Quenya zR5Ì#

calima

adjective. bright

Also glossed as “luminous”, “shining brilliant”, “bright(er)”, “[?likely] to shine”, “bright[?]”, “luminous (by nature always)”.
Variations of the word: calima.

Elements

WordGlossSource
cal-to shine (?golden)-
-imaable to be done-
an-exceedingly brightLet/279.0108
ar(i)-brightest ... of allPE17/056.2205
calima-PE17/090.1005
-ima[?likely] to shine, bright[?]PE22/137.1508

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
ancalimaintensivevery brightPE17/153.3210; PE17/101.1404; PE17/090.0805; LotR/0915.2103
ancalimaintensivebrightest, very brightPE17/090.0404; PE17/057.4002
ancalimaintensivebrightestPE17/056.2701
ancalimaintensivevery brightPE17/057.0106
ancalimaintensivebrighterPE17/056.2901
ancalimaintensivevery brightPE17/146.4307
ancAlimaintensive-LotR/1116.3605
Ancalimaintensiveexceedingly brightLet/279.0105; LotR/0720.2601
AncalimaintensivebrightestLet/385.3302
ancălĭmaintensive-PE17/056.1901
ankalimaintensiveextremely brightPE17/091.1014
ar(i)calimasuperlative-PE17/057.4003
arcalimasuperlativepreeminently brightPE17/146.4304
arcalimasuperlativebrightest ... of allPE17/056.2801; PE17/056.4101
arcălĭmasuperlative-PE17/056.1902

Element in: Q. Ancalimë, Q. Ancalimon, Q. Tar Calimos, Q. calima, Q. Calimehtar, Q. Calimmacil

[PE17/057.4002; PE17/153.3212; PE17/146.4307; PE17/101.1404; LotR/0915.2103; PE17/090.0805; PE17/090.0404; PE17/056.2701; PE17/057.0106; PE17/056.2901; LotR/1116.3605; Let/278.4001; LotR/0720.2601; Let/385.3302; PE17/056.1901; PE17/091.1014; PE17/057.4003; PE17/056.2801; PE17/056.4101; PE17/146.4304; PE17/056.1902; PE17/057.4001; PE17/090.1005; PE17/153.3210; PE22/137.1501; PE17/090.4213; PE22/155.3907; PE17/090.1603; PE22/156.1901; Let/279.0105; PE17/153.3210|PE17/101.1404|PE17/090.0805|LotR/0915.2103; PE17/090.0404|PE17/057.4002; Let/279.0105|LotR/0720.2601; PE17/056.2801|PE17/056.4101] Group: Eldamo. Published by

calima

bright

calima adj. "bright" (VT42:32); cf. ancalima; in PE17:56, arcalima appears as another superlative "brightest" (see ar- #2).

calima

adjective. luminous

[PE 22:155, 156] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

ancalima

most bright, brightest

ancalima adj. "most bright, brightest", sc. calima "bright" with a superlative or intensive prefix (LotR2:IV ch. 9; see Letters:385 for translation). Ancalima imbi eleni "brightest among stars", also [ancalima] imb' illi "brightest among all" (VT47:30). Fem. name Ancalimë, *"Most Bright One", also masc. Ancalimon (Appendix A). Tar-Ancalimë, a Númenorean Queen (UT:210)

-ima

fair

-ima adjectival suffix. Sometimes it is used to derive simple adjectives, like vanima "fair" or calima "bright"; it can also take on the meaning "-able" (PE17:68), as in mátima "edible" (mat- "eat"), nótima "countable" (not- "count") and (with a negative prefix) úquétima "unspeakable" (from quet- "speak"). Note that the stem-vowel is normally lengthened in the derivatives where -ima means "-able", though this fails to occur in cenima "visible" (q.v., but contrast hraicénima, q.v.) and also before a consonant cluster as in úfantima "not concealable" (PE17:176). "X-ima" may mean "apt to X" (when the ending is added to an intransitive verbal stem), as in Fírimar "mortals", literally "those apt to die" (WJ:387). The adj. úfantima "not concealable" (PE17:176) also appears as úfantuma (PE17:180), indicating the existence of a variant ending -uma (possibly used to derive adjectives with a "bad" meaning; compare the ending *-unqua next to -inqua, q.v.)

