Quenya zR5Ì#

-ina

suffix. passive (past) participle, adjective suffix

[PE17/068.1305; PE17/068.1808] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ina

general 'passive' participle

-ina ending for what Tolkien called "general 'passive' participle" (VT43:15); compare nótina "counted", rácina "broken", hastaina "marred" (q.v.). The stem-vowel is usually lengthened when the ending is added to the stem of a primary verb (as in the two first examples above), though the lengthening fails to occur (or is not denoted) in carina as the passive participle of car- "make, do" (VT43:15).

-na

suffix. slain

A shorter ending -na also occurs, e.g. nahtana "slain" (VT49:24); the example hastaina "marred" would suggest that *nahtaina is equally possible. In the example aistana "blessed" (VT43:30), -na may be preferred to -ina for euphonic reasons, to avoid creating a second diphthong ai where one already occurs in the previous syllable (*aistaina). In PE17:68, the ending -ina is said to be "aorist" (unmarked as regards time and aspect); the same source states that the shorter ending -na is "no longer part of verbal conjugation", though it obviously survives in many words that are maybe now to be considered independent adjectives. See -na #4.

-na

no longer part of verbal conjugation

-na (4), ending used to form passive participles as well as some adjectives and nouns; see -ina. According to PE17:68, the ending -na was "no longer part of verbal conjugation"; the derived words are thus considered independent adjectives (sometimes nouns) rather than regularly derived passive participles, the obvious etymological connection to certain verbal stems notwithstanding. Where adding the ending to a root would produce the combinations tn, pn, kn (cn), metathesis occurs to produce nt, (np >) mp, nc, as in nanca *"slain" for older ¤ndakna, or hampa "restrained, delayed, kept" vs. the root KHAP "retain, keep, detain". Following -l, the suffix -na turns into -da, as in yulda "draught, the amount drunk" for older yulna (this being an example of a noun being derived with this ending, though Tolkien might also explain yulda as containing a distinct ending -da [q.v.] denoting the result of a verbal action). The word *turúna "mastered" (q.v., only attested in elided form turún) would seem to be a passive participle formed from the verb turu- "master" (PE17:113), suggesting that in the case of U-stem verbs, their final -u is lengthened to ú when -na is added.

-a

suffix. adjectival suffix

This suffix is frequently used to create the adjective form of a noun, especially in the form -ëa for nouns ending in . This function dates back to CE. ✶.

[PE17/149.0706-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

toina

wood of material

toina adj.? "wood of material" (PE17:115). Since -ina is normally an adjectival ending, the word is best understood as meaning "(made) of wood".

-ya

suffix. adjective suffix

[PE17/068.2209-1] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nanca

slain

nanca adj. *"slain" (PE17:68); see -na

-voitë

suffix. adjective suffix

Sindarin iT2#7T5

dangen

adjective. slain

[PE17/097.2404; PE17/097.3107; PE17/133.4306; PE17/133.4403; PE17/133.4608] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-eb

suffix. adjective suffix

[WJ/337.2409-3; WJ/412.3002] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-en

suffix. adjective suffix

[PE17/098.4102-2; RGEO/62.0301-2; SA/lin¹.006-3; SD/129.0202-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-iel

suffix. adjective suffix

[S/235.3205-3] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ren

suffix. adjective suffix

[SA/anga.014-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

dag

slain

(passive participle of dag- "slay", but treated almost like a derived noun) dangen (i nangen, o ndangen), pl. dengin (i ndengin; the spelling "in-ndengin" occurs in the Silmarillion). Compare SLAY.

Telerin 1RjR7T5

-ya

suffix. adjective suffix

[VT42/25.3309] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Noldorin 5^mY7T5

dangen

noun. slain

[Ety/375] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

dangen

adjective. slain

[Ety/NDAK.023; Ety/NDAK.028] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-eb

suffix. adjective suffix

[Ety/AKLA-R.020-1; Ety/DYEL.021-2; Ety/KAY.019-2; Ety/OY.028-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ion

suffix. adjectival suffix

[Ety/TIL.017-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-en

suffix. adjective suffix

[Ety/BARAS.036-2; Ety/DUL.013-2; Ety/LIS.011-2; Ety/MET.013-2; Ety/PHIR.032-2; Ety/PIS.008-2; Ety/SMAL.023-2; Ety/TÁWAR.041-2; Ety/WIL.030-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ui

