, but it has been called “Atalante”, “Atalante Fragments” or the “Lament of Atalante” in the literature, the last of these names being adopted here.

There are five basic versions of this text, some with minor variations:

  • The very first version of this text is in the draft of the Lost Road (LR/56). It differs considerably from later versions.

  • The second version appears in the final revision of the Lost Road (LR/47). Most of the elements of this version are retained in some form in all later versions.

  • The third version is in the first draft of “The Notion Club Papers” (SD/310).

  • The fourth version can be seen in later revisions for “The Notion Club Papers” story. This version has not been published, but can be reconstructed from Christopher Tolkien’s notes (SD/311). It differs from the final form in only a few points.

  • The fifth version appears in the final revision of “The Notion Club Papers” (SD/246-7). It appears in two places, a typescript version (SD/246-7) and manuscript version (VT24/7-8) that differ only in their English translation.

There is considerable variation between the different versions of the text and there is no definitive version, since the stories where it appeared were unfinished. The presentation of the poem here is an amalgam of elements from the different versions written by J.R.R. Tolkien, illustrating as many features of the different versions as possible while remaining internally consistent.

This presentation of the Lament is compiled from the phrases appearing in at least one version of the text, with a preference for later forms over earlier ones. Further discussion of the textual history can be found in the analysis of the individual phrases. A more extensive analysis of the text can be found in the article “AF” by Aleš Bičan.

Elements

WordGloss
ar Sauron túle nukumna Númenórenna“and Sauron came humbled to Númenor”
lantaner Turkildi nuhuinenna“the Lordly Men [Númenóreans] fell under shadow”
Tar-Kalion ohtakáre Valannar“Tar-Kalion made war on the Powers”
Herunúmen arda sakkante lenéme Ilúvatáren“the Lord of the West [Manwe] broke the world by leave of Ilúvatar”
eari ullier i kilyanna“the seas poured into the chasm”
Númenóre ataltane“Númenor fell down”
malle téna lende númenna“a road [once] went straight westward”
ilya sí maller raikar“now all roads (are) bent”
Turkildi rómenna“the Lordly Men [Númenóreans] [go] eastward”
vahaiya sín Andóre“far away now (is) the Land of Gift”
haiya vahaiya sín Atalante“far, far away now (is) the Downfallen”

laurea

adjective. *golden

Element in

nandaro

noun. harper

Variations

  • ñandaro ✧ Ety/ÑGAN

Cognates

  • N. talagand “harper” ✧ Ety/ÑGAN; Ety/ÑGAN

Elements

WordGloss
nanda-“to harp”
-ro“agental suffix”

uvana

adjective. wicked

Derivations

  • ᴹ√BAN “*beauty”

Element in

poldórea

masculine name. Strong One, Valiant

Variations

  • Poldórëa ✧ LR/206; LRI/Poldórëa; SM/079; SMI/Poldórëa
Qenya [Ety/POL; LR/206; LRI/Poldórëa; SM/079; SMI/Poldórëa] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aikasse

noun. mountain peak

A word in The Etymologies of the 1930s glossed “mountain peak”, an abstract noun formation of ᴹQ. aika “sharp” (Ety/AYAK).

Cognates

  • N. oegas “mountain peak” ✧ Ety/AYAK

alakaru

proper name. Alakaru

A name appearing only in linguistic notes from the 1930s (PE21/41). Its primitive form ᴹ✶alakarƀǝ was said to mean “very active”.

Derivations

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
[Ala]karwaaccusative-✧ PE21/41
[Ala]karwendative-✧ PE21/41
[Ala]karwogenitive-✧ PE21/41
[Ala]karwaneninstrumental-✧ PE21/41
[Ala]karwuntaallative-✧ PE21/41
[Ala]karulloablative-✧ PE21/41
[Ala]karwesselocative-✧ PE21/41
[Ala]karuvapossessive-✧ PE21/41

aldaron

masculine name. Lord of Forests

Cognates

  • N. Galadhon ✧ LR/404
  • N. Tauros “Lord of Forests; (lit.) Forest-Dread” ✧ LR/206; SM/079; SMI/Aldaron
Qenya [Ety/GALAD; LR/206; LR/404; LRI/Aldaron; SM/079; SMI/Aldaron] Group: Eldamo. Published by

amardil

masculine name. Amardil

Changes

  • AmardilAmandil ✧ SDI2/Amardil
Qenya [SDI2/Amardil] Group: Eldamo. Published by

andolat

place name. Andolat

Name of a hill appearing in The Etymologies from the 1930s (Ety/NDOL). It is derived from the root ᴹ√NDOL, but its meaning is unclear.

