-inageneral 'passive' participle
-ina ending for what Tolkien called "general 'passive' participle" (VT43:15); compare nótina "counted", rácina "broken", hastaina "marred" (q.v.). The stem-vowel is usually lengthened when the ending is added to the stem of a primary verb (as in the two first examples above), though the lengthening fails to occur (or is not denoted) in carina as the passive participle of car- "make, do" (VT43:15).
-inasuffix. passive (past) participle; adjective suffix
Variations of the word: -ina.
Word Gloss Source -i simplest aorist infinitive PE17/068.1404 -nā adjective suffix; passive participle PE17/068.1001
-asuffix. adjectival suffix
This suffix is frequently used to create the adjective form of a noun, especially in the form -ëa for nouns ending in -ë. This function dates back to CE. ✶-ā.
Variations of the word: -a.
Element in: Q. airëa, Q. Aldëa, Q. amaurëa, Q. andúna, Q. endëa, Q. eressëa, Q. fínëa, Q. ilaurëa, Q. ilyarëa, Q. laurëa, Q. lillassëa, Q. lilótëa, Q. lómëa, Q. mírëa, Q. noa, Q. núla, Q. oialëa, Q. rávëa, Q. taurëa, Q. túrëa, Q. úfanwëa, Q. úpahtëa, Q. yaimëa
A shorter ending -na also occurs, e.g. nahtana "slain" (VT49:24); the example hastaina "marred" would suggest that *nahtaina is equally possible. In the example aistana "blessed" (VT43:30), -na may be preferred to -ina for euphonic reasons, to avoid creating a second diphthong ai *where one already occurs in the previous syllable (aistaina). In PE17:68, the ending -ina is said to be "aorist" (unmarked as regards time and aspect); the same source states that the shorter ending -na is "no longer part of verbal conjugation", though it obviously survives in many words that are maybe now to be considered independent adjectives. See -na** #4.
-nano longer part of verbal conjugation
-na (4), ending used to form passive participles as well as some adjectives and nouns; see -ina. According to PE17:68, the ending -na was "no longer part of verbal conjugation"; the derived words are thus considered independent adjectives (sometimes nouns) rather than regularly derived passive participles, the obvious etymological connection to certain verbal stems notwithstanding. Where adding the ending to a root would produce the combinations tn, pn, kn (cn), metathesis occurs to produce nt, (np >) mp, nc, as in nanca *"slain" for older ¤ndakna, or hampa "restrained, delayed, kept" vs. the root KHAP "retain, keep, detain". Following -l, the suffix -na turns into -da, as in yulda "draught, the amount drunk" for older yulna (this being an example of a noun being derived with this ending, though Tolkien might also explain yulda as containing a distinct ending -da [q.v.] denoting the result of a verbal action). The word *turúna "mastered" (q.v., only attested in elided form turún) would seem to be a passive participle formed from the verb turu- "master" (PE17:113), suggesting that in the case of U-stem verbs, their final -u is lengthened to ú when -na is added.
suffix. adjective suffix
-yasuffix. adjective suffix
Element in: Q. Aldúya, Q. Amanyar, Q. Anarya, Q. apacenya, Q. attalya, Q. carya, Q. Eärenya, Q. elenya, Q. entya, Q. firya, Q. Isilya, Q. Menelya, Q. minya, Q. Narya, Q. Nenya, Q. tatya, Q. tercenya, Q. Valanya, Q. Vilya
Word Gloss Source nahta- to slay; to hurt -
nanca adj. *"slain" (PE17:68); see -na
toinawood of material
toina adj.? "wood of material" (PE17:115). Since -ina is normally an adjectival ending, the word is best understood as meaning "(made) of wood".