Conceptual Development: This river was first mentioned as N. Anduin in the earliest versions of the “Fall of Númenor” from the 1930s (LR/33). In the earliest drafts of the Lord of the Rings from the 1940s this river was named N. Beleghir “Great River”, but it was quickly changed to Anduin (RS/410). As he composed the Lord of the Rings, Tolkien considered other variants: Sirvinya “New Sirion” (TI/119) and Andon (TI/298), but all were rejected in favor of Anduin.
brassnoun. great cliff
rainnoun. erratic wandering
talfnoun. flat field, topographical flat area, wang, wang, flat field, topographical flat area
anduinplace name. Great River, (lit.) Long River
aerlinnnoun. *hymn, (lit.) holy song
aglarebadjective. glorious, brilliant, **radiant
alfirinnoun/adjective. immortal, (lit.) not dying, a species of flower
malthenadjective. of gold
amrothmasculine name. upclimber, high climber
Sindarin king of Lórien for the first half of the Third Age, lover of Nimrodel. His name was Silvan in origin, adapted into Sindarin (LotR/1127). This name is translated as “upclimber”, referring to the high talan on which he (and other Elves of Lórien) dwelled (UT/245). The name is a compound of am “up” and a derivative of the root √RATH “climb” (UT/255).
Conceptual Development: In first drafts of the “Fall of Númenor” from the early 1930s, the name N. Agaldor > N. Amroth was used for the character who would eventually become Q. Elendil (LR/12, 31). In Lord of the Rings drafts from the 1940s, the lover of Nimrodel was first named N. Ammalas >> Amaldor before Tolkien settled on the name Amroth (TI/223).
amarthanmasculine name. Fated One
harnadjective. south, south, southern, southern
adannoun. Man (as a race)
angrodmasculine name. *Iron Champion
Sindarin name of the second youngest son of Finarfin (S/61), an adaption of his Quenya father-name Q. Angaráto “Iron Champion” (PM/346-7). His name is a combination of ang “iron” (SA/anga) and the suffixal form -rod of raud* “lofty, noble” seen in many names (PE17/49).
Conceptual Development: In the Lays of Beleriand from the 1920s, his name was first given as G. Angrod (LB/80, 213), though in the very earliest Silmarillion drafts his name appeared as G. Anrod (SM/15). In The Etymologies from the 1930s, the name N. Angrod was derived from a combination of ang “iron” and rhaud “metal” (Ety/RAUTĀ). The derivation from his Quenya name did not emerge until after Silmarillion revisions from the 1950s-60s (PM/346).
amarnoun. world, the Earth, (lit.) settlement
amartha-verb. to define, decree, destine
ae adar nín i vi menelour Father who [art] in Heaven
The first line of Ae Adar Nín, Tolkien’s Sindarin translation of the Lord’s Prayer (VT44/21). The first word Ae is probably a variation of the vocative a “O”. The second word is adar “father”, modified by the possessive pronoun nín “my”, with the adjectival element following the noun as is usual in Sindarin. The fourth word is i “who” followed by vi the lenited form of mi “in” and menel “heaven”. There is no Sindarin word for “to be” in this phrase, as there is in English (“art”).
Both Bill Welden and David Salo point out (VT44/22, GS/231) that Tolkien’s use of the 1st-person-singular possessive pronoun nín “my” in this first phrase (where the original prayer had “our”) is somewhat peculiar, since elsewhere in the prayer he used mín for the 1st-person-plural possessive “our”. Bill Welden suggested that Tolkien may have use the 1st-singular here to connote greater intimacy (VT44/22).
As pointed out by Bill Welden (VT44/23-4), Tolkien did not use Q. menel for the Christian Heaven in the final Quenya version of the prayer, replacing it with the name Q. Eruman. Elsewhere, S. menel properly referred only to “the heavens” (holding the stars) and its application to the Christian Heaven would not be appropriate (MR/387). Perhaps Tolkien would have replace S. Menel with a Sindarinized form *Eruvan of the Quenya name, if he had made the same change in the Sindarin prayer.
Decomposition: Broken into its constituent elements, this phrase would be:
> ae Adar nín i vi Menel = “*O Father mine who [art] in Heaven”
amonnoun. hill, mountain with steep sides, lump, clump, mass, *(isolated) mountain, *[G.] steep slope
laegadjective. (fresh and) green, viridis, green, green (of leaves/herbiage), viridis, fresh and green
abonnenproper name. After-born
alae! ered en echoriath, ered e·mbar nín[?behold!] the mountains of Echoriath, the mountains of my home!
acharnnoun. vengeance, (an act of) revenge
aglar’ni pheriannathglory to the halflings
anguirelproper name. *Iron-of-the-fiery-star
A companion sword to Anglachel, constructed from the same fiery meteor (S/202). Its initial element is probably ang “iron” (SA/eng) and its final element may be êl “star”. Its middle element may be related to the root √UR “heat, be hot”, perhaps an otherwise unattested adjective ?uir “fiery”, though David Salo suggested it might be (N.) uir “eternity” (GS/359).
annonnoun. (great) gate, door
adanethnoun. (mortal) woman
aduialnoun. (evening) twilight, **evening
andrathplace name. Long Climb
A defile crossing the Greenway between the Barrow-downs and the South Downs, translated by Christopher Tolkien as “long climb” (UT/278, 348). This name is a combination of and “long” and rath “(climbing) street”.
