Quenya 

Rána

the wayward, the wanderer

Rána place-name "the Wayward, the Wanderer", a name of the moon (MR:198, MC:221, Silm); genitive Ráno in the phrase Ráno tië "the path of the Moon" (VT47:11). See also ceuran-, ránasta. According to one late source, Rána is not properly the Moon itself but is rather the "name of the spirit (Máya) that was said to abide in the Moon as its guardian" (VT42:13). The Etymologies gives Rana with a short vowel (RAN). In the pre-classical Tengwar system there presupposed, Rana was also the name of tengwa #25 (VT45:10), which letter Tolkien would later call Rómen instead.

rána

noun. Moon, (lit.) Wayward

Another name of the Moon (usually Q. Isil), translated as “Wayward” (S/99). This name is a derivative of the root √RAN “wander” (UT/242), with a primitive form ✶rānā (VT48/7).

Conceptual Development: The name ᴱQ. Rána appears as a name of the moon in the earliest Lost Tales (LT1/192), though at this early stage its precise meaning and etymology were unclear. In Silmarillion drafts from the 1930s, ᴹQ. Rana appeared with a short a, with the translation “Wayward” (LR/240). The name also appeared with a short a in The Etymologies as a derivative of ᴹ√RAN “wander, stray” from primitive ᴹ✶Ranā (Ety/RAN). The long á was restored in Silmarillion revisions from the 1950s-60s (MR/130).

In some later notes, Tolkien said that Rána was the name of the spirit of the Moon rather than the Moon itself (VT42/13). Elsewhere this spirit was named Tirion, so this was probably a transient idea. In the indexes of The Silmarillion and The Unfinished Tales, Christopher Tolkien translated Rána as “Wanderer”, but the source of that translation is unclear.

Cognates

Derivations

  • rānā “moon”
    • RAN “wander, stray, meander, go on an uncertain course, go aside from a course (commanded or self-chosen); err”
  • RAN “wander, stray, meander, go on an uncertain course, go aside from a course (commanded or self-chosen); err” ✧ SA/ran; UT/242; VT42/13

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ran- > Rána[rāna]✧ SA/ran
ran- > Rána[rāna]✧ UT/242
RAN > Rána[rāna]✧ VT42/13

Variations

  • Rana ✧ MR/376; MRI/Rána
Quenya [MR/130; MR/198; MR/376; MRI/Rána; S/099; SA/ran; SI/Rána; UT/242; UTI/Rána; VT42/13; VT47/11] Group: Eldamo. Published by

réna

edge, border, margin

réna noun "edge, border, margin" (REG)

ríma

edge, hem, border

ríma noun "edge, hem, border" (RĪ)

vare

verb. err, stray

Quenya [PE 22:102] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

cimba

noun. edge, brink

Quenya [PE 22:149] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

Sindarin 

raun

noun. Moon

A word for “moon”, equivalent of Q. Rána, attested in later writings only as the element -rawn in the archaic form S. †cýrawn “new-moon”, in modern speech cýron (VT48/7). Based on its use in this word, as well as in N. cúran “crescent moon” [ᴺS. cúron], it seems this is the ordinary word for “Moon” (or “moon”) as a celestial body, as opposed to S. Ithil which is the proper name of the moon, equivalent to English “Luna”. Raun is derived from primitive ✶rānā from the root √RAN “wander”, and hence originally meant something like “Wanderer”, though its Quenya equivalent is usually translated “Wayward”.

Conceptual Development: A very similar form G. Rân “the moon” appeared in Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s (GL/64), as well as ᴱN. rán “moon” in Early Noldorin Word-lists of the 1920s (PE13/152), though in this period its etymology is unclear. It appeared as N. Rhân “Moon” in The Etymologies of the 1930s, derived from the root ᴹ√RAN “wander, stray” (Ety/RAN), but in this period its Quenya equivalent was ᴹQ. Rana with short a. In later writings the Quenya form became Q. Rána, requiring a change to S. Raun since ancient ā became au in Sindarin.

