Quenya zR5Ì#

-ttë

suffix. themselves, 3rd pl reflexive

[VT49/21.0204-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ttë

they

-ttë (1) "they", dual 3rd person pronominal ending ("the two of them") (VT49:51), replacing (also within the legendarium) the older ending -stë (which was later used for the second person only). This older ending -stë corresponds to a possessive ending -sta "their" (VT49:16), but this was presumably likewise altered to *-tta as the new ending for dual "their" = "of the two of them".

-ttë

they love themselves

-ttë (2), 3rd person pl. reflexive ending, as in melittë "they love themselves" (VT49:21). This ending can hardly coexist with #1 above; an alternative wording would be the analytical construction *meliltë intë. Compare -ssë #2.

-ttë

suffix. 3rd person dual, 3rd person dual animate, they (dual), [dual] 3

< -ste
Variations of the word: -sto.

[VT49/16.3805; VT49/33.4311; PE17/057.2504; PE17/057.2503; VT49/51.2709] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-lte

suffix. 3rd person plural, they, [plural] 3

[PE17/075.4403; PE17/190.2808; VT49/16.3803; VT49/17.2802; VT49/51.2706] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ltë

they

-ltë, 3rd person pl. pronominal suffix, "they" (VT49:51; cariltë "they do", VT49:16, 17). It alternates with -ntë in Tolkiens manuscripts (VT49:17, 57). In his early material, the ending also appears as -lto, occurring in Fíriel's Song (meldielto "they are beloved" and cárielto "they made"), also in LT1:114: tulielto "they have come" (cf. VT49:57). Compare -lta, -ltya as the ending for "their".

-ntë

suffix. 3rd person plural, they, 3rd person plural animate

Variations of the word: -nte.

[PE17/057.2502; PE17/190.2809; UT/317.1509; VT49/17.2801] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ntë

they

-ntë "they", pronomimal ending, inflexion of 3rd person plural when no subject is previously mentioned (CO; see also VT49:49). This ending competes with -ltë (q.v.) in Tolkiens conception (VT49:57; for "they do", both carintë and cariltë are attested, VT49:16 vs. 17). The corresponding pronominal possessive suffix appears as -ntya or -nta in various sources.

-stë

you

-stë "you", 2nd person dual pronominal ending (VT49:51, 53), e.g. caristë "the two of you do" (VT49:16). Tolkien first wrote carindë, but changed the ending (VT49:33). The ending -stë is derived from earlier -dde (VT49:46, 51). An archaic ending of similar form could also be the third person dual, "the two of them" (but see -ttë #1).

-stë

suffix. they (dual)

-tyë

you, thou

-tyë pronominal ending "you, thou" (VT49:48, 51), 2nd person familiar/intimate: carityë *"you do" (VT49:16; the corresponding formal/polite ending is -l, -lyë, cf. PE17:135 where Tolkien states that hiruvalyë "thou shalt find" from Namárië would be hiruvatyë if the polite pronoun were replaced by the familiar one). Compare the independent pronoun tye. In VT49:51, Tolkien denies that the ending -tyë has any short form (see, however, -t # 3). Cf. natyë "you are"; see #1. Compare tye, -tya.

-tyë

you

-t (3) reduced pronominal affix of the 2. person, "you" (sg.), the long form being -tyë (both endings are listed in VT49:48). See heca regarding the example hecat (WJ:364). However, in a later source, Tolkien denies that -tyë has any short form (VT49:51, 57). The status of the ending -t is therefore doubtful.

