Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Middle Primitive Elvish

a-

prefix. complete

Derivations

  • ᴹ√A “intensive prefix” ✧ EtyAC/TALÁT

Element in

  • ᴹQ. Atalante “Downfall(en)” ✧ Ety/TALÁT
  • ᴹQ. atalta- “to collapse, fall in, fall down, slip down in ruin” ✧ Ety/TALÁT

Variations

  • a- ✧ Ety/TALÁT; EtyAC/TALÁT
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/TALÁT; EtyAC/TALÁT] Group: Eldamo. Published by

a-

prefix. a-

Derivations

  • ᴹ√A “intensive prefix” ✧ EtyAC/N

Derivatives

  • N. a- “intensive prefix” ✧ EtyAC/N

Variations

  • a- ✧ EtyAC/N
Middle Primitive Elvish [EtyAC/N] Group: Eldamo. Published by

a

root. intensive prefix

An “intensive” root addition described by Tolkien in The Etymologies from the 1930s (EtyAC/A). It was one of two basic intensive mechanisms, along with the (syllabic) prefixed N- (EtyAC/N). The prefixed vowel a- seems to have been used originally in Primitive Elvish when the base vowel was a, and similarly with E and I (EtyAC/E; Ety/I²); whether this was also true of the vowels o, u is unclear, as Tolkien didn’t mention them. These various vocalic intensifications were frequently accompanied by dynamic lengthening (doubling), with the example given by Tolkien being: ᴹ✶parkā “dry” → ᴹ✶apparkā “very dry, arid” (> N. afarch).

In the case of e- and i-, the examples were dero, dise → ᴹ✶Endero, ᴹ✶Indise “groom, bride”; these examples indicate that other kinds of consonant fortifications were possible, in this case nasalization of stops, which often replaced consonant-doubling for voiced stops in Primitive Elvish.

Specifically in the case of a-, however, it seems it could be used as a general intensive that “was distinct in origin, though similar in function, to the prefixed basic vowel”. Why this was true of a- alone is not clear, but there seems to have been some complex interplay between the vocalic intensives and the intensives derived from syllabic initial ṇ-, with the net result that the intensive prefix in Q. became an-, am-, añ-, depending on the initial consonant.

See the entry on the Quenya comparative for a more detailed discussion of the conceptual development of intensives in Eldarin.

Derivatives

  • ᴹ✶a- “complete” ✧ EtyAC/TALÁT
  • ᴹ✶a- ✧ EtyAC/N
    • N. a- “intensive prefix” ✧ EtyAC/N
  • ᴹQ. an- “intensive prefix” ✧ EtyAC/A

Element in

  • ᴹ✶angosse “horror” ✧ EtyAC/GOS
  • ᴹ✶oññol- “strong smell” ✧ EtyAC/A
  • ᴹ✶parkā “dry” ✧ EtyAC/A

Variations

  • a ✧ EtyAC/GOS
Middle Primitive Elvish [EtyAC/A; EtyAC/GOS; EtyAC/N; EtyAC/TALÁT] Group: Eldamo. Published by

e

root. intensive prefix

Element in

  • ᴹ✶Endero “(?virile) young bridegroom” ✧ EtyAC/E
Middle Primitive Elvish [EtyAC/E] Group: Eldamo. Published by

i

root. intensive prefix

Element in

  • ᴹ✶Indise “bride” ✧ Ety/I²
  • ᴹ✶Ithil “moon” ✧ Ety/I²

Variations

  • I ✧ Ety/I²; EtyAC/I²
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/I²; EtyAC/I²] Group: Eldamo. Published by