Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!



noun. jar, flagon

A word appearing as G. ulm “jar, flagon” in the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s derived from ᴱ✶ḷm (GL/74). In the contemporaneous Qenya Lexicon Tolkien said it was not related to the early root ᴱ√ULU “pour” because Gnomish derivatives of that root showed gul- indicating a true root form ✱ᴱ√GULU (QL/97). Tolkien soon changed his mind and decided the root for “pour” was in fact ᴱ√ULU, and the primitive form ᴱ✶ḷm was deleted from the Gnomish Lexicon.

Neo-Sindarin: I would retain this word for purposes of Neo-Sindarin, but would assume it was derived from ✱ul-mā “a thing for pouring”. As such, I would assume its use included pitchers with handles as well as flagons and jars. Its form would need to be adapted as ᴺS. olf to fit Sindarin phonetics, with u becoming o before a and then [[s|lm > lf (pronounced [lv])]].


  • Eq. ulma “flagon” ✧ QL/097


  • ᴱ✶ḷma ✧ GL/74; QL/097

Phonetic Developments

ᴱ✶ḷm > ulm[ḷm] > [ulm]✧ GL/74
Gnomish [GL/74; QL/097] Group: Eldamo. Published by


masculine name. Gulma


  • UlmaGulma ✧ GL/18
  • GulmaYlmir ✧ LB/093
  • GulmaYlmir ✧ LBI/Gulma
  • GulumUlm ✧ PE13/101


  • Eq. Ulmo “Valon of the Seas” ✧ GL/18; GL/22; GL/43; LBI/Gulma; LT1A/Uin; LT2A/Ulmonan; LT1A/Ulmo; PE13/101; PE14/012


  • ᴱ√DYULU “*carry, bear” ✧ GL/38
  • ᴱ√ULU “pour, flow fast” ✧ LT1A/Ulmo

Element in

Phonetic Developments

ᴱ√dyulu > Gulma[dʲulmā] > [gulmā] > [gulma]✧ GL/38


  • Ulma ✧ GL/18 (Ulma); PE14/012 (Ulma)
  • Ulm ✧ PE13/101
  • Ulum ✧ PE13/101; PE14/012
  • Gulum ✧ PE13/101 (Gulum)
Gnomish [GL/18; GL/22; GL/38; GL/43; LB/093; LBI/Gulma; LT1A/Uin; LT1A/Ulmo; LT2A/Ulmonan; PE13/101; PE14/012] Group: Eldamo. Published by


noun. jar

A noun appearing as G. ceral “jar” in Gnomish Lexicon Slips of the 1910s from primitive ᴱ✶keréldǝ (PE13/116). It is likely based on the early root ᴱ√KERE “turn” (QL/46).

Neo-Sindarin: A similar root √KWER “revolve” appears in Tolkien’s later writing, so I would adapt this noun as ᴺS. perol “jar” from ancient ✱kwerḷ.


  • ᴱ√KERE “turn”
  • ᴱ✶keréldǝ ✧ PE13/116; PE13/116; PE13/116