-ntyë

you

[-ntyë "you", abandonded pronominal ending for 2nd person pl. familiar (VT49:49)]

te

they, them

te pron. "they, them", 3rd person pl. (VT49:51, LotR3:VI ch. 4, translated in Letters:308). The pronoun te represents an original stem-form (VT49:50). Dative ten, téna or tien "for them, to them" (q.v.) Stressed (VT49:51). Ótë "with them", q.v. VT43:20 connects te "them" with a discussion of Common Eldarin pronominal stems (ca. 1940s), where te is the "personal" 3rd person pl. stem, referring to persons rather than abstracts or inanimates (which are denoted by ta instead; see, however, the entry ta #3 regarding the problems with this form, and the hints that te may possibly be used with reference to inanimates as well)). Also consider the reflexive pronoun intë "themselves", the final element of which is apparently this pronoun te; see also for the dual form.

tye

you, thou, thee

tye pron. "you, thou, thee", 2nd person intimate/familar (LR:61, 70, Arct, VT49:36, 55), corresponding to formal/polite lye. According to VT49:51, tye was used as an endearment especially between lovers, and (grand)parents and children also used it to address one another ("to use the adult lye was more stern"). Tyenya "my tye", used = "dear kinsman" (VT49:51). The pronoun tye is derived from kie, sc. an original stem ki with an added -e(VT49:50). Stressed tyé; dual tyet "the two of you" (VT49:51 another note reproduced on the same page however states that tye has no dual form, and VT49:52 likewise states that the 2nd person familiar "never deleloped" dual or plural forms). Compare the reflexive pronoun intyë "yourself". Possibly related to the pronominal stem KE (2nd person sg.), if tye represents earlier *kye.

-ldë

you

-ldë (1) pronominal suffix "you", 2nd person pl. (VT49:51; carildë *"you do", VT49:16). This ending Tolkien revised from -llë in earlier sources (VT49:48, cf. PE17:69).

-llë

you

-llë (2) abandoned pronominal ending "you", 2nd person pl. (VT49:48); Tolkien later revised this ending to -ldë.

-lto

they

-lto, "Qenya" pronominal ending "they"; see -ltë

-lyë

you, thou

-l or -lyë (VT49:48, 51), pronominal endings for 2nd person sg. polite/formal "you, thou": caril or carilyë *"you do" (VT49:16), hamil "you judge" (VT42:33), anel "you were" (see #1); see -lyë for further examples. These endings may also be added to pronouns (etel/etelyë or mil, milyë; see et, mi). In one source, -l is rather used as a reduced affix denoting plural "you"; see heca! (WJ:364)

-ndë

you

[#-ndë (2) pronominal suffix for dual "you", as in carindë *"you (two) do". Tolkien changed the ending to -stë (VT49:33)]

-ssë

he loves himself

-ssë (2), 3rd person sg. reflexive ending, melissë "he loves himself", possibly also quernessë *"he turned (himself)" (VT49:20-21). Compare -ttë #2. The ending -ssë* seems prone to confusion with the locative ending; an alternative wording would be the analytical construction melis immo with a separate reflexive pronoun. Tolkien himself changed quernessë to quernes immo **(VT49:20-21).

-sta

your

-sta (1) "your", dual 2nd person possessive pronominal ending: "of you two" (VT49:45, 16), cf. -stë (q.v.) Genitive -sto in veryanwesto "of your wedding" (VT49:45) and tengwiesto "of your reading" (VT49:47), allative -stanna in parmastanna "on your book" (VT49:47). An archaic ending of similar form could also be the third person dual "of the two of them" (but according to VT49:51, the corresponding subject ending was changed to -ttë, and then the ending for "their" would presumably become -tta)

intë

pronoun. pl 3 reflexive, themselves

Elements

WordGlossSource
im-same-
it(ë)if-

[VT47/37.3106] Group: Eldamo. Published by

intë

themselves

intë *"themselves", 3rd person pl. reflexive pronoun, e.g. *i neri tirir intë, "the men watch themselves". Intë is derived from earlier imte(VT47:37). Conceivably intë* is only used for "themselves" with reference to persons; impersonal "themselves" ought to be inta or intai, compare ta #3, tai #2. A form intai might however have evolved into intë by the Third Age (like pl. adjectives in -ai later came to end in -ë), thus converging with the "personal" form.% In an earlier source, Tolkien listed intë as an emphatic pronoun "they", 3rd person plural (VT49:48, 49); compare the pronominal ending -ntë. The word intë** (derived from inde via inze, an unusual development in Quenya) also appears as a candidate 2nd person singular polite form (VT49:49).