Cognates

andóre

place name. Land of Gift

Variations

  • Andor ✧ LR/019; LR/025; LR/065; LRI/Andor; SDI2/Andóre
  • Andōre ✧ SD/241; SD/305
  • Andōrē ✧ SD/343

Cognates

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
anna“gift”
-ndor“-land”
Qenya [LR/019; LR/025; LR/065; LRI/Andor; SD/241; SD/247; SD/305; SD/343; SDI2/Andóre] Group: Eldamo. Published by

arin

noun. morning

@@@ may be reconceived as a derivative of AS.

Derivations

  • ᴹ√AR “day” ✧ Ety/AR¹

Element in

  • ᴺQ. arinwat “breakfast, (lit.) morning-meal”
  • ᴹQ. arinya “morning, early” ✧ Ety/AR¹

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√AR¹ > arin[arin]✧ Ety/AR¹

arwa

possessing, having, in control of

Variations

  • -arwa ✧ EtyAC/GAR (-arwa)

Changes

  • arwa-arwa “possession, belongs, wealth” ✧ EtyAC/GAR

Derivations

  • ᴹ√GAR “keep, hold, possess; maintain, defend” ✧ Ety/ƷAR|GAR; Ety/GAR

Element in

  • ᴹQ. aldarwa “having trees, tree-grown” ✧ Ety/ƷAR|GAR
  • ᴺQ. lapsarwa “pregnant, (lit.) baby-having”
  • ᴺQ. lúcëarwa “enchanting, attractive”
  • ᴺQ. maxárma “software”
  • ᴺQ. nórarwa “economy, (lit.) country-possessions”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√GAR > arwa[garwa] > [ɣarwa] > [arwa]✧ Ety/ƷARGAR
ᴹ√GAR > arwa[garwa] > [ɣarwa] > [arwa]✧ Ety/GAR
ᴹ√GAR > -arwa[-garwa] > [-ɣarwa] > [-arwa]✧ Ety/GAR

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
-arwasuffix“having”✧ Ety/ƷARGAR semi-suffix
Qenya [Ety/ƷAR|GAR; EtyAC/GAR; PE22/023; PE22/052] Group: Eldamo. Published by

antirion

proper name. Antirion

An earlier name for Armenelos appearing in Númenórean stories from the 1940s (SD/347), apparently some kind of elaboration on tirion “tower”.

Elements

WordGloss
?
tirion“watch-tower, tower”
Qenya [SDI2/Antirion] Group: Eldamo. Published by

vahai(y)a

adverb. far away

Variations

  • (a)vahāya ✧ EtyAC/KHAYA
  • vahāya ✧ LR/047; SD/310
  • Vahaia ✧ PE22/124
  • vahaiya ✧ SD/247

Cognates

  • N. gwahae “*far away” ✧ EtyAC/KHAYA

Element in

Elements

WordGloss
va“away”
háya“far off, far away”
Qenya [EtyAC/KHAYA; LR/047; PE22/124; SD/247; SD/310] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ambaróne

noun. uprising, sunrise, Orient

Variations

  • ambaron/Ambaróne ✧ Ety/AM²

Cognates

  • N. amrûn “uprising, sunrise, Orient, east” ✧ Ety/AM²

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
ambarónengenitive-✧ Ety/AM²

ára

noun. dawn, day

Variations

  • āra ✧ PE22/018; PE22/023

Derivations

  • ᴹ√AR “day” ✧ Ety/AR¹

Cognates

  • N. aur “day, morning” ✧ Ety/AR¹

Element in

  • ᴹQ. áratenkele “writing of A, (lit.) daywriting” ✧ PE22/047

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√AR¹ > ára[āra]✧ Ety/AR¹
Qenya [Ety/AR¹; EtyAC/AR¹; PE22/018; PE22/023; PE22/047; PE22/052] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ai

adverb. supposing, suppose, maybe

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶ai “possibility” ✧ PE22/098

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶ai > ai[ai]✧ PE22/098
Qenya [PE22/097; PE22/120; PE22/121; PE22/122] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ara

preposition/adverb. outside, beside

Derivations

  • ᴹ√AR “beside, outside” ✧ Ety/AR²

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√AR² > ara[ara]✧ Ety/AR²
Qenya [Ety/AR²; EtyAC/AR²] Group: Eldamo. Published by

á

interjection. Oh!