Cognates

  • Q. Rána “Moon, (lit.) Wayward”

Derivations

  • rānā “moon” ✧ VT48/07
    • RAN “wander, stray, meander, go on an uncertain course, go aside from a course (commanded or self-chosen); err”

Element in

  • ᴺS. cúron “crescent moon”
  • S. cýron “new-moon” ✧ VT48/07

Variations

  • rawn ✧ VT48/07 (rawn)

lanc

noun. sharp edge (not of tools), sudden end (as a cliff-edge, or the clean edge of things made by hand or built)

Sindarin [VT/42:8] Group: SINDICT. Published by

ithil

noun. Moon

The usual name for the Moon in Sindarin, from an augmented form of the root √THIL (Let/425; Ety/THIL). This word is most likely the proper name of the Moon, analogous to English “Luna”: in The Etymologies of the 1930s Tolkien indicated Ithil was a “poetic name”. Compare this to S. Raun “Wanderer”, which is more descriptive of the nature of the body and hence closer to “Moon” (and “moon”).

Conceptual Development: The first precursor to this name seems to be G. Thilim “Moon” in an early list of names (PE14/13). This became G. {Thil >>} Sil “Rose of Silpion, Moon” (GL/67, 72) and G. {Thilmos >>} Silma in the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s (GL/33, 67), both derivatives of the early root ᴱ√SILI as suggested by Christopher Tolkien (LT1A/Sil). The name Ithil first appeared in early versions of the tales of Númenor from the 1930s (LR/41).

Cognates

  • Q. Isil “Moon, (lit.) Sheen” ✧ Let/425; LotR/1114; PE17/039; PE17/121; SA/sil

Derivations

  • THIL “shine silver; white light” ✧ Let/425; SA/sil

Element in

  • S. ir Ithil ammen Eruchín “*when the Moon, for us, the Children of God” ✧ LB/354
  • S. Ithilbor “*Moon-fist”
  • S. ithildin “magical alloy that glows in moonlight, (lit.) moon-star” ✧ PE17/039; PE17/039
  • S. Ithilien “Land of the Moon” ✧ SA/sil
  • S. Minas Ithil “Tower of the (Rising) Moon” ✧ SA/sil
  • S. Orithil “*Moon-day, Monday”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
THIL > Ithil[itʰil] > [iθil]✧ Let/425
thil- > Ithil[itʰil] > [iθil]✧ SA/sil
Sindarin [LB/354; LBI/Ithil; Let/425; LotR/1114; LotRI/Moon; MRI/Ithil; PE17/030; PE17/039; PE17/121; SA/sil; WJI/Ithil] Group: Eldamo. Published by

rîw

noun. edge, hem, border

Sindarin [Ety/383, X/RH] Group: SINDICT. Published by

renia

wander

renia- (sail, fly, stray) (i renia, idh reniar).

rîw

edge

*rîw (construct riw) (hem, border), no distinct pl. form except with article (idh rîw). Suggested Sindarin form of ”Noldorin” rhîf.

Adûnaic

nîlu

noun. moon

A noun translated as “moon” and fully declined as an example of a Strong II noun (SD/431). It appears with both a short and long final -u, but Tolkien indicated that the form with long û is actually the personified form Nîlû “Man in the Moon” (SD/426), perhaps the Adûnaic name of Tilion. Tolkien also listed the “later forms Nil, Njūl” (SD/306), one of which may be the Westron word for “moon”, most likely Wes. nil. Andreas Moehn suggested (EotAL/NUL) that this noun may be related to nûlo/nûlu/nâlu, but given the evil connotations of these words (SD/306) and the different stem vowels, this seems unlikely to me.

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. Isil “Moon, (lit.) Sheen” ✧ SD/241; SD/306

Derivatives

  • Wes. nil “moon” ✧ SD/306

Element in

Variations

  • Nīlū ✧ SD/241
  • Nīlu ✧ SD/306
  • nīlu ✧ SD/431
  • Nil ✧ SDI2/Nîlû
  • Njūl ✧ SDI2/Nîlû
Adûnaic [SD/241; SD/306; SD/426; SD/428; SD/431; SDI2/Nîlû] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Primitive elvish

rānā

noun. moon

Derivations

  • RAN “wander, stray, meander, go on an uncertain course, go aside from a course (commanded or self-chosen); err”

Derivatives

  • Q. Rána “Moon, (lit.) Wayward”
  • S. Raun “Moon” ✧ VT48/07

Element in

Primitive elvish [VT48/07] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Noldorin 

rhân

noun. Moon

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. Rana “Moon, (lit.) Wayward” ✧ Ety/RAN