toi

they

toi pron. "they" (FS; replaced by te in LotR-style Quenya?)

toi

pronoun. they

-tya,

your, thy

-tya, pronominal ending, 2nd person sg. intimate/familiar "your, thy" (VT49:16, 38, 48); compare -tyë

le

you

le, pronominal element "you", (originally) the "reverential 2nd person sing" (RGEO:73, VT49:56). However, singular le was apparently altered to lye (q.v.), and le took on a plural significance (le for pl. "you" is apparently derived from de, the ancient 2nd person pl. stem, VT49:50-51). Stressed (VT49:51), dual let "the two of you" (ibid.). At certain points in Tolkiens conception, le was still sg. "thou" rather than pl. "you". It is attested as an ending in the imperative form antalë "give thou" (VT43:17); see anta-. The form ólë in VT43:29 apparently means *"with thee"; according to Tolkiens later system, it would rather mean "with you" (pl.) Compare aselyë "with thee" (sg.) in a later source (see as).

ta

they, them

ta (3) pron. "they, them", an "impersonal" 3rd person pl. stem, referring "only to 'abstracts' or to things (such as inanimates) not by the Eldar regarded as persons" (VT43:20, cf. ta as an inanimate Common Eldarin plural pronoun, VT49:52). Compare te, q.v. The word ta occurring in some versions of Tolkien's Quenya Lord's Prayer may exemplify this use of ta as an "impersonal" plural pronoun: emmë avatyarir ta** "we forgive them" (VT43:8, 9; this refers to trespasses, not the trespassers). However, since Tolkien also wanted ta to mean "that" (see #1 above), he may seem to be somewhat dissatisfied with ta "they, them", introducing variant forms like tai (VT49:32) to free up ta as a sg. pronoun. In one document, tai was in turn altered to te (VT49:33), which could suggest that the distinction between animate and inanimate "they, them" was abandoned and the form te (q.v.) could be used for both. In some documents, Tolkien seems to use tar as the plural form (VT49:56 mentions this as an uncertain reading in a source where the word was struck out; compare ótar under ó**-).

tai

they, them

tai (2) pron. "they, them", 3rd person pl., used with reference to inanimates rather than persons or living things (VT49:32, see ta #3 above). Perhaps to avoid the clash with tai "that which", the pronoun tai "they, them" was altered to te in at least one manuscript (VT49:33), so that it would merge with the pronoun used of living beings and the distinction between animate and inanimate would be abandoned (see te).

they, them

pron. "they, them", 3rd person dual ("the two of them"), both "personal and neuter" (the pronoun can be used of persons and things alike). (VT49:51) Tolkien also considered tet for the same meaning, listing it alongside in one source (VT49:56), but this form was apparently abandoned.

-cca

your

[-cca ("k") ?"your", apparently an abandoned 2nd person plural or dual possessive (VT49:49). Compare -lca.]

-lca

your

[-lca ("k") ?"your", apparently an abandoned 2nd person plural possessive (VT49:49). Cf. -cca.]

-lda

your

-lda (1) "your", 2nd person pl. possessive suffix (VT49:16). Onnalda *"your child" (VT49:42). In an earlier manuscript, this ending was used for singular "you" instead, attested in the phrase Arwen vanimalda "Arwen your beauty", sc. "O beautiful Arwen", and in meletyalda "your majesty" (WJ:369) Arwen vanimalda was however changed to Arwen vanimelda in the second edition of LotR, Tolkien reinterpreting the last word (see vanimalda). The ending for singular "your" appears as -lya elsewhere. (LotR1:II ch. 6)

-llo

you

[-llo (2) "you", dual; abandoned pronominal ending. Also written -illo. (VT49:49)]

alyë

you

alyë imperative particle with ending -lyë "you"; see a #3.

ilcë

you

ilcë ("k") (2) *"you", emphatic pronoun of the 2nd person pl. familiar, apparently a form abandoned by Tolkien. An alternative form incë was also listed; a query appears between the forms (VT49:48).

