Quenya 

númessier

they are in the west

númessier vb. "they are in the west", a construction occurring in Fíriel's Song, evidently núme(n)-ssë-ie-r "west-in-are-they"; the stative-verb suffix - is probably not valid in LotR-style Quenya (FS)

númë

noun. west

númen

west, the way of the sunset

númen noun "west, the way of the sunset" (SA:andúnë, cf. NDŪ, MEN; capitalized Númen under SA:men and in CO), "going down, occudent" (Letters:361), also name of tengwa #17 _(Appendix E). _According to VT45:38, the word is actually cited as "nú-men" in Tolkien's Etymologies manuscript. Allative númenna "Westward" (LR:47, SD:310, VT49:20, capitalized Númenna, VT49:22; numenna with a short u, VT49:23); adj. númenquerna "turned westward" (VT49:18, 20). See also númenyaron, númessier. - In the pre-classical Tengwar system presupposed in the Etymologies, "nú-men" was intended as the name of tengwa #21, to which letter Tolkien at this stage assigned the value n (VT45:38). However, this tengwa was later given the Quenya value r instead and was renamed órë.

úyë

is

úyë vb., a form occurring in Fíriel's Song (cf. VT46:22), apparently ye "is" with the negative prefix ú-, hence "is not" (úyë sérë indo-ninya símen, translated "my hearth resteth not here", literally evidently *"[there] is not rest [for] my heart here")

-ië

suffix. is

- (3) "is", -ier "are", stative verb suffix occurring in Fíriel's Song: númessier "they are in the west", meldielto "they are...beloved", talantië "he is fallen", márië "it is good" (< *númessë "in the west", melda "beloved", *talanta "fallen"); future tense -iéva in hostainiéva "will be gathered" (< *hostaina "gathered"). Compare ye "is", yéva "will be", verbs that also occur in Fíriel's Song. This suffix is probably not valid in LotR-style Quenya: - is an infinitival or gerundial ending in CO, for ye "is" Namárië has , and the phrase "lost is" is vanwa ná, not *vanwië.

is

(1) vb. "is" (am). (Nam, RGEO:67). This is the copula used to join adjectives, nouns or pronouns "in statements (or wishes) asserting (or desiring) a thing to have certain quality, or to be the same as another" (VT49:28). Also in impersonal constructions: ringa ná "it is cold" (VT49:23). The copula may however be omitted "where the meaning is clear" without it (VT49:9). is also used as an interjection "yes" or "it is so" (VT49:28). Short na in airë [] na, "[] is holy" (VT43:14; some subject can evidently be inserted in the place of [].) Short na also functions as imperative: alcar mi tarmenel na Erun "glory in high heaven be to God" (VT44:32/34), also na airë "be holy" (VT43:14); also cf. nai "be it that" (see nai #1). The imperative participle á may be prefixed (á na, PE17:58). However, VT49:28 cites as the imperative form. Pl. nar or nár "are" (PE15:36, VT49:27, 9, 30); dual nát (VT49:30). With pronominal endings: nányë/nanyë "I am", nalyë or natyë "you (sg.) are" (polite and familiar, respectively), nás "it is", násë "(s)he is", nalmë "we are" (VT49:27, 30). Some forms listed in VT49:27 are perhaps to be taken as representing the aorist: nain, naityë, nailyë (1st person sg, and 2nd person familiar/polite, respectively); does a following na represent the aorist with no pronominal ending? However, the forms nanyë, nalyë, , nassë, nalme, nar (changed from nár) are elsewhere said to be "aorist", without the extra vowel i (e.g. nalyë rather than nailyë); also notice that *"(s)he is" is here nassë rather than násë (VT49:30).Pa.t. nánë or "was", pl. náner/nér and dual nét "were" (VT49:6, 9, 10, 27, 28, 30, 36). According to VT49:31, "was" cannot receive pronominal endings (though nésë "he was" is attested elsewhere, VT49:28-29), and such endings are rather added to the form ane-, e.g. anen "I was", anel "you were", anes "(s)he/it was" (VT49:28-29). Future tense nauva "will be" (VT42:34, VT49:19, 27; another version however gives the future tense as uva, VT49:30). Nauva with a pronominal ending occurs in tanomë nauvan "I will be there" (VT49:19), this example indicating that forms of the verb may also be used to indicate position. Perfect anaië "has been" (VT49:27, first written as anáyë). Infinitive (or gerund) návë "being", PE17:68. See also nai #1.

ye

is

ye (2) copula "is" (FS, VT46:22); both earlier and later sources rather point to (q.v.) as the copula "is", so ye may have been an experiment Tolkien later abandoned. Future tense yéva, q.v.