an-

very

an- (2) intensive or superlative prefix carrying the idea of "very" or "most", seen in ancalima "most bright" (cf. calima "bright"), antara "very high, very lofty" and #anyára "very old" or "oldest" (the latter form occurring in the so-called Elaine inscription [VT49:40], there with the dative ending -n). Assimilated to am- before p-, as in amparca ("k") "very dry", and to al-, ar-, as- before words in l-, r-, s- (though Tolkien seems to indicate that before words in l- derived from earlier d, the original quality of the consonant would be preserved so that forms in and- rather than all- would result). See also un-. (Letters:279, VT45:5, 36) Regarding the form of the superlative prefix before certain consonants, another, partially discrepant system was also set down in the Etymologies and first published in VT45:36. The prefix was to appear as um- or un- before labialized consonants like p-, qu-, v- (the consonant v preserving its ancient pronunciation b- following the prefix, thus producing a word in umb-), as in- (technically -) before c- and g- (the latter presumably referring to words that originally had initial g-, later lost in Quenya but evidently preserved following this prefix), and as an- otherwise. However, this system would contradict the canonical example ancalima, which would have been *incalima if Tolkien had maintained this idea. In a post-LotR source, the basic form of the prefix is given as am- instead (see am- #2). In this late conception, the prefix still appears as an- before most consonants, but as ama- before r, l, and the form an- is used even before s- (whether original or from þ), not the assimilated variant as- described above. General principles would suggest that the form am- should also appear before y- (so the form #anyára probably presupposes an- rather than am- as the basic form of the prefix, Tolkien revisiting the earlier concept in the _Elaine inscription). (PE17:92)_

linda

fair, beautiful

linda adj. "fair, beautiful" (of sound) (SLIN, LIND; VT45:27), "soft, gentle, light" (PE16:96), "beautiful, sweet, melodious of sound" (PE17:150); for Linda as a noun, see Lindar.

vanya

adjective. fair

Also glossed as “beautiful”, “unmarred; fair-haired (yellow to golden)”, “unmarred”, “of fair unspoiled form”, “fair-haired (yellow to golden)”, “fair-haired”, “pale”.
Variations of the word: wanya.

Element in: Q. Arda Vanya, Q. ilvan(y)a, Q. úvana, Q. Vanya

[PE17/150.0909; PE17/056.0906; PE17/057.1203; PE17/149.3605; PE17/150.0601; PE17/150.0908; PE17/150.1101; PE17/150.1307; PE17/154.3111; PE17/165.2906; PE17/165.3005; PE17/165.3006] Group: Eldamo. Published by

vanya

fair

vanya (1) adj. "fair" (FS), "beautiful" (BAN), a word referring to beauty that is "due to lack of fault, or blemish" (PE17:150), hence Arda Vanya as an alternative to Arda Alahasta for "Arda Unmarred" (ibid., compare MR:254). Nominal pl. Vanyar "the Fair", the first clan of the Eldar; the original meaning of this stem was "pale, light-coloured, not brown or dark" (WJ:382, 383, stem given as WAN), "properly = white complexion and blonde hair" (PE17:154, stem given as GWAN); stems BAN vs. WAN discussed, see PE17:150.

vanë

adjective. fair

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
vanĭ-stem-PE17/056.0903

Element in: Q. úvanë(a)

[PE17/056.0903; PE17/056.0904] Group: Eldamo. Published by

vanë

fair

vanë adj. "fair" (LT1:272; in Tolkien's later Quenya rather vanya)

linda

adjective. fair

Also glossed as “beautiful (of sound)”, “sweet”, “melodious”, “soft”, “gentle”, “light”, “beautiful”, “melodious of sound”.

Element in: Q. lindalë, Q. norolinda

[PE16/096.1101; PE17/150.1601] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ita

very, extremely

ita, íta adv. 2) "very, extremely" (PE17:112). Like #1 above, this element emerged as part of Tolkiens efforts to explain the initial element of the name Idril (Q Itaril), so it is questionable if #1 and #2 were ever meant to coexist in the "same" version of Quenya.

lai

very

[lai adverbial particle "very" (VT45:8)]

íta

adverb. very

Also glossed as “extremely”.
Variations of the word: ít-, íti, íta.

