Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Middle Primitive Elvish


root. night

A root in The Etymologies of the 1930s glossed “night” that (along with ᴹ√DOM) was the basis for the ᴹQ. lóme/N. “night” (Ety/DOƷ). It replaced some rejected variants ᴹ√LOƷ and ᴹ√DAW (EtyAC/LOƷ). Many of the derivatives of ᴹ√DOƷ were later assigned to other roots: N. dûr “dark” became S. dûr “dark” < √NDU “under, down” in notes from the late 1950s or early 1960s (PE17/152) and ᴹQ. lóna “dark” became Q. lúna (PE17/22). There are no signs of ᴹQ. “night” and N. daw “night-time, gloom” in Tolkien’s later writing. Future derivations of Q. lómë/S. only mention the root √DOM (PE17/152; PE22/153) and thus ᴹ√DOƷ may have been abandoned.

In a message to the Elfling mailing list from July 2012 (Elfling/362.96), David Salo suggested there might be a later root ✱√DU serving as the basis for Q. lúna “dark” and Q. lúmë “darkness”, though the latter might instead be from √LUM. Such a root ✱√DU is not attested in Tolkien writings, but if it existed, it could be a later iteration of ᴹ√DOƷ. Another possible example of the root ✱√DU is primitive ✶durnŭ “dark of hue”.


  • Ilk. daum “night-time, gloom” ✧ Ety/DOƷ
  • ᴹ✶doʒmē ✧ Ety/DOMO
    • Ilk. daum “night-time, gloom”
    • On. doume “night-time, gloom”
    • N. daw “night-time, gloom” ✧ Ety/DOƷ
  • ᴹQ. “night, a night” ✧ Ety/DOƷ; EtyAC/LOƷ
  • ᴹQ. lóme “night, night-time, shades of night, gloom” ✧ Ety/DOƷ; Ety/LUM
    • Ad. lômi “(pleasant) night” ✧ SD/415
  • ᴹQ. lóna “dark” ✧ Ety/DOƷ
  • N. “night, night-fall, late evening” ✧ Ety/DOƷ; Ety/DYEL; Ety/DOMO
  • N. dúlin(n) “nightingale” ✧ Ety/DOƷ
  • N. dûr “dark” ✧ Ety/DOƷ
  • On. doume “night-time, gloom” ✧ Ety/DOƷ
    • N. daw “night-time, gloom” ✧ Ety/DOƷ

Element in

  • Ilk. durgul “sorcery”
  • N. daw “night-time, gloom” ✧ EtyAC/LOƷ (daw)
  • N. Delduthling “Ungoliant, *(lit.) Horror Night Spider” ✧ Ety/DYEL; Ety/SLIG; Ety/UÑG
  • N. Dureledh “Dark-elf” ✧ Ety/MOR
  • N. Durion “Dark-elf” ✧ Ety/MOR
  • N. Magladhûr “Black-sword” ✧ Ety/MAK (DOƷ)


  • DOƷ/DÔ ✧ Ety/DOƷ
  • DOG ✧ Ety/UÑG
  • LOƷ ✧ EtyAC/LOƷ (LOƷ)
  • DAW ✧ EtyAC/LOƷ (DAW)
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/DOƷ; Ety/DOMO; Ety/DYEL; Ety/LUM; Ety/MAK; Ety/MOR; Ety/NDŪ; Ety/SLIG; Ety/UÑG; EtyAC/LOƷ; EtyAC/UÑG] Group: Eldamo. Published by


root. faint, dim


  • ᴹ✶dōmi “night, twilight, gloom” ✧ Ety/DOMO
    • Ilk. dûm “twilight” ✧ Ety/DOMO
    • ᴹQ. lóme “night, night-time, shades of night, gloom” ✧ Ety/DOMO; PE21/32; SD/302
    • Ad. lômi “(pleasant) night” ✧ SD/415
    • N. “night, night-fall, late evening” ✧ SD/302
  • ᴹQ. lóme “night, night-time, shades of night, gloom” ✧ SD/415
    • Ad. lômi “(pleasant) night” ✧ SD/415
  • N. dúlin(n) “nightingale” ✧ Ety/TIN
  • N. tinnu “(starry) twilight, dusk, early night (without moon)” ✧ Ety/TIN

Element in

  • Ilk. tindum “(starry) twilight, starlight” ✧ Ety/TIN
  • ᴹ✶Tindōmiselde “Nightingale, (lit.) Daughter of Twilight” ✧ Ety/TIN
  • ᴹQ. lómelinde “nightingale” ✧ Ety/TIN
  • ᴹQ. tindóme “(starry) twilight, starlit dusk” ✧ Ety/TIN


  • DOMO ✧ Ety/DOMO; EtyAC/TIN
  • DOƷ ✧ EtyAC/TIN
  • LOM ✧ SD/415
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/DOMO; Ety/TIN; EtyAC/TIN; SD/415] Group: Eldamo. Published by