Derivations

  • ᴹ√RAN “wander, stray” ✧ Ety/KUƷ
  • ᴹ✶Ranā “Moon” ✧ Ety/RAN
    • ᴹ√RAN “wander, stray” ✧ Ety/RAN

Element in

  • N. cúran “crescent moon” ✧ Ety/KUƷ

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶Ranā > Rhân[ranā] > [rana] > [ran] > [r̥an] > [r̥ān]✧ Ety/RAN
Noldorin [Ety/KUƷ; Ety/RAN; Ety/THIL] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ithil

noun. Moon

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. Isil “Moon, (lit.) Sheen” ✧ Ety/I²; Ety/SIL; Ety/THIL; LR/041; SD/302; SD/306

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶Ithil “moon” ✧ Ety/I²; SD/306
  • ᴹ√THIL ✧ Ety/SIL; Ety/THIL

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶ITHIL > Ithil[itʰil] > [iθil]✧ Ety/I²
ᴹ√THIL > Ithil[itʰil] > [iθil]✧ Ety/SIL
ᴹ√THIL > Ithil[itʰil] > [iθil]✧ Ety/THIL
ᴹ✶Ithīl > Ithil[itʰīl] > [iθīl] > [iθil]✧ SD/306
Noldorin [Ety/I²; Ety/SIL; Ety/THIL; LR/041; LRI/Ithil; SD/303; SD/306; WRI/Ithil] Group: Eldamo. Published by

rhîf

noun. edge, hem, border

Noldorin [Ety/383, X/RH] Group: SINDICT. Published by

Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Westron

nil

noun. moon

A word listed as a later form of Ad. nîlu “moon” (SD/306) and therefore perhaps a Westron word, as suggested by Andreas Moehn (EotAL/NUL). The other “later form” Njūl is unlikely to be Westron, since there Westron seems not have palatalized consonants.

Derivations

  • Ad. nîlu “moon” ✧ SD/306

Variations

  • Nil ✧ SD/306

Qenya 

rana

noun. Moon, (lit.) Wayward

Cognates

  • N. Rhân “Moon” ✧ Ety/RAN

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶Ranā “Moon” ✧ Ety/RAN
    • ᴹ√RAN “wander, stray” ✧ Ety/RAN

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶Ranā > Rana[ranā] > [rana]✧ Ety/RAN

Variations

  • Răna ✧ LR/240
  • rana ✧ PE22/022; PE22/050
Qenya [Ety/RAN; EtyAC/RAN; LR/240; LRI/Rana; PE22/022; PE22/050; PE22/100; RSI/Rana] Group: Eldamo. Published by

réna

noun. edge, border, margin

Changes

  • rānarāne ✧ EtyAC/REG
  • rāneréna ✧ Ety/REG

Cognates

  • N. rhain “border” ✧ Ety/REG; EtyAC/REG

Derivations

  • ᴹ√REG “edge, border, margin” ✧ Ety/REG; EtyAC/REG

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ√REG > réna[regna] > [reŋna] > [rēna]✧ Ety/REG
ᴹ√RAG > rāne[ragna] > [raŋna] > [rāna]✧ EtyAC/REG

Variations

  • rāna ✧ EtyAC/REG (rāna)
  • rāne ✧ EtyAC/REG (rāne)
Qenya [Ety/REG; EtyAC/REG] Group: Eldamo. Published by

proper name. Moon

A name for the moon in linguistic notes from 1930s (PE21/38, 41), perhaps a derivative of the root ᴹ√NDŪ “go down”, though this root usually applied to the Sun. Its dual form Nunt referred to both the sun and moon (PE21/38).

Derivations

  • ᴹ√NDŪ “go down, sink, set (of Sun)”
Qenya [PE21/38; PE21/41] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Doriathrin

istil

noun. Moon

The Doriathrin word for the “Moon” developed from the primitive name ᴹ✶Ithil (Ety/I²), though it is unclear how the [st] developed. Perhap it was of the same origin as istil “silver light, starlight” (Ety/SIL).

