-lto, "Qenya" pronominal ending "they"; see -ltë
-lto ending for dual ablative (Plotz)
-lloablative adverbial suffix
-llo (1) "ablative adverbial suffix" (PE17:72) implying "from" or "out of", as in sindanóriello "out of a grey land", Rómello "from the East" (Nam), Mardello "from Earth" (FS), ulcullo "from evil" (VT43:12), sillumello "from this hour" (VT44:35), yello "from whom" (VT47:21), Manwello *"from Manwë" (VT49:24), Melcorello / Melkorello "from Melkor" (VT49:7, 24). Pl. -llon (so in Plotz) or -llor (in illon, elenillor, raxellor, elendellor, q.v.); dual -lto (Plotz). A shorter form of the ablative ending, -lo, apparently occurs in the words silo "hence" and talo "from there", q.v. In the Etymologies, Tolkien cited the Quenya ablative ending as -ello, evidently including the connecting vowel -e- that may be inserted when the ending is added to a word ending in a consonant (VT45:28), compare Melcorello. See also ló, lo #2.
meldabeloved, dear, sweet
melda adj. "beloved, dear, sweet" (MEL, VT45:34), superlative arimelda *"dearest" (PE17:56, see ar- #2), meldielto "they are beloved" (sc. meld[a]-ië-lto "beloved-are-they" however, both the stative verb ending -ië "is/are" and the ending -lto "they" may be obsolete in LotR-style Quenya) (FS) PE17:55 gives the comparative form as arimelda or ammelda and the superlative as eremelda, anamelda or once again ammelda (PE17:55).
toi pron. "they" (FS; replaced by te in LotR-style Quenya?)
te pron. "they, them", 3rd person pl. (VT49:51, LotR3:VI ch. 4, translated in Letters:308). The pronoun te represents an original stem-form (VT49:50). Dative ten, téna or tien "for them, to them" (q.v.) Stressed té (VT49:51). Ótë "with them", q.v. VT43:20 connects te "them" with a discussion of Common Eldarin pronominal stems (ca. 1940s), where te is the "personal" 3rd person pl. stem, referring to persons rather than abstracts or inanimates (which are denoted by ta instead; see, however, the entry ta #3 regarding the problems with this form, and the hints that te may possibly be used with reference to inanimates as well)). Also consider the reflexive pronoun intë "themselves", the final element of which is apparently this pronoun te; see also tú for the dual form.
tai (2) pron. "they, them", 3rd person pl., used with reference to inanimates rather than persons or living things (VT49:32, see ta #3 above). Perhaps to avoid the clash with tai "that which", the pronoun tai "they, them" was altered to te in at least one manuscript (VT49:33), so that it would merge with the pronoun used of living beings and the distinction between animate and inanimate would be abandoned (see te).
ta (3) pron. "they, them", an "impersonal" 3rd person pl. stem, referring "only to 'abstracts' or to things (such as inanimates) not by the Eldar regarded as persons" (VT43:20, cf. ta as an inanimate Common Eldarin plural pronoun, VT49:52). Compare te, q.v. The word ta occurring in some versions of Tolkien's Quenya Lord's Prayer may exemplify this use of ta as an "impersonal" plural pronoun: emmë avatyarir ta** "we forgive them" (VT43:8, 9; this refers to trespasses, not the trespassers). However, since Tolkien also wanted ta to mean "that" (see #1 above), he may seem to be somewhat dissatisfied with ta "they, them", introducing variant forms like tai (VT49:32) to free up ta as a sg. pronoun. In one document, tai was in turn altered to te (VT49:33), which could suggest that the distinction between animate and inanimate "they, them" was abandoned and the form te (q.v.) could be used for both. In some documents, Tolkien seems to use tar as the plural form (VT49:56 mentions this as an uncertain reading in a source where the word was struck out; compare ótar under ó**-).
Also glossed as “dear”, “sweet”.
Variations of the word: melda.
Word Form Gloss Source ammelda intensive - PE17/057.3901 an(a)melda intensive - PE17/057.3902 anamelda intensive - PE17/056.1002; PE17/057.0105 arimelda superlative exceeding dear PE17/056.1002; PE17/056.1002; PE17/057.3702 armemelda superlative - PE17/056.1002 ĕrĕmelda superlative sole dear, dearest of all PE17/057.3703
attat2 fathers or neighbours
-t (1) dual ending, on nouns denoting a _pair of something: attat "2 fathers or neighbours" (VT48:19; see _atto), máryat "her (pair of) hands" (Nam), siryat "two rivers" (VT47:11), ciriat "2 ships" (Letters:427 read ciryat as in the Plotz Letter?), maquat "group of ten" (from maqua, meaning among other things "group of five") (VT47:7), nápat "thumb and index as a pair" (VT48:5), also compare met "us two" as the dual form of me "us" (Nam, VT47:11). Other dual endings known from the Plotz letter: genitive -to, possessive -twa, dative -nt, locative -tsë, allative -nta, ablative -lto, instrumental -nten, plus -tes as a possible short locative. It may be that these endings only apply to nouns that would have nominative dual forms in -t, and that nouns preferring the alternative dual ending -u would simply add the otherwise "singular" case endings to this vowel, e.g. *Alduo rather than ?Alduto as the genitive form of "Two Trees" (Aldu). The ending -t is also used as a verbal inflection, corresponding to pl. -r (elen atta siluvat**, "two stars shall shine", VT49:45; the verb carit** "do" would also be used with a dual subject, VT49:16; cf. also the endings listed in VT49:48, 50).