Variations

  • á ✧ PE22/096

Element in

aina

adjective. holy

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶aı̯an- “holy” ✧ Ety/AYAN
    • ᴹ√(A)YAN “*holy” ✧ Ety/AYAN

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶aı̯an- > aina[aina]✧ Ety/AYAN
Qenya [Ety/AYAN; LR/072] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aman

noun. bond

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
amannominative“bond”✧ PE21/34
amanaaccusative-✧ PE21/34
amanendative-✧ PE21/34
amanogenitive-✧ PE21/34
amanweninstrumental-✧ PE21/34
amantaallative-✧ PE21/34
†amanuntaallative-✧ PE21/34
amanulloablative-✧ PE21/34
†amulloablative-✧ PE21/34
amanesselocative-✧ PE21/34
amanwapossessive-✧ PE21/34
amandonsimilative-✧ PE21/34
†amanundonsimilative-✧ PE21/34
amanuntnominative dual-✧ PE21/34
amaninnominative plural-✧ PE21/34
-[am]unweninstrumental-✧ PE21/34
Qenya [PE21/33; PE21/34] Group: Eldamo. Published by

amba

adverb. up(wards)

Variations

  • ama ✧ Ety/UNU

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶amba- ✧ Ety/AM²
    • ᴹ√AM “up” ✧ Ety/AM²
  • ᴹ√AM “up” ✧ Ety/UNU

Cognates

  • N. am “up” ✧ Ety/AM²

Element in

  • ᴹQ. amatikse “dot or point placed above the line of writing” ✧ Ety/UNU (amatekse)
  • ᴹQ. am(ba)penda “uphill, uphill, *sloping up; [ᴱQ.] arduous, difficult, tiresome” ✧ Ety/AM²
  • ᴹQ. ambaróne “uprising, sunrise, Orient” ✧ Ety/AM²

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶amba- > amba[amba]✧ Ety/AM²
ᴹ√AM² > ama[ama]✧ Ety/UNU
Qenya [Ety/AM²; Ety/UNU; PE22/021] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ampa

noun. hook, crook

Derivations

  • ᴹ√GAP “*bend” ✧ Ety/GAP

Cognates

  • N. gamp “hook, claw” ✧ Ety/GAP

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√GAP > ampa[gampa] > [ɣampa] > [ampa]✧ Ety/GAP
Qenya [Ety/GAP; PE22/022; PE22/050] Group: Eldamo. Published by

anda

adjective. long

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶andā “long” ✧ Ety/ÁNAD
    • ᴹ√ANAD “*long” ✧ Ety/ÁNAD; Ety/MBUD

Cognates

  • N. ann “long” ✧ Ety/ÁNAD

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶andā > anda[andā] > [anda]✧ Ety/ÁNAD

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
Andarplural“long”✧ PE18/032
#and-prefix“long”✧ PE22/011
Qenya [Ety/ÁNAD; PE18/032; PE22/011; PE22/020; PE22/021; PE22/096; PE22/125] Group: Eldamo. Published by

anga

noun. iron

Derivations

  • ᴹ√ANGA “iron” ✧ Ety/ANGĀ

Cognates

  • N. ang “iron” ✧ Ety/ANGĀ

Element in

  • ᴹQ. angaina “of iron” ✧ Ety/ANGĀ
  • ᴹQ. Angamanda “Iron Prison, Hells of Iron”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√ANGĀ > anga[aŋgā] > [aŋga]✧ Ety/ANGĀ
Qenya [Ety/ANGĀ; EtyAC/ANGĀ; PE22/021; PE22/022; PE22/051] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aran

noun. king

Variations

  • aran ✧ PE22/106; PE22/124
  • Aran ✧ PE22/125

Element in

Qenya [PE22/106; PE22/124; PE22/125] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aryon

noun. heir

Variations

  • aryo/aryon ✧ EtyAC/GAR (aryo/aryon)