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. Isil “Moon, (lit.) Sheen” ✧ Ety/I²

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶Ithil “moon” ✧ Ety/I²

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶ITHIL > Istil[itʰil] > [istil]✧ Ety/I²
Doriathrin [Ety/I²] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Middle Primitive Elvish

ranā

proper name. Moon

Derivations

  • ᴹ√RAN “wander, stray” ✧ Ety/RAN

Derivatives

  • ᴹQ. Rana “Moon, (lit.) Wayward” ✧ Ety/RAN
  • N. Rhân “Moon” ✧ Ety/RAN
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/RAN] Group: Eldamo. Published by

reg

root. edge, border, margin

A root in The Etymologies of the 1930s glossed “edge, border, margin” with derivatives like ᴹQ. réna of similar meaning and N. rhain “border” (Ety/REG). ᴹ√REG replaced a rejected variant ᴹ√RAG (EtyAC/REG). The root is evident in only one name: N. {Duil Rain >>} Emyn Rhain “Border Hills” in Lord of the Rings drafts from the 1940s (TI/268, 313), called S. Emyn Muil “Drear Hills” in the published version of The Lord of the Rings (LotR/373; RC/334).

Changes

  • RAGREG ✧ Ety/REG

Derivatives

  • ᴹQ. réna “edge, border, margin” ✧ Ety/REG; EtyAC/REG
  • N. rhain “border” ✧ Ety/REG; EtyAC/REG

Variations

  • RAG ✧ EtyAC/REG (RAG)
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/REG; EtyAC/REG] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ithil

noun. moon

Derivatives

  • Ilk. Istil “Moon” ✧ Ety/I²
  • ᴹQ. Isil “Moon, (lit.) Sheen” ✧ Ety/I²; SD/306
  • N. Ithil “Moon” ✧ Ety/I²; SD/306

Variations

  • ITHIL ✧ Ety/I²
  • Ithīl ✧ SD/306
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/I²; SD/306] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Gnomish

rân

noun. Moon

Cognates

  • Eq. Rána “Moon” ✧ GL/64; LT1A/Rána

Element in

  • G. ranoth “month” ✧ GL/64; LT1A/Rána
  • G. Ranuin “Month” ✧ LT1A/Rána
Gnomish [GL/64; LT1A/Rána] Group: Eldamo. Published by

celebron

proper name. Moon

Cognates

Variations

  • Celioth ✧ GL/25
  • Celiwth ✧ GL/25
  • Celebron/Celioth ✧ LT1A/Telimpë
Gnomish [GL/25; LT1A/Telimpë] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Early Noldorin

rán

noun. moon

Cognates

  • Eq. Rána “Moon” ✧ PE13/152
Early Noldorin [PE13/152] Group: Eldamo. Published by

cant

noun. edge

Cognates

  • Eq. kante “edge” ✧ PE13/140

Derivations

  • ᴱ✶kantya “edge” ✧ PE13/140
Early Noldorin [PE13/140] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Early Primitive Elvish

kantya

noun. edge

Derivatives

  • Eq. kante “edge” ✧ PE13/140
  • En. cant “edge” ✧ PE13/140
Early Primitive Elvish [PE13/140] Group: Eldamo. Published by

kili

root. edge

Derivatives

  • ᴱ✶kīla
    • G. cail “lip” ✧ GL/24
  • ᴺQ. cílëa “edged”
  • Eq. kíla “edge, rim” ✧ QL/046
  • Eq. kilme “lip” ✧ QL/046
  • G. cilm “rim, brink, edge”
Early Primitive Elvish [QL/046] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Early Quenya

rána

noun. Moon

Cognates

  • G. Rân “Moon” ✧ GL/64; LT1A/Rána
  • En. rán “moon” ✧ PE13/152

Element in

Variations

  • rana ✧ GL/64; PE13/152
  • rāna ✧ GL/65
  • rána ✧ PE15/75; PE16/062; PE16/074
  • raana ✧ PE16/072
Early Quenya [GL/64; GL/65; LT1/192; LT1A/Rána; LT1I/Rána; MC/213; MC/214; MC/221; PE13/152; PE15/75; PE16/062; PE16/064; PE16/072; PE16/074; PE16/075; SM/097; SMI/Rána] Group: Eldamo. Published by

kante

noun. edge

Cognates

  • En. cant “edge” ✧ PE13/140

Derivations

  • ᴱ✶kantya “edge” ✧ PE13/140

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴱ✶kantya > kante[kantja] > [kantjǝ] > [kantj] > [kanti] > [kante]✧ PE13/140
Early Quenya [PE13/140] Group: Eldamo. Published by