Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Middle Primitive Elvish


root. bark, bay

This root was the basis for several “dog” words, most notably S. (or Q.) Huan “Hound”, a name Tolkien used throughout his life. Its earliest precursor was the root ᴱ√SAẆA from the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s, which had the derivative ᴱQ. fan (fand-) “dog”. In the somewhat earlier Qenya Phonology, Tolkien had ᴱQ. hwan >> huan >> fan, reflecting conceptual shifts in the phonetic development of initial sẉ- in Qenya (PE12/26 note #149). In the contemporaneous Gnomish lexicon the words G. “dog” and G. saur “hound, wild dog” seem to be derived from this same root (GL/49, 67). The Early Noldorin word ᴱN. fan(d) “dog” in word lists of the 1920s is probably of similar origin (PE13/143).

In The Etymologies of the 1930s, Tolkien derived N. Huan and a number of other dog-words, first from an (unglossed) extended root ᴹ√KHUGAN, and then from ᴹ√KHUG “bark, bay” (Ety/KHUGAN). In their Reader’s Companion to the Lord of the Rings, Wayne Hammond and Christina Scull said:

> The first element of Huorn could be derived from the base KHUG- “bark, bay”, which appears to be supported by unpublished etymological notes by Tolkien (RC/425).

Hammond and Scull did not further describe these notes so we don’t know whether it actually contained √KHUG, but I think it is likely that these “unpublished notes” refer to the etymology of Huorn on PE17/86, which does not contain √KHUG but does have Q. “hound” (the word’s gloss is unclear and might be “heart” according to Christopher Gilson).




  • ᴹ✶khugan “hound” ✧ Ety/KHUGAN
    • ᴹQ. huan “hound, hound, [ᴱQ.] dog” ✧ Ety/KHUGAN
    • N. huan “hound” ✧ Ety/KHUGAN
  • Q. “hound (or ?heart)”
  • ᴹQ. huan “hound, hound, [ᴱQ.] dog” ✧ Ety/KHUGAN
  • ᴺQ. húni “bitch, *female dog”
  • ᴹQ. huo “dog” ✧ Ety/KHUGAN
  • N. “dog” ✧ Ety/KHUGAN
  • N. Huan “hound” ✧ Ety/KHUGAN
  • S. huan “great dog, hound”
  • ᴺS. huar “hound, wild dog, wild dog”
  • ᴺS. huil “bitch, *female dog”

Element in

  • ᴺQ. huar “wild dog, jackal”
  • S. huorn “?spirit tree” ✧ RC/425


Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/KHUGAN; RC/425] Group: Eldamo. Published by