Quenya 


most bright, brightest

ancalima adj. "most bright, brightest", sc. calima "bright" with a superlative or intensive prefix (LotR2:IV ch. 9; see Letters:385 for translation). Ancalima imbi eleni "brightest among stars", also [ancalima] imb' illi "brightest among all" (VT47:30). Fem. name Ancalimë, *"Most Bright One", also masc. Ancalimon (Appendix A). Tar-Ancalimë, a Númenorean Queen (UT:210)


adjective. bright, luminous
Quenya [Let/278; Let/279; Let/385; LotR/0720; LotR/0915; LotR/1116; PE17/056; PE17/057; PE17/090; PE17/091; PE17/101; PE17/146; PE17/153; PE22/137; PE22/155; PE22/156] Group: Eldamo. Published by



calima adj. "bright" (VT42:32); cf. ancalima; in PE17:56, arcalima appears as another superlative "brightest" (see ar- #2).



an- (2) intensive or superlative prefix carrying the idea of "very" or "most", seen in ancalima "most bright" (cf. calima "bright"), antara "very high, very lofty" and #anyára "very old" or "oldest" (the latter form occurring in the so-called Elaine inscription [VT49:40], there with the dative ending -n). Assimilated to am- before p-, as in amparca ("k") "very dry", and to al-, ar-, as- before words in l-, r-, s- (though Tolkien seems to indicate that before words in l- derived from earlier d, the original quality of the consonant would be preserved so that forms in and- rather than all- would result). See also un-. (Letters:279, VT45:5, 36) Regarding the form of the superlative prefix before certain consonants, another, partially discrepant system was also set down in the Etymologies and first published in VT45:36. The prefix was to appear as um- or un- before labialized consonants like p-, qu-, v- (the consonant v preserving its ancient pronunciation b- following the prefix, thus producing a word in umb-), as in- (technically -) before c- and g- (the latter presumably referring to words that originally had initial g-, later lost in Quenya but evidently preserved following this prefix), and as an- otherwise. However, this system would contradict the canonical example ancalima, which would have been *incalima if Tolkien had maintained this idea. In a post-LotR source, the basic form of the prefix is given as am- instead (see am- #2). In this late conception, the prefix still appears as an- before most consonants, but as ama- before r, l, and the form an- is used even before s- (whether original or from þ), not the assimilated variant as- described above. General principles would suggest that the form am- should also appear before y- (so the form #anyára probably presupposes an- rather than am- as the basic form of the prefix, Tolkien revisiting the earlier concept in the _Elaine inscription). (PE17:92)_


very, extremely

ita, íta adv. 2) "very, extremely" (PE17:112). Like #1 above, this element emerged as part of Tolkiens efforts to explain the initial element of the name Idril (Q Itaril), so it is questionable if #1 and #2 were ever meant to coexist in the "same" version of Quenya.



[lai adverbial particle "very" (VT45:8)]

* lai

adverb. very
Quenya Group: Eldamo. Published by

Sindarin 


adjective. bright, shining white

The word is deduced from its mutated form, but it is worth mentioning that a stem GALÁN "bright", with glan "daylight" (and later "clear") as derivative, is listed in the Etymologies (not included in the published text, but see VT/45:13). Most of the words meaning "white" in the Indo-Eureopean languages come from the original notion of "brightness", e.g. Greek leukós "white" is cognate with Latin lucere "to shine", lux "light". This association of sense is also found in Gnomish, PE/11:39 (glan "clean, pure", from "bright" originally) and in Early Noldorin (PE/13:144, glann "clean"). The similarity with Welsh glan (where the vowel, incidentally, is also long, though this is concealed by Welsh orthographic convention) is also striking

Sindarin [Curunír 'Lân UT/390] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

* an-


(as adverbial prefix) an-, as in:

* gail


gail (light), lenited ngail; no distinct pl. form (VT45:18). The adj. calen etymologically means "bright", but is used = "green" (q.v.).

* dae

adverb. very
Sindarin Group: Eldamo. Published by

* dae


dae (exceedingly). Lenited dhae.

Primitive elvish


adjective. bright
Primitive elvish [PE22/136] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Noldorin 


adverb. very
Noldorin [EtyAC/DAƷ] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Qenya 


adverb. very
Qenya [EtyAC/DAƷ] Group: Eldamo. Published by



adjective. bright

An adjective meaning “bright” derived from the root ᴹ√GAL, the basis of the river name Gelion (Ety/GYEL). There isn’t enough information to deduce its primitive form, but Helge Fauskanger suggested galjānā* (AL-Ilkorin/gelion), which seems reasonably plausible.

Doriathrin [Ety/GYEL] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Middle Primitive Elvish


root. bright
Middle Primitive Elvish [EtyAC/GAL¹] Group: Eldamo. Published by



adverb. very
Gnomish [GL/62] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Early Noldorin


adverb. very
Early Noldorin [PE13/124] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Early Quenya


adjective. bright
Early Quenya [PME/083; QL/083] Group: Eldamo. Published by