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
it-prefix-PE17/112.2511

[PE17/112.2606; PE17/112.1211; PE17/112.2511; PE17/112.1210; PE17/112.2512; PE17/112.1217; PE17/112.1212] Group: Eldamo. Published by

alima

fair, good

alima adj. "fair, good" (also alya) (PE17:146)

calya-

verb. to illuminate

calina

adjective. light

Also glossed as “bright”, “sunny”, “(lit.) illumined”, “(literally illumined) sunny”.

Elements

WordGlossSource
cal-to shine (?golden)-
-inapassive (past) participle; adjective suffix-

Element in: Q. coacalina

[VT42/19.3411; PE17/153.1204] Group: Eldamo. Published by

alya

fair, good

alya (1) adj. "fair, good" (PE17:146), "prosperous, rich, abundant, blessed" (GALA). In a deleted entry in Etym, the glosses provided were "rich, blessed"; another deleted entry defined alya as "rich, prosperous, blessed". (GALA, [ÁLAM], VT42:32, 45:5, 14)

wenya

adjective. fair

Also glossed as “beautiful”.

[PE17/191.0903] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Sindarin iT2#7T5

bain

fair

_ adj. _fair, good, blessed, wholesome, favourable, without evil/bad element, not dangerous, evil or hostile. bân or bain << bân pl. bain. bân

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:150] < BAN beauty, with implication that it is due to _lack of fault_ or _blemish_. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

bain

adjective. fair

Also glossed as “beautiful; good”, “wholesome”, “favorable”, “good”, “fair-haired”, “beautiful”.

[PE17/155.0102; PE17/154.3113; PE17/165.2802; PE17/191.0814; PE17/150.0802] Group: Eldamo. Published by

bân

adjective. fair

_ adj. _fair, good, wholesome, favourable, not dangerous, evil or hostile. bân or bain << bân pl. bain. bain

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:150] < BAN beauty, with implication that it is due to _lack of fault_ or _blemish_. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

fael

adjective. fair minded, just, generous

[PM/352] Etym. "having a good fëa". Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

gail

adjective. bright

Also glossed as “light”.

glân

adjective. bright, shining white

The word is deduced from its mutated form, but it is worth mentioning that a stem GALÁN "bright", with glan "daylight" (and later "clear") as derivative, is listed in the Etymologies (not included in the published text, but see VT/45:13). Most of the words meaning "white" in the Indo-Eureopean languages come from the original notion of "brightness", e.g. Greek leukós "white" is cognate with Latin lucere "to shine", lux "light". This association of sense is also found in Gnomish, PE/11:39 (glan "clean, pure", from "bright" originally) and in Early Noldorin (PE/13:144, glann "clean"). The similarity with Welsh glan (where the vowel, incidentally, is also long, though this is concealed by Welsh orthographic convention) is also striking

[Curunír 'Lân UT/390] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

gwain

adjective. fair

adj. fair. . This gloss was rejected.

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:140] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

gwân

adjective. fair

_ adj. _fair, pale.

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:165] < _gwan_ < GWAN pale, fair. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

lind

adjective. fair

[RC/587.2901-1] Group: Eldamo. Published by

an-

very

(as adverbial prefix) an-, as in:

bain

fair

bain (beautiful). Lenited vain. No distinct pl. form.

dae

very

dae (exceedingly). Lenited dhae.

gail

bright

gail (light), lenited ngail; no distinct pl. form (VT45:18). The adj. calen etymologically means "bright", but is used = "green" (q.v.).

Noldorin 5^mY7T5

bein

adjective. fair

Also glossed as “beautiful”.

Element in: N. Banwen

[Ety/BAN.038; Ety/GWEN.019] Group: Eldamo. Published by

dae

adverb. very

[EtyAC/DAƷ.007] Group: Eldamo. Published by

gail

adjective. bright

Also glossed as “light”, “bright light”.

[Ety/KAL.028; EtyAC/KAL.023] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Primitive elvish

bani

adjective. fair

[PE17/057.1201] Group: Eldamo. Published by

del

root. fair

Variations of the word: DEL.

[PE17/145.4507; PE17/151.1101; PE17/151.1501] Group: Eldamo. Published by

galyā

adjective. bright

Also glossed as “light”.

gwenyā

adjective. fair

Also glossed as “beautiful”.

