Also glossed as “luminous”, “shining brilliant”, “bright(er)”, “[?likely] to shine”, “bright[?]”, “luminous (by nature always)”.
Variations of the word: calima.
Word Gloss Source cal- to shine (?golden) - -ima able to be done - an- exceedingly bright Let/279.0108 ar(i)- brightest ... of all PE17/056.2205 calima - PE17/090.1005 -ima [?likely] to shine, bright[?] PE22/137.1508
Word Form Gloss Source ancalima intensive very bright PE17/153.3210; PE17/101.1404; PE17/090.0805; LotR/0915.2103 ancalima intensive brightest, very bright PE17/090.0404; PE17/057.4002 ancalima intensive brightest PE17/056.2701 ancalima intensive very bright PE17/057.0106 ancalima intensive brighter PE17/056.2901 ancalima intensive very bright PE17/146.4307 ancAlima intensive - LotR/1116.3605 Ancalima intensive exceedingly bright Let/279.0105; LotR/0720.2601 Ancalima intensive brightest Let/385.3302 ancălĭma intensive - PE17/056.1901 ankalima intensive extremely bright PE17/091.1014 ar(i)calima superlative - PE17/057.4003 arcalima superlative preeminently bright PE17/146.4304 arcalima superlative brightest ... of all PE17/056.2801; PE17/056.4101 arcălĭma superlative - PE17/056.1902
calima adj. "bright" (VT42:32); cf. ancalima; in PE17:56, arcalima appears as another superlative "brightest" (see ar- #2).
ancalimamost bright, brightest
ancalima adj. "most bright, brightest", sc. calima "bright" with a superlative or intensive prefix (LotR2:IV ch. 9; see Letters:385 for translation). Ancalima imbi eleni "brightest among stars", also [ancalima] imb' illi "brightest among all" (VT47:30). Fem. name Ancalimë, *"Most Bright One", also masc. Ancalimon (Appendix A). Tar-Ancalimë, a Númenorean Queen (UT:210)
-ima adjectival suffix. Sometimes it is used to derive simple adjectives, like vanima "fair" or calima "bright"; it can also take on the meaning "-able" (PE17:68), as in mátima "edible" (mat- "eat"), nótima "countable" (not- "count") and (with a negative prefix) úquétima "unspeakable" (from quet- "speak"). Note that the stem-vowel is normally lengthened in the derivatives where -ima means "-able", though this fails to occur in cenima "visible" (q.v., but contrast hraicénima, q.v.) and also before a consonant cluster as in úfantima "not concealable" (PE17:176). "X-ima" may mean "apt to X" (when the ending is added to an intransitive verbal stem), as in Fírimar "mortals", literally "those apt to die" (WJ:387). The adj. úfantima "not concealable" (PE17:176) also appears as úfantuma (PE17:180), indicating the existence of a variant ending -uma (possibly used to derive adjectives with a "bad" meaning; compare the ending *-unqua next to -inqua, q.v.)
an- (2) intensive or superlative prefix carrying the idea of "very" or "most", seen in ancalima "most bright" (cf. calima "bright"), antara "very high, very lofty" and #anyára "very old" or "oldest" (the latter form occurring in the so-called Elaine inscription [VT49:40], there with the dative ending -n). Assimilated to am- before p-, as in amparca ("k") "very dry", and to al-, ar-, as- before words in l-, r-, s- (though Tolkien seems to indicate that before words in l- derived from earlier d, the original quality of the consonant would be preserved so that forms in and- rather than all- would result). See also un-. (Letters:279, VT45:5, 36) Regarding the form of the superlative prefix before certain consonants, another, partially discrepant system was also set down in the Etymologies and first published in VT45:36. The prefix was to appear as um- or un- before labialized consonants like p-, qu-, v- (the consonant v preserving its ancient pronunciation b- following the prefix, thus producing a word in umb-), as in- (technically iñ-) before c- and g- (the latter presumably referring to words that originally had initial g-, later lost in Quenya but evidently preserved following this prefix), and as an- otherwise. However, this system would contradict the canonical example ancalima, which would have been *incalima if Tolkien had maintained this idea. In a post-LotR source, the basic form of the prefix is given as am- instead (see am- #2). In this late conception, the prefix still appears as an- before most consonants, but as ama- before r, l, and the form an- is used even before s- (whether original or from þ), not the assimilated variant as- described above. General principles would suggest that the form am- should also appear before y- (so the form #anyára probably presupposes an- rather than am- as the basic form of the prefix, Tolkien revisiting the earlier concept in the _Elaine inscription). (PE17:92)_
linda adj. "fair, beautiful" (of sound) (SLIN, LIND; VT45:27), "soft, gentle, light" (PE16:96), "beautiful, sweet, melodious of sound" (PE17:150); for Linda as a noun, see Lindar.
Also glossed as “beautiful”, “unmarred; fair-haired (yellow to golden)”, “unmarred”, “of fair unspoiled form”, “fair-haired (yellow to golden)”, “fair-haired”, “pale”.
Variations of the word: wanya.
vanya (1) adj. "fair" (FS), "beautiful" (BAN), a word referring to beauty that is "due to lack of fault, or blemish" (PE17:150), hence Arda Vanya as an alternative to Arda Alahasta for "Arda Unmarred" (ibid., compare MR:254). Nominal pl. Vanyar "the Fair", the first clan of the Eldar; the original meaning of this stem was "pale, light-coloured, not brown or dark" (WJ:382, 383, stem given as WAN), "properly = white complexion and blonde hair" (PE17:154, stem given as GWAN); stems BAN vs. WAN discussed, see PE17:150.
Word Form Gloss Source vanĭ- stem - PE17/056.0903
Element in: Q. úvanë(a)
vanë adj. "fair" (LT1:272; in Tolkien's later Quenya rather vanya)
Also glossed as “beautiful (of sound)”, “sweet”, “melodious”, “soft”, “gentle”, “light”, “beautiful”, “melodious of sound”.
ita, íta adv. 2) "very, extremely" (PE17:112). Like #1 above, this element emerged as part of Tolkiens efforts to explain the initial element of the name Idril (Q Itaril), so it is questionable if #1 and #2 were ever meant to coexist in the "same" version of Quenya.
[lai adverbial particle "very" (VT45:8)]
Also glossed as “extremely”.
Variations of the word: ít-, íti, íta.
Word Form Gloss Source it- prefix - PE17/112.2511
alima adj. "fair, good" (also alya) (PE17:146)
calya-verb. to illuminate
Also glossed as “bright”, “sunny”, “(lit.) illumined”, “(literally illumined) sunny”.
Word Gloss Source cal- to shine (?golden) - -ina passive (past) participle; adjective suffix -
Element in: Q. coacalina
alya (1) adj. "fair, good" (PE17:146), "prosperous, rich, abundant, blessed" (GALA). In a deleted entry in Etym, the glosses provided were "rich, blessed"; another deleted entry defined alya as "rich, prosperous, blessed". (GALA, [ÁLAM], VT42:32, 45:5, 14)
Also glossed as “beautiful”.