Conceptual Development: This location first appeared in Lord of the Rings drafts with the name N. Amrath (perhaps “?up-course”), soon changed to Andrath (TI/72, 79). It also appeared on draft maps for the Lord of the Rings (TI/298, 305), but the name did not appear in the published book or its maps. The location was mentioned again in Tolkien’s private essays on “The Hunt for the Ring” (UT/348). In a different essay on “The Disaster at Gladden Fields”, the name Andrath was applied to the “high-climbing pass” over the Misty Mountains, the pass that Bilbo and the Dwarves used in the Hobbit, more fully Cirith Forn en Andrath (UT/271, 278 note #4).
maetha-verb. to handle, manage, wield, use, treat, deal with, to handle, treat, manage, use, wield
pae(an)cardinal. 10, ten
reitha-verb. to try, strive
rimnoun. great number, host, host, crowd, great number, people
sawnoun. filth, putrescence
nîrnoun. tear, weeping
aerennelmasculine name. Aerennel
Sindarized form of the name of Eärendil, also with variant Aerendil (PM/364). These were phonetic alterations, not translations.
aglarnoun. glory, brilliance, splendour, radiance
aglarondplace name. Glittering Cavern
The caverns of Helm’s Deep, translated “Glittering Caves” (LotR/548) or “Glittering Cavern” (RC/421). It is a compound of aglar “brilliance” and rond “vault, high roofed cavern” (RC/421; SA/aglar, rond).
Conceptual Development: This name first appeared as N. Aglarond “Caves of Splendour” in Lord of the Ring drafts from the 1940s (WR/76), probably already with the etymology given above.
ai na vedui dúnadanAh! at last, Dúnadan!
andrethfeminine name. *Patience
andrethadjective. long-suffering, patience
nethnoun. (little) girl, girl, little girl, sister, sister (diminutive)
aenadverb. should be, ?may it be that
Carl Hostetter suggested (VT31/16) that this may be a cognate of Q. nai “be it that”, since in combination with the future verb estathar it resembles the nai + future construct of the Quenya subjunctive. David Salo suggested instead (GS/228) that it might be a pronominal subject of the same verb, though with less conviction. This entry follows Carl Hostetter’s theory. @@@ In VT50/13 Carl Hostetter suggested an alternate theory, that this is a subjunctive passive voice marker, vs. indicative passive voice marker en.
aeradjective. *hallowed, holy
This word appears in the phrase no aer i eneth lín “hallowed by thy name”, the second line of Ae Adar Nín, Tolkien’s Sindarin translation of the Lord’s Prayer. It is untranslated, but in context clearly means “hallowed, holy”. It is apparently the Sindarin cognate of Q. airë of similar meaning, which appears in the Quenya translation of the same prayer: Q. Átaremma*.
Possible Etymology: David Salo suggested that aer may be a lenited form of the Sindarin adjective gaer (GS/231). Although N. gaer was glossed “dreadful” in The Etymologies (Ety/GÁYAS), in later writings Tolkien derived Q. airë “holy” from a similar root √GAY(AR) “awe, dread” (PM/363). The sense “dread” did not necessarily connote terribleness, but could also imply awe and respect. It was from this meaning of the root that words with the connotation “holy” arose, at least in Quenya (PM/363).
Bill Welden instead connected S. aer “holy” with the word aerlinn in the phrase Aerlinn in Edhil o Imladris (RGEO/62). This phrase is untranslated, but it is widely believed that aerlinn means “holy song” (VT44/24). Since aer cannot be lenited in aerlinn, this indicates that aer is the normal form of the word. In other writings, Tolkien derived Q. airë from primitive ✶airē “holiness, sanctity” (PE17/149), which could also be the origin of S. aer*. That is the theory used here.
It is possible that this word appears in the name Aerandir, but that is rather speculative.
Conceptual Development: In the Gnomish Lexicon from the 1910s, there was a word G. air(in) “holy, sacred” (GL/18) marked archaic (†); this is probably the earliest precursor to S. aer. The form air reappeared in the Gnomish Lexicon slips, besides a new form eirin “holy” (PE13/113), reflecting Tolkien’s ongoing vacillation on the development of the diphthong ai.
ai¹interjection. hail!, *hail, *[ᴱN.] cry of pain or woe, *[G.] oh!
aeglosnoun. snowthorn, icicle
amon rûdhplace name. Bald Hill
anfangproper name. Longbeard
The Dwarvish tribe of northwestern Middle Earth, also known as Durin’s Folk (PM/321). The name translates as “Longbeard”, a compound of and “long” and fang “beard” (PM/321). The name also appears in its plural form Enfeng and its class-plural Anfangrim (PM/321, WJ/10).