incë

you

incë ("k") *"you", emphatic pronoun for 2nd person pl. familiar, apparently a form abandoned by Tolkien. It is listed as an alternative to ilcë in the source, a query appearing between the forms (VT49:48, 49). The word could also be read as intë (VT49:49)

Sindarin iT2#7T5

-eg

suffix. your

_2nd sg./pl. poss. suff. your.Maybe the familiar form of this suff. See also the paradigm of poss. suff. in PE17:46. Later -gen_. -el, -gen

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:46] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

-el

suffix. your

_2nd sg./pl. poss. suff. _your. Maybe the polite form of this suff. See also the paradigm of poss. suff. in PE17:46. Later -lein. -eg, -lein

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:46] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

-gen

suffix. your

_2nd sg. poss. suff. your.Maybe the familiar form of this suff. See also the paradigm of poss. suff. in PE17:46. Earlier -eg_. -eg

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:46] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

-lein

suffix. your

_2nd sg. poss. suff. your.Maybe the polite form of this suff. See also the paradigm of poss. suff. in PE17:46. Earlier -el_. -el

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:46] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

-d

suffix. you

2nd du. pron. suff. #you (two). Q. -star.See paradigm PE17:132.

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:132] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

-dh

suffix. you

{ð} 2nd du. pron. suff. #you (two). Q. -star.See paradigm PE17:132.

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:132] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

-dh

suffix. you

{ð} 2nd sg. pron. suff. #you. Q. -tar.See paradigm PE17:132.

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:132] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

ech

pronoun. you, yourself (singular)

[PE17/046.3002] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-dhir

suffix. you

{ð} 2nd pl. pron. suff. #you. Q. -ltar.See paradigm PE17:132.

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:132] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

hîn

they

(of women) hîn. It is unclear whether Tolkien maintained this ”Noldorin” pronoun in Sindarin.

Telerin 1RjR7T5

de

pronoun. 2nd person pronoun, you

[VT49/51.0209] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Primitive elvish

te

pronoun. p[lural] 3, 3 pl., they

Variations of the word: t(e), te.

[VT49/17.0708; VT49/21.0201; VT49/37.1310; VT49/52.1504; VT49/50.2508] Group: Eldamo. Published by

imte

pronoun. pl 3 reflexive, themselves

[VT47/37.3107] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Qenya zR5Ì#

tye

pronoun. you

[LFC/030.1506] Group: Eldamo. Published by

he

pronoun. them, they

Imported inflections

WordFormGlossSource
hénerstative-past plural-PE22/123.3811
hierstative plural-PE22/123.3311

[PE22/106.0210; PE22/115.0510; PE22/118.2815; PE22/127.0317; PE22/123.3811; PE22/123.3311] Group: Eldamo. Published by

inti

pronoun. they

[PE22/124.0907] Group: Eldamo. Published by

intin

pronoun. they

@@@ Regarding -n see “the final -m/n that sometimes appears at the end of object pronouns in pl. and belongs to them, not to the subject.” (PE22/94) as suggested by Aleksandr Zaprjagaev: <a href="https://plus.google.com/106606644275525545350/posts/GmuADVLCKuq">https://plus.google.com/106606644275525545350/posts/GmuADVLCKuq">https://plus.google.com/106606644275525545350/posts/GmuADVLCKuq</a>

[PE22/124.0907] Group: Eldamo. Published by

toi

pronoun. they, which [they]

[LR/072.1101; LR/072.1401; LR/072.3801] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Middle Primitive Elvish

khe

pronoun. they

[PE22/094.1903] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Gnomish

fi-

pronoun. 2nd-person singular, [2nd person singular], root of 2nd person sing. pronoun, you

Imported inflections

WordFormGlossSource
findativefor youGL/52.7807

Element in: G. fintha

[GL/35.0501; PE13/097.0901; GL/52.7807] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Black Speech, Nandorin, Noldorin, Quendya, Quenya, Sindarin, Telerin are languages conceived by Tolkien and they do not belong to us; we neither can nor do claim affiliation with Middle-earth Enterprises nor Tolkien Estate.