Quenya 

penda

sloping down, inclined

penda adj. "sloping down, inclined" (PEN/PÉNED), "steeply inclined, sloping down" (PE17:24)

penda

adjective. sloping down, (steeply) inclined

An adjective meaning “sloping”, usually “sloping down” (PE17/24), with am(ba)penda being “uphill, ✱sloping up” (Ety/AM²). The adjective penda also has an implication of steeply sloping (PE17/173).

Conceptual Development: The word ᴱQ. penda first appeared in the Early Noldorin Dictionary as an element in ᴱQ. ambapenda “uphill”. Its Early Noldorin and Early Telerin cognates ᴱN. benn and ᴱT. benda were used for both sloping up and down hill, so the Early Qenya form was likely the same. The primitive form in this document was ᴱ✶bendā, with initial b- > p- as was the case in Early Qenya (later b- > v-).

In The Etymologies of the 1930s it first appeared as ᴹQ. nenda “sloping” derived from ᴹ√DEN “hillside, slope”, but the meaning of this root was change to ᴹ√DEN “hole; gap, passage” (Ety/DEN). Tolkien introduced a new root ᴹ√PEN(ED) with the derivative ᴹQ. penda “sloping down, inclined” (Ety/PEN), and this notion that penda was specifically for downwards slopes reappeared in later writings (PE17/24). In later writings, though, its root form was √PED instead of ᴹ√PEN, as √PEN was given the new sense “lack, be without” (PE17/173; WJ/375).

Cognates

  • S. pend “slope, steep incline, hill side; sloping (down), steeply inclined, slope, steep incline, hill side, [N.] declivity; [S.] sloping (down), steeply inclined” ✧ PE17/024; PE17/173

Derivations

  • pendā “sloping” ✧ PE17/173
    • PED “slope, slant down” ✧ PE17/173; WJ/375

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
pendā > penda[pendā] > [penda]✧ PE17/173
Quenya [PE17/024; PE17/173] Group: Eldamo. Published by

penda-

verb. to slope, incline

A verb meaning “to slope, incline” derived from the root √PED (PE17/171, 173). It was a weak verb (PE17/173), probably based on the verb-like adjective form Q. penda “sloping”, since the strong forms would have collided with derivatives of √PER “half” (PE17/171).

Cognates

  • S. penna- “to come down (in a slant), fall” ✧ PE17/173

Derivations

  • PED “slope, slant down” ✧ PE17/171; PE17/173

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
PED > penda[penda-]✧ PE17/171
PED > penda-[penda-]✧ PE17/173

Variations

  • penda ✧ PE17/171 (penda)
Quenya [PE17/171; PE17/173] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nenda

sloping

[nenda] (2) adj. "sloping" (DEN, struck out)

talta

sloping, tilted, leaning

talta adj. "sloping, tilted, leaning"; also "incline" as noun (TALÁT)

yaltë

bridge

yaltë noun "bridge" (GL:37); rather yanta in Tolkien's later Quenya

yanta

bridge

yanta noun "bridge", also name of tengwa #35 (Appendix E); in the Etymologies, yanta is defined as "yoke" (YAT)

yanta

noun. bridge

Cognates

  • S. iant “bridge”

Derivations

  • YAN “*join”

Element in

Quenya [LotR/1123] Group: Eldamo. Published by

yanwë

bridge, joining, isthmus

yanwë noun "bridge, joining, isthmus" (YAT, "joining", VT49:45, 46), changed by Tolkien from yanwa (VT46:22, VT49:34)