Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Early Primitive Elvish


root. tarry, linger

A root in the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s glossed “tarry, linger” (QL/63), but it was blended and confused with ᴱ√MBARA “dwell, live” (QL/60), since [[eq|initial [ŋʷ] became [m]]] in Early Qenya. This makes its precise derivatives tricky to determine. Tolkien also indicated ᴱ√ŊWAÐA was a variant of {ᴱ√W̯AŘA >>} ᴱ√ẆAÐA “dwell” (QL/102), where the probably indicates an ancient labialized velar spirant ʒw [ɣʷ].

Derivatives of ᴱ√ŊWAÐA are easier to find in the contemporaneous Gnomish Lexicon, as they begin with gwa-: Tolkien indicated that G. gwast “dwelling”, G. gwadhra “habitable”, and G. gwadhron “inhabitant” were all derived from ŋwa- (GL/47), though on another page a deleted noted gave the primitive form as gu̯ađ (GL/46), probably the Gnomish result of ᴱ√ẆAÐA. Indeed, in the Qenya Lexicon Tolkien indicated that Gnomish gwadh- forms were also blended with waða (QL/63). In Tolkien’s later writing, he abandoned this confusing muddle with ᴱ√ŊWAÐA and ᴱ√ẆAÐA in favor of just using √MBAR.


  • Eq. manda- “to dwell, remain” ✧ QL/060
  • Eq. -mas “-ton, -by” ✧ GL/47
  • Eq. masta- “to tarry, linger” ✧ GL/47; QL/063
  • Eq. masto “village” ✧ QL/060
  • G. gwadhril “inhabitant (f.)” ✧ GL/47
  • G. gwadhron “inhabitant (m.)” ✧ GL/47
  • G. gwadhra “habitable” ✧ GL/47
  • G. gwast “dwelling” ✧ GL/47


  • ŋwa- ✧ GL/47
  • NGWAÐA ✧ QL/060
  • NWAÐA ✧ QL/063
Early Primitive Elvish [GL/47; QL/060; QL/063; QL/102] Group: Eldamo. Published by