Quenya 

Melkor

mighty-rising

Melkor (spelt Melcor in VT49:6, 24, MR:362), masc. name: the rebellious Vala, the devil of the Silmarillion mythos. Older (MET) form Melkórë "Mighty-rising" (hence the interpretation "He that arises in power"), compare órë #2. Oldest Q form *mbelekōro (WJ:402). Ablative Melkorello/Melcorello, VT49:7, 24. Compounded in Melkorohíni "Children of Melkor", Orcs ("but the wiser say: nay, the slaves of Melkor; but not his children, for Melkor had no children") (MR:416). The form Melkoro- here occurring may incorporate either the genitive ending -o or the otherwise lost final vowel of the ancient form ¤mbelekōro. For Melkors later name, see Moringotto / Moricotto (Morgoth) under mori-.

melkor

masculine name. He who arises in Might; (lit.) Mighty Arising

Name of the Valar whose rebellion brought evil into the world (S/16), more commonly known as Morgoth. His name is an ancient compound of the root ✶(m)belek- “mighty” and ✶ōre “rising”, so meaning: “Mighty Arising” (MR/350, PE17/115), translated more loosely as “He who arises in Might” (WJ/402, PM/358). This name also appeared in the longer form Melkórë (MR/350, PE17/115). This is one of the names Tolkien generally spelled with a “k” (like Kementári and Tulkas) despite normally representing the [k]-sound with “c” in Elvish, though in a few places he did write Melcor (MR/362, VT49/24).

Possible Etymology: In the name Melkorohíni “Children of Melkor” (MR/416), the stem form for Melkor seems to be Melkoro-. This is consistent with the primitive form ✶Mbelekōro appearing in the Quendi and Eldar essay from 1959-60 (WJ/402). Elsewhere its primitive form was given as ✶Mbelekōre (PE17/115) and its ablative form appears in notes from the mid-1960s as Melkorello (VT49/6-7), indicating a stem-form of Melkore-, consistent with the long form Melkórë noted above.

Conceptual Development: This name first appeared in the earliest Lost Tales as ᴱQ. Melko without its final -r (LT1/47). This name appeared in the Qenya Lexicon glossed “God of Evil” but without an etymology (QL/60). In the contemporaneous Gnomish Lexicon, it was connected to the root ᴱ√melek/mbelek/belek, along with ᴱQ. velka “flame” (GL/22). It is likely that Tolkien first considered this name as representative of his “fiery” evil, as his contemporaneous (but later abandoned) name ᴱQ. Yelur was that of “wintery” evil.

In some texts from the 1920s, ᴱQ. Melko was given as the derivative of (unglossed) ᴱ✶Mailiko (PE13/149; PE14/69), and the name ᴹQ. Melko appeared in The Etymologies from the 1930s as a derivative of ᴹ✶Mailikō < ᴹ√MIL(IK) “greed, lust” (Ety/MIL-IK). The form Melkor (with an -r) appeared towards the end of Silmarillion drafts from the 1930s (LR/332). This was the form used thereafter, starting with Silmarillion revisions from the 1950s-60s (MR/7, MR/22 note #5).

Variations

  • Melkórë ✧ MR/350
  • Melko ✧ MR/350; PE21/85
  • Melcor ✧ MR/362; VT49/24
  • Melekō ✧ MRI/Melko
  • Melkóre ✧ PE17/115 (Melkóre); PE17/115

Derivations

  • MBELEK “mighty, powerful, strong; power as force or strength; great, large” ✧ MR/350
    • BEL “*strong, [ᴹ√] strong” ✧ PE17/115
  • Mbelekōre “Might(y) Arising” ✧ PE17/115; PE17/115; WJ/402

Cognates

  • S. Belegûr “He who arises in Might, (lit.) Mighty Arising” ✧ PE17/115; PM/358; PMI/Belegûr; PMI/Melkor; SI/Melkor

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
melk- > Melkor[melkor]✧ MR/350
melek-ōre > Melkóre[melekōre] > [melkōre]✧ PE17/115
mbelek-óre > Melkóre[mbelekōre] > [mbelkōre] > [melkōre]✧ PE17/115
mbelekōro > Melkor[mbelekōro] > [mbelekōr] > [mbelkōr] > [melkōr] > [melkor]✧ WJ/402