suffix. adjective suffix

[Ety/BAN.061-2; Ety/GYEL.014-2; Ety/IS.030-2; Ety/KURÚM.009-2; Ety/MEL.047-2; Ety/MIL-IK.025-2; EtyAC/REG.029-3] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-iel

suffix. adjective suffix

[Ety/LÁWAR.040-3; Ety/NEI.037-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ren

suffix. adjective suffix

[Ety/ANGĀ.012-2; Ety/GLAM.025-2; Ety/KHYAR.024-2; Ety/KWET.041-2; Ety/KYELEP.018-2; Ety/LUM.026-2; Ety/PHAL.059-2; Ety/PHOR.028-2; Ety/TATHAR.014-2; RS/432.2004-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Primitive elvish

-ina

suffix. adjective suffix

-inā

suffix. passive participle

[PE17/131.3402; PE17/131.3406; PE22/136.3305] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-nā

suffix. adjective suffix, passive participle, passive participle, aorist (past)

[PE17/052.0501; PE17/068.1001; PE19/090.4711; PE21/78.1512; PE22/136.2802; VT49/18.0801-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

dankĭna

noun. slain

[PE17/133.4301] Group: Eldamo. Published by

North sindarin

dachen

adjective. slain

[PE17/133.4309; PE17/133.4409-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Qenya zR5Ì#

-ina

suffix. general passive participle

[PE22/107.0405; PE22/107.1010; PE22/108.0411; PE22/108.3004; PE22/111.0908; VT43/15.2511] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ina

suffix. adjectival suffix

[PE15/77.4401-2; QL/031.3701-2; QL/031.7401-2; QL/043.2301-2; QL/043.6401-2; QL/043.8201-2; QL/044.3702-2; QL/044.9001-2; QL/045.3101-2; QL/047.5101-2; QL/051.7801-2; QL/057.1301-2; QL/057.3401-2; QL/058.3601-2; QL/074.3801-2; QL/075.1201-2; QL/075.4501-2; QL/080.2501-2; QL/081.1001-2; QL/081.1801-2; QL/083.4301-2; QL/083.7601-2; QL/084.4201-2; QL/084.8201-2; QL/086.6801-2; QL/086.9401-2; QL/087.3401-2; QL/088.5501-2; QL/088.6901-2; QL/088.7801-2; QL/091.2201-2; QL/093.6701-2; QL/094.6301-2; QL/094.7701-2; QL/094.8201-2; QL/102.2201-2; QL/105.1901-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-inen

suffix. of, out of, partitive suffix

[PE14/046.1101; PE14/047.0109; PE14/078.0601; PE14/078.0603] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-se

suffix. adjective suffix

[QL/030.8301-3; QL/035.3901-2; QL/035.3902-2; QL/084.0501-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-noina

suffix. adjective suffix

[QL/040.4301-2; QL/101.1401-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-a

