Quenya 

apa

preposition. touching, against, on (above but touching)

apa

after

apa (1) prep. "after" (VT44:36), attested as a prefix in apacenyë and Apanónar, q.v. Variant ep- in epessë, q.v.; see epë for futher discussion. (According to VT44:36, apa was glossed "after" and also "before" in one late manuscript, but both meanings were rejected.) See also apa # 2 below. For Neo-Quenya purposes, apa should probably be ascribed the meaning "after", as in our most widely-published sources (compare Apanónar, "the After-born", as a name of Men in the Silmarillion). Variants pa, (VT44:36), but like apa these are also ascribed other meanings elsewhere; see separate entry. Apo (VT44:36) may be yet another variant of the word for "after".

apa

on

apa (2) prep. denoting "on" with reference to contact of surfaces, especially vertical surface (in the sense in which a picture hangs on a wall). Apa is said to have this meaning in various Tolkien manuscripts (VT44:26), but apa is also used for "after" (see apa #1 above), and the two were probably never meant to coexist in a single variant of Quenya. The clash may be avoided by consistently using the variants , pa (q.v.) mentioned by Tolkien in the sense of apa #2. Another variant gives apa, "on (above but touching)" (VT49:18).

apa

but

apa (3) conj. "but": melinyes apa la hé "I love him but not him" (another) (VT49:15)

apa

conjunction. but

Element in

Variations

  • apa ✧ VT49/15

apa

preposition. after (of time)

Cognates

  • S. ab “after”

Derivations

  • PĀ/APA “touch; after, behind of place”

Element in

  • Q. apacen “foresight, *(lit.) after-sight”
  • ᴺQ. apalúmë “future, (lit.) after-time”
  • Q. Apanónar “After-born”
  • ᴺQ. apaquet- “to forebode, foretell, predict”
  • ᴺQ. apacíta- “to assume, make premature judgements”

Variations

  • apo ✧ VT44/36 (apo)
  • pa ✧ VT44/36
  • apa ✧ VT44/36 (apa)

appa-

touch

appa- vb. "touch" (in the literal sense; contrast #ap-, q.v.) (VT44:26)

ala

after, beyond

ala (5) prep. "after, beyond" (MC:221, 214; however, LotR-style Quenya has han and pella "beyond" and apa "after")

ana

to

ana (1) prep. "to" (VT49:35), "as preposition _ana _is used when purely _dative formula is required" (PE17:147), perhaps meaning that the preposition ana can be used instead of the dative ending -n (#1, q.v.) Also as prefix: ana- "to, towards" (NĀ1); an (q.v.) is used with this meaning in one source (PE17:127)_

apo

after

apo prep. ?"after" (see apa #1) (VT44:36)

but, on the contrary, on the other hand

(2), also nán, conj. "but, on the contrary, on the other hand" (NDAN; the form nan, q.v., is probably to be preferred to avoid confusion with "is", *nán "I am").

on

, pa (1) prep. "on" with reference to contact of surfaces, especially vertical surface (in the sense in which a picture hangs on a wall); also used = "touching, as regards, concerning" (VT44:26). Another variant gives (and apa) with the meaning "on (above but touching)". (2) Variants of apa "after" (VT44:36), which preposition is in one source also ascribed the first meaning here discussed. For Neo-Quenya purposes, and pa may be used for "on" or "concerning", whereas apa is used for "after" (see entries for apa #1 and #2), or pa may also be seen as a shorter form of apa "after", as in the phrase yéni pa yéni *"years upon years" (VT44:36)

anat

but

anat conj. "but" (VT43:23; possibly an ephemeral form)

cata

after

Quenya [PE 22:124] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

na

to, towards

na (2) prep. "to, towards", possibly obsoleted by #1 above; for clarity writers may use the synonym ana instead (NĀ1). Originally, Tolkien glossed na as "at, by, near"; the new meaning entered together with the synonyms an, ana (VT45:36).

po

before, in front of

po, prep. "before, in front of" (of spatial relationships) "after" (of time), also opo or pono, poto- (VT49:12, 32, VT44:36; evidently a variant of apa)

epe

after

Quenya [PE 22:168] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

epë

before

epë prep. "before" ("in all relations but time", VT49:32), though the word was glossed "after" when first published (VT42:32; Bill Welden, the writer of the article in question, later presented this correction in VT44:38). The preposition can indeed express "after" when used of time, since the Eldar imagined future time (time that comes after the present) as being "before" them (VT49:12, 32); epë is in this respect a variant of apa, q.v. (Cf. VT49:22.) Compare epessë, q.v. Epë "before" may also be used in comparison (PE17:56, 57), apparently in much the same way as #2 (q.v.) (VT42:32)

mal

but

mal conj. "but" (VT43:23)

mal

conjunction. but

Element in

  • Q. násië “but deliver us from evil: Amen” ✧ VT43/23

nan

but

nan conj. "but" (FS); the Etymologies also gives , nán (NDAN), but these words may be confused with forms of the verb "to be", so nan should perhaps be preferred, unless for "but" one uses the wholly distinct word mal. In Tolkien's later Quenya, it may be that he introduced new words for "but" to free up nan for another meaning (perhaps the adverb "back", compare the prefix nan-).

opo

before, ahead, in front of

Quenya [PE 22:168] Group: Mellonath Daeron. Published by

opo

before, in front of

opo prep. "before, in front of" (of spatial relationships); "after" (of time), also , po or pono, poto (VT49:12, VT44:36, evidently a variant of apa).

-nna

to

-n (1) dative ending, originating as a reduced form of - "to", related to the allative ending -nna (VT49:14). Attested in nin, men, ten, enyalien, Erun, airefëan, tárin, yondon (q.v.) and also added to the English name Elaine (Elainen) in a book dedication to Elaine Griffiths (VT49:40). The longer dative ending -na is also attested in connection with some pronouns, such as sena, téna, véna (q.v.), also in the noun mariéna from márië "goodness" (PE17:59). Pl. -in (as in hínin, see hína), partitive pl. -lin, dual -nt (Plotz). The preposition ana (#1) is said to be used "when purely dative formula is required" (PE17:147), perhaps meaning that it can replace the dative ending, e.g. *ana Eru instead of Erun for "to God". In some of Tolkiens earlier material, the ending -n (or -en) expressed genitive rather than dative, but he later decided that the genitive ending was to be -o (cf. such a revision as Yénië Valinóren becoming Yénië Valinórëo, MR:200).

-nna

to, at, upon

-nna "to, at, upon", allative ending, originating from -na "to" with fortified n, VT49:14. Attested in cilyanna, coraryanna, Endorenna, Elendilenna, númenórenna, parma-restalyanna, rénna, senna, tielyanna, q.v. If a noun ends in -n already, the ending -nna merges with it, as in Amanna, formenna, Elenna, númenna, rómenna as the allative forms of Aman, formen, elen, númen, rómen (q.v.). Plural -nnar in mannar, valannar, q.v.

before

(3) prep. "before" (of time, compare nóvo), "at back" (of spatial relationships). In other conceptual phases, Tolkien also let the word have the opposite meaning "after" (of time) or "in front" (of space). (VT49:32).

conjunction. but

but

(2) conj. "but" (VT41:13)

ono

conjunction. but

Changes

  • anatone “*but” ✧ VT43/23

Element in

Variations

  • ✧ VT41/13
  • anat ✧ VT43/23 (anat)
  • one ✧ VT43/23
Quenya [VT41/13; VT43/23; VT44/09] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ono

but

ono conj. "but" (VT43:23, VT44:5/9)

onë

conjunction. but

onë

but

onë conj. "but" (VT43:23)