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
-Melkorgenitive-✧ NM/240
Melkorelloablative-✧ VT49/24; VT49/24
Melcorelloablative“away from Melkor”✧ VT49/24
Quenya [LRI/Melkor; LT1/079; LT1I/Melkor; LT2I/Melkor; MR/022; MR/350; MR/362; MRI/Melko; MRI/Melkor; NM/240; PE17/115; PE21/85; PM/358; PMI/Belegûr; PMI/Melkor; RSI/Melkor; SI/Melkor; SMI/Melko; UTI/Melkor; VT49/24; WJ/402; WJI/Melkor] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Melko

mighty one

Melko masc. name "Mighty One", name of the rebellious Vala, usually called Melkor (MIL-IK, MOR; FS MR:350 confirms that the form Melko_ is still valid in Tolkien's later Quenya, though not interpreted "Greedy One" as in the Etymologies)_

Melcor

melcor

Melcor (so spelt in MR:362 and VT49:6, 24), see Melkor

mbelekōro

the oldest q form

¤mbelekōro masc. name, mentioned as "the oldest Q form" of Melkor, q.v. This is obviously a form that belongs to Common Eldarin rather than Quenya as we know it: Notice that it is marked (in the source asterisked) as unattested _(WJ:402). _It may be that "Q" here means "Quendian" rather than Quenya.

Lindórië

she that arises in beauty

Lindórië fem. name, perhaps *"She that arises in beauty" (compare Melkor "He that arises in Might") (Silm). Cf. linda.

órë

rising

órë (2) noun "rising", anarórë "sunrise" (ORO). Cf. early "Qenya" órë "the dawn, Sunrise, East" (LT1:264). See under Melkor concerning the final element of Melkórë.

ortea

adjective. rising, ascendant

Quenya [PE 22:111] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

Sindarin 

Belchur

theology. Melkor

theon. Q. Melkor, Melkóre. >> Belegûr

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:115] < BEL, MBEL + ?. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

Belegûr

theology. Melkor

theon. Q. Melkor, Melkóre. >> Belchur

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:115] < BEL, MBEL + ?. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

orthad

gerund noun. rising

Sindarin [MR/373] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

eriad

noun. rising

Elements

WordGloss
eria-“to rise”
-ed“gerund”
Sindarin Group: Eldamo - fan inventions. Published by

Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Qenya 

melko

masculine name. Melko

Variations

  • Melkor ✧ LR/332; PE19/058
  • Melekō ✧ MR/355
  • Mēlekō ✧ SDI2/Mēlekō

Changes

  • MelkoMelkor ✧ LRI/Melkor
  • MelkoMelkor ✧ MR/022
  • MelkoMelkor ✧ PMI/Melkor
  • MelkoMelkor ✧ SMI/Melko

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶Mailikō ✧ Ety/MIL-IK; PE19/058
    • ᴹ√MIL(IK) “*greed, lust” ✧ Ety/MIL-IK

Cognates

  • N. Moeleg ✧ Ety/MIL-IK; SMI/Moeleg; SM/079; SM/164

Element in

Qenya [Ety/MIL-IK; LR/072; LR/332; LRI/Melko; LRI/Melkor; MR/022; MR/355; MRI/Melko; PE19/058; PMI/Melkor; SDI2/Mēlekō; SM/079; SM/164; SMI/Melko; SMI/Moeleg] Group: Eldamo. Published by

óre

noun. rising, rising, *rise; [ᴱQ.] dawn, Sunrise, East

Derivations

  • ᴹ√RŌ/ORO “rise, up, high” ✧ Ety/ORO

Element in

  • ᴹQ. anaróre “sunrise” ✧ Ety/ORO

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√ORO > óre[ōre]✧ Ety/ORO

Gnomish

belcha

masculine name. Melko

Variations

  • Belca ✧ GG/08; GL/18; GL/22 (Belca); LT1A/Melko (Belca); LT2A/Belcha; PE14/012; PE15/08; PE15/21
  • Belc ✧ PE13/101; PE15/21 (Belc)
  • Belcon ✧ PE13/101; PE15/21 (Belcon)
  • Balc ✧ PE13/101 (Balc)

