am- (1) prefix "up" (AM2)
prefix. up, up, [ᴱQ.] upwards
- √AM “go up, go up, [ᴹ√] up”
signifying addition, increase
am- (2) prefix used in comparison, "signifying addition, increase" (PE17:90), or with genitive superlative: elenion ancalima "brightest of stars" (PE17:91). Originally identical with #1 above. The form am- as such is in late Quenya only used before p and (presumably) before vowels; the longer form ama- came to be preferred before r and l; before other consonants, the prefix assumes the form an- (pronounced, but not in Romanized Quenya orthography written, añ- before c) (PE17:90-92). Phonologically we would expect am- before y- (since my is an acceptable Quenya combination); however, Tolkien used an- in the word anyára (q.v.) See an- #2 and compare ar- #2.
prefix. intensive prefix
ama adv.? element not glossed, evidently meaning "up" like the prefix am-, or an alternative form of amba (UNU)
amu adv. "up, upwards" (LT2:335; in Tolkien's later Quenya amba)
an- (2) intensive or superlative prefix carrying the idea of "very" or "most", seen in ancalima "most bright" (cf. calima "bright"), antara "very high, very lofty" and #anyára "very old" or "oldest" (the latter form occurring in the so-called Elaine inscription [VT49:40], there with the dative ending -n). Assimilated to am- before p-, as in amparca ("k") "very dry", and to al-, ar-, as- before words in l-, r-, s- (though Tolkien seems to indicate that before words in l- derived from earlier d, the original quality of the consonant would be preserved so that forms in and- rather than all- would result). See also un-. (Letters:279, VT45:5, 36) Regarding the form of the superlative prefix before certain consonants, another, partially discrepant system was also set down in the Etymologies and first published in VT45:36. The prefix was to appear as um- or un- before labialized consonants like p-, qu-, v- (the consonant v preserving its ancient pronunciation b- following the prefix, thus producing a word in umb-), as in- (technically iñ-) before c- and g- (the latter presumably referring to words that originally had initial g-, later lost in Quenya but evidently preserved following this prefix), and as an- otherwise. However, this system would contradict the canonical example ancalima, which would have been *incalima if Tolkien had maintained this idea. In a post-LotR source, the basic form of the prefix is given as am- instead (see am- #2). In this late conception, the prefix still appears as an- before most consonants, but as ama- before r, l, and the form an- is used even before s- (whether original or from þ), not the assimilated variant as- described above. General principles would suggest that the form am- should also appear before y- (so the form #anyára probably presupposes an- rather than am- as the basic form of the prefix, Tolkien revisiting the earlier concept in the _Elaine inscription). (PE17:92)_
prefix. intensive prefix
- an- → an ✧ PE17/090
- S. an- “intensive prefix”
Development Stages Sources ✶and(a) > an- [an-] ✧ PE17/090 ✶and(a) > anda- [anda-] ✧ PE17/090 ✶am > an [am-] ✧ PE17/090 √AMA > ama [ama-] ✧ PE17/091 ✶am > an [am-] ✧ PE17/092 √ANA/NĀ > an- [an-] ✧ PE17/146 √ANA/NA > an- [an-] ✧ PE21/79
- an ✧ PE17/056; PE17/057; PE17/090; PE17/092; PE17/092
- ana ✧ PE17/056; PE17/057
- ana- ✧ PE17/056
- añ- ✧ PE17/090
- am ✧ PE17/090; PE17/091 (am)
- anda- ✧ PE17/090
- ama ✧ PE17/091 (ama)
- ama- ✧ PE17/092
ar- (2), also ari-, prefix for superlative (compare arya #1, 2), hence arcalima "brightest", arimelda *"dearest" (PE17:56-57). In the grammar described in the source, this prefix was to express superlative as the highest degree (in actual comparison), whereas the alternative prefix an- rather expressed "very" or "exceedingly" with a more purely augmentative or adverbial force, but these distinctions do not seem to have been clearly present at all stages of Tolkiens work. See an- #2, am- #2.
#amorta- vb. "heave" (literally "up-rise, rise up", cf. orta-; the prefix am- means "up"). Only attested as a participleamortala "heaving" in Markirya.
amba 1) adv. "up, upwards" (AM2, PE17:157). Apparently also ama (UNU).
- S. am “up, up, [G.] upwards, towards head of, above”
- ᴺQ. ambahep- “to maintain, (lit.) upkeep”
- ᴺQ. ambalasar “stalagmite, (lit.) up-growing stone”
- Q. ambalotsë “uprising-flower”
- Q. Ambaráto “*High Champion”
- Q. Ambaróna “Eastern (Land)” ✧ PE17/082; PE17/091; RC/385
- Q. ambarónë “dawn, dawn; [ᴹQ.] uprising, sunrise, Orient”
- Q. Ambarto “*High and Lofty” ✧ PM/354
- Q. Ambarussa “Top-russet” ✧ PM/354
Development Stages Sources √AMA > amba [amba] ✧ PE17/091 √AM > amba- [amba] ✧ PE17/157
- amba- ✧ PE17/082; PE17/157
- amba ✧ PE17/091; PM/354; RC/385; UT/255
ita, íta adv. 2) "very, extremely" (PE17:112). Like #1 above, this element emerged as part of Tolkiens efforts to explain the initial element of the name Idril (Q Itaril), so it is questionable if #1 and #2 were ever meant to coexist in the "same" version of Quenya.
[lai adverbial particle "very" (VT45:8)]
ango noun "snake"; stem angu- as in angulócë (q.v.); pl. angwi (ANGWA/ANGU)
leuca (1) noun "snake" (Appendix E)
The best known Quenya word for “snake”, appearing in Appendix E of The Lord of the Rings (LotR/1115). In 1964 notes on Dalath Dirnen (DD), Tolkien said it was derived from the root √LEWEK “worm” (PE17/160).
- S. lŷg “snake” ✧ LotR/1115; PE17/121; PE17/160
- √LEWEK “worm” ✧ PE17/160
- ᴺQ. lingwileuca “eel”
Development Stages Sources √LEWEK > leuka [leuka] ✧ PE17/160
- leuka ✧ PE17/160
hlócë ("k")noun "snake, serpent", later lócë ("k")(SA:lok-)
- √DAY “*great”