[PE17/191.0901] Group: Eldamo. Published by

kalinā

adjective. bright

Elements

WordGlossSource
KALlight; shine-
-nāadjective suffix; passive participle-

[PE22/136.3201] Group: Eldamo. Published by

wanjā

adjective. fair

Variations of the word: wanjā.

[WJ/380.2401; WJ/383.0408] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Qenya zR5Ì#

aka

adverb. very

Also glossed as “intensive”.

Element in: EQ. aka-

[PE14/081.2805; PE15/78.5605] Group: Eldamo. Published by

are

adverb. very

Also glossed as “intensive”.

[PE14/081.2804; PE15/78.5604] Group: Eldamo. Published by

kalima

adjective. bright

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
ancalim’intensive elided-SD/051.1211
Ankalimaintensive-WR/223.3411

[SD/051.1211; WR/223.3411] Group: Eldamo. Published by

kalwa

adjective. fair

Also glossed as “beautiful”.

[LT1A/Galmir.053; PME/044.4208; QL/044.3501] Group: Eldamo. Published by

lai

adverb. very

[EtyAC/DAƷ.004] Group: Eldamo. Published by

linda

adjective. fair

Also glossed as “beautiful (of sound)”, “beautiful”.

Element in: MQ. Linda

[Ety/LIND.014; Ety/SLIN.006; EtyAC/LIND.010] Group: Eldamo. Published by

olde

adverb. very

Also glossed as “much”, “intensive”.
Variations of the word: olóle.

[PE14/081.2802; QL/069.5601; PE14/048.1101; PE14/080.2601; PE15/75.3503; PE15/78.5602; PE15/78.5603; PE14/081.2803] Group: Eldamo. Published by

selka

adjective. bright

[PME/083.1402; QL/083.1201] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tunke

adjective. bright

Also glossed as “witty”, “smart”.

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
tunki-stem-QL/095.6101

[QL/095.6101; QL/095.6102] Group: Eldamo. Published by

vane

adjective. fair

Also glossed as “lovely”.

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
vani-stem-QL/099.7701

Element in: EQ. vanesse, EQ. vanima

[QL/099.7701; LT1A/Vána.010; QL/099.7702] Group: Eldamo. Published by

vanima

adjective. fair

Element in: MQ. Vanimo

[Ety/BAN.041] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Doriathrin

gelion

adjective. bright

An adjective meaning “bright” derived from the root ᴹ√GAL, the basis of the river name Gelion (Ety/GYEL). There isn’t enough information to deduce its primitive form, but Helge Fauskanger suggested *✶galjānā (AL-Ilkorin/gelion), which seems reasonably plausible.

[Ety/GYEL.060] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Middle Primitive Elvish

galan

root. bright

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
GALÁNextensionbrightEtyAC/GAL¹.001

[EtyAC/GAL¹.009; EtyAC/GAL¹.001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

galyā

adjective. bright

Also glossed as “light”, “bright light”.

[Ety/KAL.029; EtyAC/KAL.023-1] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Gnomish

dai

adverb. very

Also glossed as “exceedingly”, “exceeding”.

[PE13/112.1601; GL/29.3001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ga-

prefix. very

Element in: G. gaid

[GL/36.6101] Group: Eldamo. Published by

glarw(ed)

adjective. bright

Also glossed as “light”, “light (aj.)”.
Variations of the word: glarwed, glar.

[GL/39.5005; GL/39.5001; GL/39.5004; PE13/114.6201] Group: Eldamo. Published by

odra

adverb. very

Variations of the word: odog.

[GL/62.2606; GL/62.2601] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Early Noldorin

glarweb

adjective. bright

Also glossed as “light”.
Variations of the word: glad.

Elements

WordGlossSource
glarwray-

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
glaidiadaugmentative[brighter]PE13/126.0201
glaidiantsuperlative[brightest]PE13/126.0201

Element in: EN. danglarweb

[PE13/126.2409; PE13/126.0201; PE13/126.0204; PE13/126.0206; PE13/141.8401-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Black Speech, Nandorin, Noldorin, Quendya, Quenya, Sindarin, Telerin are languages conceived by Tolkien and they do not belong to us; we neither can nor do claim affiliation with Middle-earth Enterprises nor Tolkien Estate.