car-make, do, build, form
car- (1) vb. "make, do, build, form" (1st pers. aorist carin "I make, build"; the aorist is listed with all pronominal endings in VT49:16, also in pl. and dual forms carir, carit). Regarding the form carize- (PE17:128), see -s #1. Pa.t. carnë (KAR, PE17:74, 144). The infinitival aorist stem carë ("k") (by Patrick Wynne called a "general aorist infinitive" in VT49:34) occurs in ecë nin carë sa "I can do it" (VT49:34), also in áva carë "don't do it" (WJ:371) and uin carë (PE17:68); in the last example Tolkien calls carë an example of the "simplest aorist infinitive", the same source referring to carië as the "general infinitive" of the same verb. Pl. aorist carir "form" in the phrase i carir quettar ("k") "those who form words" (WJ:391, cf. VT49:16), continuative cára, future caruva (PE17:144), carita ("k"), infinitive/gerund "to do" or "doing" (VT42:33), with suffixes caritas "to do it" or "doing it", caritalya(s) "your doing (it)" in VT41:13,17, VT42:33. Past participle #carna, q.v.; VT43:15 also gives the long form carina ("k"), read perhaps *cárina. (Carima as a passive participle may be a mistake, VT43:15.) PE17:68 refers to a "simple past passive participle" of the form carinwa ("kari-nwa"). "Rare" past participle active (?) cárienwa* ("k") "having done" (PE17:68), unless this is also a kind of passive participle (the wording of the source is unclear). Some alternative forms in Fíriel's Song: past tense cárë ("káre") "made"; this may still be an alternative to the better-attested form carnë (LR:362) even in LotR-style Quenya. Cf. ohtacárë "war-made", made war (see #ohtacar-). Also cárië with various suffixes: cárier ("kárier") is translated "they made"; in LotR-style Quenya this could be seen as an augmentless perfect, hence "they have made", "they" being simply the plural ending -r. The literal meaning of cárielto* ("k") must also be "they made" (cf. -lto). Derived adjectives urcárima and urcarnë "hard to make / do", urucarin "made with difficulty" (PE17:154), saucarya "evil-doing" (PE17:68).
-ltë, 3rd person pl. pronominal suffix, "they" (VT49:51; cariltë "they do", VT49:16, 17). It alternates with -ntë in Tolkiens manuscripts (VT49:17, 57). In his early material, the ending also appears as -lto, occurring in Fíriel's Song (meldielto "they are beloved" and cárielto "they made"), also in LT1:114: tulielto "they have come" (cf. VT49:57). Compare -lta, -ltya as the ending for "their".
anta- (1) vb. "give" (ANA1, MC:215, 221), pa.t. antanë (antanen "I gave", VT49:14) or †ánë, perfect ánië (PE17:147, cf. QL:31). According to VT49:14, Tolkien noted that anta- was sometimes often with an "ironic tone" to refer to missiles, so that antanen hatal sena "I gave him a spear (as a present)" was often used with the real sense of "I cast a spear at him". Usually the recipient of the thing given is mentioned in the dative or allative case (like sena in this example), but there is also a construction similar to English "present someone with something" in which the recipient is the object and the gift appears in the instrumental case: antanenyes parmanen, "I presented him with a book" (PE17:91). The verb occurs several times in FS: antalto"they gave"; strangely, no past tense marker seems to be present (see -lto for the ending); antar a pl. verb translated "they gave", though in LotR-style Quenya it would rather be the present tense "give" (pl.); antaróta "he gave it" (anta-ró-ta "gave-he-it"), another verb occurring in Fíriel's Song, once again with no past tense marker. Also antáva "will give", future tense of anta- "give"; read perhaps *antuva in LotR-style Quenya; similarly antaváro* "he will give" (LR:63) might later have appeared as antuvas (with the ending -s rather than "Qenya" -ro for "he"). Antalë imperative "give thou" (VT43:17), sc. anta "give" + the element le "thou", but this was a form Tolkien abandoned. Apparently ana** was at one point considered as another imperative "give", but Tolkien rewrote the text in question (VT44:13), and the normal patterns would suggest *á anta with an independent imperative particle.
-ttë (1) "they", dual 3rd person pronominal ending ("the two of them") (VT49:51), replacing (also within the legendarium) the older ending -stë (which was later used for the second person only). This older ending -stë corresponds to a possessive ending -sta "their" (VT49:16), but this was presumably likewise altered to *-tta as the new ending for dual "their" = "of the two of them".
Also glossed as “3rd person plural animate”, “3rd person plural”.
Variations of the word: -nte.
-ntë "they", pronomimal ending, inflexion of 3rd person plural when no subject is previously mentioned (CO; see also VT49:49). This ending competes with -ltë (q.v.) in Tolkiens conception (VT49:57; for "they do", both carintë and cariltë are attested, VT49:16 vs. 17). The corresponding pronominal possessive suffix appears as -ntya or -nta in various sources.
Also glossed as “3rd person plural”, “[Plural] 3”.
Variations of the word: -lte.
tú pron. "they, them", 3rd person dual ("the two of them"), both "personal and neuter" (the pronoun can be used of persons and things alike). (VT49:51) Tolkien also considered tet for the same meaning, listing it alongside tú in one source (VT49:56), but this form was apparently abandoned.