Changes

  • aryo/aryonaryon “son of property, heir” ✧ Ety/ƷAR|GAR

Derivations

  • ᴹ√GAR “keep, hold, possess; maintain, defend” ✧ Ety/ƷAR|GAR; Ety/GAR

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√GAR > aryon[garjon] > [ɣarjon] > [arjon]✧ Ety/ƷARGAR
ᴹ√GAR > aryo/aryon[garjon] > [ɣarjon] > [arjon]✧ Ety/GAR
Qenya [Ety/ƷAR|GAR; EtyAC/GAR] Group: Eldamo. Published by

lára

adjective. flat

Variations

  • lára ✧ Ety/DAL
  • lāra ✧ EtyAC/LAD (lāra)

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶lāda “flat” ✧ Ety/DAL
    • ᴹ√DAL “flat” ✧ Ety/DAL
  • ᴹ√LAD “lie flat, be flat” ✧ Ety/LAD

Cognates

  • N. dalw “flat” ✧ Ety/DAL

Element in

  • ᴺQ. lára- “to flatten, level”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶lāda > lára[lāda] > [lāða] > [lāra]✧ Ety/DAL
ᴹ√LAD > lāra[lāda] > [lāða] > [lāra]✧ Ety/LAD
Qenya [Ety/DAL; EtyAC/LAD] Group: Eldamo. Published by

anari

proper name. Anari

A name appearing only in linguistic notes from the 1930s (PE21/41). Its meaning is unclear.

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
anariaaccusative-✧ PE21/41

armar

collective noun. goods

Derivations

  • ᴹ√GAR “keep, hold, possess; maintain, defend” ✧ Ety/ƷAR|GAR; Ety/GAR

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√GAR > armar[garmar] > [ɣarmar] > [armar]✧ Ety/ƷARGAR
ᴹ√GAR > arma[garma] > [ɣarma] > [arma]✧ Ety/GAR

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
-armasingular“possessions, goods, property”✧ EtyAC/GAR; EtyAC/ƷAR
Qenya [Ety/ƷAR|GAR; EtyAC/GAR; EtyAC/ƷAR] Group: Eldamo. Published by

landa

noun. plain

A noun for “a plain” in the Quenya Verbal System (QVS) of the 1940s derived from ᴹ√LAD “lie flat, be flat” with variants landa and lanna (PE22/126), the latter probably derived from *ladna with the voiced stop d becoming a nasal before nasal n. It might simply be the noun form of adjective ᴹQ. landa “wide” from The Etymologies of the 1930s (Ety/LAD).

Neo-Quenya: For purposes of Neo-Quenya, I’d stick to the form landa, which appears in an inflected form landannar “to the plains” early in QVS (PE22/125).

Variations

  • lanna ✧ PE22/126
  • landa ✧ PE22/126

Derivations

  • ᴹ√LAD “lie flat, be flat” ✧ PE22/126

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√LAD > lanna[ladna] > [lanna]✧ PE22/126
ᴹ√LAD > landa[landa]✧ PE22/126

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
landannarallative plural“to the plains”✧ PE22/125
Qenya [PE22/125; PE22/126] Group: Eldamo. Published by

lango

noun. broad sword; prow of a ship

Variations

  • lango ✧ Ety/LAG

Derivations

  • ᴹ√LAG “*cut” ✧ Ety/LAG

Cognates

  • N. lhang “cutlass, sword” ✧ Ety/LAG

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√LAG > lango[laŋgo]✧ Ety/LAG

raiqa

adjective. angry

Element in

angaina

adjective. of iron

Cognates

  • N. angren “of iron” ✧ Ety/ANGĀ

Elements

WordGloss
anga“iron”
-ina“adjective suffix; passive participle”

elentāri vardan oiolossëan tintallen māli rāmar ortelūmenen

Elentāri Vardan Oiolossëan Tintallen māli rāmar ortelūmenen

Element in

angainor

proper name. Angainor

Variations

  • Engainor ✧ LB/208 (Eq. Engainor); LBI/Angainor (Eq. Engainor)

Changes

  • EngainorAngainor ✧ LB/208
  • EngainorAngainor ✧ LBI/Angainor
Qenya [LB/205; LB/208; LBI/Angainor; LRI/Angainor; SMI/Angainor] Group: Eldamo. Published by

anárion

masculine name. Anárion

Elements

WordGloss
Anar“Sun”
-ion“-son”
Qenya [SD/401; SDI1/Anárion; SDI2/Anárion; TI/119; TII/Anárion; WRI/Anárion] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aryandor

place name. Aryandor

Derivations

Cognates

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
Aryandoraaccusative-✧ PE21/32