suffix. adjectival suffix

[Ety/ERE.014-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-a

suffix. adjectival suffix

[PE14/047.1611-3; PE14/051.1904-2; PE14/079.2801-2; PE15/67.3304-1; PE15/73.0503-2; PE16/100.2406-3; QL/030.0801-2; QL/030.8401-2; QL/033.4101-2; QL/033.6901-2; QL/034.0801-2; QL/035.1501-2; QL/037.1601-3; QL/037.5101-2; QL/039.6501-2; QL/039.7901-2; QL/042.1301-2; QL/043.4301-2; QL/047.1601-2; QL/047.7201-2; QL/048.5401-2; QL/048.6201-2; QL/048.9201-2; QL/049.1401-2; QL/049.1601-2; QL/051.4001-2; QL/051.5801-2; QL/051.6501-2; QL/052.7501-2; QL/053.6401-3; QL/053.6701-3; QL/053.6901-2; QL/053.7001-3; QL/053.7301-3; QL/054.5701-2; QL/054.6101-2; QL/054.6801-2; QL/054.7301-2; QL/054.7501-3; QL/055.0301-2; QL/055.5401-2; QL/055.9001-2; QL/056.0101-2; QL/056.5301-2; QL/056.6201-2; QL/056.7202-2; QL/056.7601-2; QL/057.0201-2; QL/057.3301-2; QL/057.5501-2; QL/057.6501-2; QL/058.3901-2; QL/060.7901-2; QL/061.6301-2; QL/061.6601-2; QL/063.4101-2; QL/063.5301-2; QL/064.5401-2; QL/064.7001-2; QL/065.1701-2; QL/066.4001-2; QL/067.8501-2; QL/067.8601-3; QL/068.2001-2; QL/068.2101-2; QL/068.2901-2; QL/069.0601-1; QL/069.8101-2; QL/070.8601-2; QL/072.1801-2; QL/072.3801-2; QL/073.8101-2; QL/074.5101-2; QL/074.5401-2; QL/074.8301-2; QL/075.2401-2; QL/076.2201-2; QL/076.2401-2; QL/076.3001-2; QL/077.1301-2; QL/077.1901-2; QL/077.4002-2; QL/077.7001-2; QL/077.7901-2; QL/078.0501-2; QL/078.1901-2; QL/079.3601-2; QL/080.7701-2; QL/081.4401-2; QL/081.6101-2; QL/082.5101-2; QL/083.5001-2; QL/083.5201-2; QL/086.7801-2; QL/087.3301-2; QL/088.5701-2; QL/088.6801-2; QL/090.2901-2; QL/091.0301-2; QL/091.0302-2; QL/091.2302-2; QL/091.4101-2; QL/091.4401-2; QL/091.6301-2; QL/092.3701-2; QL/092.7501-2; QL/092.7601-2; QL/092.8501-2; QL/094.2303-2; QL/095.7801-2; QL/096.0601-2; QL/096.0701-2; QL/097.8001-2; QL/099.8301-2; QL/101.2501-2; QL/101.7701-2; QL/102.0401-2; QL/103.1201-2; QL/103.6901-2; QL/105.4001-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ra

suffix. adjectival suffix

[QL/030.1801-2; QL/048.7801-2; QL/066.8601-2; QL/071.5101-2; QL/091.8701-2; QL/094.0101-2; QL/105.6601-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-wa

suffix. adjective suffix

-ya

suffix. adjective suffix

-ya

suffix. adjective suffix

[PE14/082.0306-2; QL/032.1701-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-noite

suffix. adjective suffix

[PE15/69.0301-2; QL/039.3702-2; QL/067.5301-2; QL/077.2501-2; QL/077.4101-2; QL/080.3301-2; QL/104.2401-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-voite

suffix. adjective suffix

-voite

suffix. adjective suffix

[QL/029.5201-2; QL/031.7201-2; QL/048.5301-2; QL/049.1002-2; QL/051.3302-2; QL/055.0302-2; QL/057.5702-2; QL/057.6201-2; QL/062.0901-2; QL/078.7201-2; QL/083.7701-2; QL/096.4401-2; QL/098.5901-2; QL/100.1401-2; QL/102.7801-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Doriathrin

-en

suffix. adjectival suffix

An adjectival suffix appearing as both -en and -in, and in one place as -on: Brithon. The -en form can be easily explained as a derivative of the primitive suffix ᴹ✶-inā, with the primitive [i] becoming [e] due to Ilkorin a-affection, the same origin as the Noldorin adjectival suffix -en. The -in variant is more difficult to explain. At least one example lómen had variations with both -en and -in, so perhaps the two forms represented vacillation on the function of Ilkorin a-affection, or an alternate primitive form ᴹ✶-ină where the final ă was lost before a-affection.

Alterately, -in could be a Doriathrin-specific variant, since the forms where it appears are all Doriathrin, while the forms where -en appear are marked Ilkorin, excepting only lómen which was itself revised from lómin.

[Ety/LAM.020-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Middle Primitive Elvish

-inā

suffix. adjective suffix

[Ety/LEP.119] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Gnomish

-(i)on

suffix. adjectival suffix

[GL/17.7801-2; GL/20.0801-3; GL/21.8101-2; GL/25.0601-2; GL/25.5101-2; GL/25.5301-2; GL/27.0401-2; GL/33.9101-2; GL/34.1902-2; GL/36.5001-2; GL/37.7201-2; GL/46.6001-2; GL/46.7701-2; GL/46.9201-2; GL/48.5501-2; GL/48.7301-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-(r)in