Changes

  • BelcaBelcha ✧ GL/22
  • BelchaBelegor ✧ LB/021
  • BelchaBelegor ✧ LBI/Belcha
  • BelchaBelegor ✧ LBI/Belegor
  • BelcaBelcha ✧ LT1A/Melko
  • BalcBelc ✧ PE13/101
  • BelcBelca ✧ PE15/21
  • BelconFlandrog ✧ PE15/21
  • BelchaMoeleg ✧ SM/167
  • BelchaMoeleg ✧ SMI/Belcha
  • BelchaMoeleg ✧ SMI/Moeleg

Derivations

Cognates

  • Eq. Melko ✧ GL/18; GL/22; LT2I/Belcha; PE15/08; PE15/21; SMI/Belcha; LT1A/Melko; PE13/101; PE14/012

Element in

  • G. Imbelca “Hell (house of Melko)”

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
i·Mbelcasoft-mutation“Melko”✧ GG/08
-i·Mbelecasoft-mutation-✧ GG/08
Gnomish [GG/08; GL/18; GL/22; LB/021; LBI/Belcha; LBI/Belegor; LT1A/Melko; LT2A/Belcha; LT2I/Belcha; PE13/101; PE14/012; PE15/08; PE15/21; SM/167; SMI/Belcha; SMI/Moeleg] Group: Eldamo. Published by

oros

noun. rising

Variations

  • orost ✧ GL/62; GL/63
  • orost- ✧ LT1A/Kalormë

Derivations

  • ᴱ√ORO “steepness, rising” ✧ LT1A/Kalormë

Cognates

  • Eq. orosta “ascension” ✧ LT1A/Kalormë

Element in

Gnomish [GL/62; GL/63; LT1A/Kalormë] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Early Quenya

melko

masculine name. Melko

Variations

  • melko ✧ PE14/069

Changes

  • MelkoMelkor ✧ LT1/079

Derivations

Cognates

  • G. Belcha “Melko” ✧ GL/18; GL/22; LT2I/Belcha; PE15/08; PE15/21; SMI/Belcha; LT1A/Melko; PE13/101; PE14/012
  • En. Maileg ✧ PE13/149

Element in

  • Eq. nalto fustúme ma Melkon i “*they can be smelled out by Melko whom” ✧ PE15/32
  • Eq. Malkarauke “Balrogs, fire-demons, balrogs, fire demon, Melko’s demons” ✧ QL/060 (melkaraukir)

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
Melkongenitive-✧ PE15/32
Early Quenya [GL/18; GL/22; LBI/Melko; LT1/079; LT1A/Melko; LT1I/Melko; LT2I/Belcha; LT2I/Melko; PE13/101; PE13/149; PE14/012; PE14/069; PE15/08; PE15/21; PE15/32; QL/060; SMI/Belcha] Group: Eldamo. Published by

yelur

masculine name. Melko

A name of Melko in the Qenya and Gnomish Lexicons from the 1910s (QL/106; GL/18), along with other early name lists (PE13/103; PE14/12). It was derived from the root ᴱ√DYELE having to do with the cold (QL/106). The variants Yeloimu and Yelusto also appeared (GL/38; PE13/103; PE15/24).

Variations

  • Yeloimu ✧ GL/38; LT1A/Melko; PE15/21
  • Yelusto ✧ PE13/103; PE15/24 (Yelusto)
  • Yeloisu ✧ PE15/21 (Yeloisu)
  • Yeliomu ✧ PE15/24
  • ’Yelur ✧ QL/106

Changes

  • YeloisuYeloimu ✧ PE15/21
  • YelustoYeliomu ✧ PE15/24

Derivations

  • ᴱ√DYELE “*cold” ✧ LT1A/Melko; QL/106

Cognates

  • G. Geluim “Ice” ✧ GL/38; PE15/21; PE15/24; GL/18; LT1A/Melko; PE13/103; PE14/012

Inflections

WordFormGlossSource
’Yelur-stem-✧ QL/106
’Yelus-stem-✧ QL/106
Early Quenya [GL/18; GL/38; LT1A/Melko; PE13/103; PE14/012; PE15/21; PE15/24; QL/106] Group: Eldamo. Published by