Sindarin 

annûn

noun. west, sunset

Sindarin [Ety/376, S/428, LotR/VI:IV, LotR/E, LB/354, Lett] Group: SINDICT. Published by

dûn

noun. west

Sindarin [Ety/376, S/428, LotR/E-F] Group: SINDICT. Published by

dûn

noun. west

_n. _west. Q. -. >> annûn

Sindarin [(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:18:121] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

dûn

noun. west

Cognates

  • Q. númen “west, direction or region of the sunset, occident, (lit.) going down” ✧ LotR/1123; PE17/018; SA/andúnë

Derivations

  • NDU “down, under, below; sink, descend, go down, down, under, below; sink, descend, go down, [ᴹ√] set (of Sun)” ✧ SA/andúnë

Derivatives

  • Ad. adûn “west, westward” ✧ PE17/018

Element in

  • S. Dúnadan “Man of the West” ✧ PE17/018; SA/andúnë
  • S. Dúnedhel “West-Elf” ✧ WJ/378

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ndu > dûn[ndūne] > [dūne] > [dūn]✧ SA/andúnë

Variations

  • Dûn ✧ LotR/1130
  • Dún ✧ WJ/378
Sindarin [LotR/1116; LotR/1123; LotR/1130; PE17/018; PE17/121; SA/andúnë; WJ/378] Group: Eldamo. Published by

annûn

west

1) annûn; 2) Dúven (na Núven, o Ndúven). Christopher Tolkien tentatively read the illegible gloss as ”southern” (LR:376 s.v. NDŪ), but the etymology seems to demand the meaning ”west”: dú-ven with the same ending as in Forven ”North” and Harven ”South”. The ending means ”way”, so Dúven may be ”west” considered as a direction. WEST-ELF (Elf of Beleriand, including Noldor and Sindar) Dúnedhel (i Núnedhel), pl. Dúnedhil (i Ndúnedhil). (WJ:378, 386)

Noldorin 

annûn

noun. west, sunset

Noldorin [Ety/376, S/428, LotR/VI:IV, LotR/E, LB/354, Lett] Group: SINDICT. Published by

annûn

noun. west

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. númen “west” ✧ Ety/NDŪ

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶ṇdūnē “sunset” ✧ Ety/NDŪ
    • ᴹ√NDŪ “go down, sink, set (of Sun)” ✧ Ety/NDŪ

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶ṇdūnē > annûn[ṇdūnē] > [andūnē] > [andūne] > [andūn] > [annūn]✧ Ety/NDŪ
Noldorin [Ety/NDŪ; Ety/RŌ] Group: Eldamo. Published by

dûn

noun. west

Noldorin [Ety/376, S/428, LotR/E-F] Group: SINDICT. Published by

dûn

noun. west

Cognates

  • ᴹQ. númen “west” ✧ Ety/NDŪ

Derivations

  • ᴹ✶ndūne “west” ✧ EtyAC/NDŪ
    • ᴹ√NDŪ “go down, sink, set (of Sun)” ✧ Ety/NDŪ

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴹ✶ndūne > dûn[ndūne] > [dūne] > [dūn]✧ EtyAC/NDŪ
Noldorin [Ety/NDŪ; Ety/RŌ] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Qenya 

núme

noun. west

númen

noun. west

Changes

  • nū-mennúme-/nú-men ✧ EtyAC/NDŪ

Cognates

  • Ad. adûn “west, westward” ✧ SD/240
  • N. dûn “west” ✧ Ety/NDŪ
  • N. annûn “west” ✧ Ety/NDŪ
  • N. dúven “*sunken, western” ✧ Ety/NDŪ

Element in

Variations

  • Númen ✧ Ety/MEN; SMI/Númen
  • núme- ✧ Ety/NDŪ
  • nú-men ✧ Ety/NDŪ
  • nū-men ✧ EtyAC/NDŪ (nū-men)
  • nūmen ✧ PE22/050
  • nūme ✧ SD/240; SD/305
  • nūmē ✧ SD/303
Qenya [Ety/MEN; Ety/NDŪ; EtyAC/NDŪ; LR/047; LR/056; LR/071; LR/072; PE22/023; PE22/050; SD/240; SD/303; SD/305; SD/310; SMI/Númen] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Middle Primitive Elvish

ndūne

noun. west

Derivations

  • ᴹ√NDŪ “go down, sink, set (of Sun)” ✧ Ety/NDŪ

Derivatives

  • N. dûn “west” ✧ EtyAC/NDŪ
Middle Primitive Elvish [EtyAC/NDŪ] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Early Quenya

núme

noun. west

Derivations

  • ᴱ√NUHU “bow, bend down, stoop, sink” ✧ LT1A/Númë; PME/068; QL/068

Element in

  • Eq. Faskala-númen “Bath of the Setting Sun” ✧ LT1A/Faskala-númen
  • Eq. numenda “western” ✧ QL/068
  • Eq. númeta- “to get low (of the Sun), go down in the west” ✧ LT1A/Númë; QL/068
  • Eq. númea “in the west, western” ✧ LT1A/Númë; QL/068
  • Eq. Sirnúmen “Western Stream” ✧ LT1A/Sirnúmen

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ᴱ√NUHU > nūme[nuxmē] > [nuxme] > [nuɣme] > [nūme]✧ QL/068

Variations

  • Nūme ✧ LT1/085
  • Númë ✧ LT1A/Faskala-númen; LT1A/Númë; LT1A/Sirnúmen
  • númë ✧ LT1A/Númë
  • nūme ✧ PME/068; QL/068
Early Quenya [LT1/085; LT1A/Faskala-númen; LT1A/Númë; LT1A/Sirnúmen; PME/068; QL/068] Group: Eldamo. Published by