suffix. adjective suffix

[GL/19.5701-2; GL/19.6001-2; GL/20.6501-2; GL/20.7601-2; GL/20.9001-2; GL/21.5001-2; GL/22.3901-2; GL/22.7201-2; GL/22.8101-2; GL/23.2801-2; GL/24.7101-2; GL/25.7701-2; GL/25.8101-2; GL/25.8601-2; GL/26.2101-2; GL/26.3702-2; GL/26.4901-2; GL/27.3001-2; GL/27.7301-2; GL/28.1401-2; GL/30.7601-2; GL/32.1301-2; GL/32.4301-2; GL/32.7601-2; GL/33.0101-2; GL/33.3101-2; GL/33.3201-2; GL/33.4201-2; GL/34.3701-2; GL/34.7101-2; GL/34.7201-2; GL/35.6101-2; GL/35.8601-2; GL/36.1101-2; GL/37.3001-2; GL/37.3101-2; GL/37.6601-2; GL/38.2701-2; GL/38.4401-2; GL/38.5401-2; GL/39.0601-2; GL/39.4301-2; GL/39.4302-2; GL/39.5301-2; GL/39.5601-2; GL/39.6101-2; GL/39.7701-2; GL/40.1501-2; GL/40.3101-2; GL/40.7001-2; GL/42.8701-2; GL/44.8701-2; GL/47.2701-2; GL/47.7803-2; GL/48.4101-2; GL/48.9001-2; QL/037.7902-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ra

suffix. adjective suffix

[GL/18.7301-2; GL/23.5901-2; GL/26.1301-2; GL/32.0901-2; GL/35.8301-2; GL/47.1301-2; GL/47.4101-2; GL/47.6101-2; GL/48.0401-2; LT1A/Vána.055-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-(r)iol

suffix. adjective suffix

[GL/24.4601-2; GL/24.6701-2; GL/24.7201-2; GL/25.8201-2; GL/29.5901-2; GL/29.8801-2; GL/30.1301-2; GL/30.7301-2; GL/32.7701-2; GL/32.9101-2; GL/39.4701-2; GL/40.1401-2; GL/40.7702-2; GL/42.1901-2; GL/44.6301-2; GL/45.2101-2; GL/45.6201-2; GL/45.8501-2; GL/49.3401-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-og

suffix. adjectival suffix

[GL/18.0501-2; GL/18.8301-2; GL/19.1101-2; GL/23.6501-2; GL/27.2701-2; GL/27.6501-2; GL/28.7301-2; GL/29.5801-2; GL/30.8801-2; GL/31.2401-2; GL/31.5101-2; GL/32.4001-2; GL/32.5601-2; GL/33.0701-2; GL/33.3601-2; GL/34.7301-2; GL/34.8301-2; GL/35.5301-2; GL/39.3701-2; GL/41.0401-2; GL/42.4001-2; GL/42.7601-2; GL/46.7401-2; GL/47.5701-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-wed

suffix. adjective suffix

[GL/24.8801-2; GL/25.1301-2; GL/25.7801-2; GL/26.3502-2; GL/26.4801-2; GL/29.6001-2; GL/30.0901-2; GL/31.0401-2; GL/33.0801-2; GL/34.0201-2; GL/34.1601-2; GL/34.3601-2; GL/40.7301-2; GL/41.4801-2; GL/42.5001-2; GL/43.7201-2; GL/44.8101-2; GL/45.8701-2; GL/49.1901-2; PE13/113.3501-2; PE13/114.4601-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-thol

suffix. adjective suffix

[GL/26.7001-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-(r)ol

suffix. adjective suffix

[GL/17.5301-2; GL/17.6301-2; GL/22.0501-2; GL/23.6401-2; GL/24.1901-2; GL/24.2701-2; GL/24.7501-2; GL/25.3301-2; GL/27.5801-2; GL/27.5802-2; GL/38.9001-2; GL/42.1001-2; GL/42.8601-2; GL/43.3901-2; GL/46.2101-2; GL/47.2101-2; GL/47.5301-2; GL/47.5801-2; GL/48.5901-3] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Early Noldorin

-ui

suffix. adjective suffix

[PE13/148.1701-1] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-eb

suffix. adjectival suffix

[PE13/108.7501-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Black Speech, Nandorin, Noldorin, Quendya, Quenya, Sindarin, Telerin are languages conceived by Tolkien and they do not belong to us; we neither can nor do claim affiliation with Middle-earth Enterprises nor Tolkien Estate.