Conceptual Development: In the Lost Tales and the earliest Silmarillion drafts this tribe was called the G. Indrafang (LT2/68, SM/104). In the Gnomish Lexicon from the 1910s, the variant form G. Surfang or Fangsur also appeared (GL/68). The name was later changed to N. Enfeng (plural) in Silmarillion drafts from the 1930s (LR/274), and the singular form N. An(d)fang appeared in The Etymologies (Ety/ÁNAD, SPÁNAG).
The name S. Enfeng appeared in Silmarillion revisions from the 1950s-60s (WJ/10, 75), but did not appear in the published version of The Silmarillion. The name was referenced in some notes to Tolkien’s essay “Of Dwarves and Men”, composed around 1969, along with Khuzdul and Quenya translations (PM/321).
angerthasnoun. runic alphabetic, (lit.) long rune-rows
angolodhmasculine name. The Noldo
A hypothetical Sindarization of the name Q. Ingoldo “The Noldo”, mother-name of Finarfin (PM/360). The second element is clearly S. Golodh “Noldo”. The first element probably has no particular meaning, but rather is an example of how primitive [[os|initial syllabic [ŋg] became [aŋg]]] in Sindarin (PE17/124), while it became [iŋg] in Quenya (PE19/77).
gasnoun. hole, gap
mithadjective. grey, grey, light grey, grey, light grey, pale grey, pale grey
gling-verb. to hang, dangle
a elbereth gilthonielo Elbereth who lit the stars
a elbereth gilthoniel²o Elbereth who lit the stars
amrûnnoun. sunrise, east, (lit.) of the uprising
achadnoun. rock ridge, neck (geographically)
amarthnoun. fate, doom
anannadverb. (for) long
ath-prefix. on both sides, across
authnoun. a dim shape, spectral or vague apparition, dim shape, spectral or vague apparition
carasnoun. circular earthwall with dike, fort surrounded by bulwarks, *[N.] city (built above ground)
hairnoun/adjective. left (hand)
iaunadjective. large, extensive, wide, roomy, wide, extensive, vast, huge, wide, extensive, large, roomy, vast, huge
langnoun. a passage (physical), neck, neck, passage
maennoun. a treasure
sel(l)noun. daughter, †girl, maid
tawadjective. wood as material
amon uilosplace name. Hill of Ever-snow
Conceptual Development: The earliest form of this name was N. Amon Uilas with an a corresponding to earlier ᴹQ. Ialasse (SM/81), but it was revised to N. Amon Uilos in Silmarillion drafts from the 1930s (LR/210). This form of the name also appeared in The Etymologies (Ety/OY).
abladnoun. prohibition, refusal
amdirnoun. hope [based on reason], (lit.) looking up, **expectation
fastnoun. shaggy hair
aglonplace name. Narrow Pass
A pass between Himring and Dorthonion (S/123). This name seems to be a compound of (N.) agor “narrow” and lond “strait, pass” (Ety/AK, LOND). This name sometimes appeared as Aglond, probably an older form of the name (WJ/338, Ety/AK).
Conceptual Development: The name ᴱN. Aglon first appeared in the Lays of Beleriand from the 1920s (LB/227) and N. Aglon was used in Silmarillion drafts from the 1930s (LR/127, 265). In The Etymologies, it was translated as “defile, pass between high walls”, and this was the source of the derivation given above (Ety/AK, LOD).
agloradjective. brilliant, glorious
amrodmasculine name. *High and Lofty
Twin brother of Amras and youngest(?) of the sons of Fëanor (it is unclear which of the twins was born first). The name is a compound of am “up” and the suffixal form -rod of raud “lofty, noble” (PM/353, VT41/10), an adaption of his Quenya name Q. Ambarto (PM/353).
Conceptual Development: In the earliest Lost Tales, this character was first named G. Damrod (LT2/251), and the name remained N. Damrod in Silmarillion drafts from the 1930s (LR/223). It appeared in The Etymologies with the gloss “hammerer of copper”, a combination of N. dam “hammer” and the lenited form of N. rhaud “metal” (Ety/NDAM, RAUTĀ).
The name was changed to S. Amrod in Silmarillion revisions from the 1950s-60s (WJ/197). Elsewhere Tolkien said that Amrod would also have been the proper Sindarin adaption for the name of Ambarto’s cousin Q. Ambaráto, but that Noldorin Elf chose the Sindarin name Aegnor instead (PM/347).
baradnoun. a great towering building (fort/city/castle), tower, tower, tower, fortress
dînnoun/adjective. silence, silent, silent, quiet
gwathnoun. shade, shadow, shadow, dim light
remnoun. a hunter’s or fisher’s net, mesh, mesh, net (for catching)
thalaadjective. stalwart, steady, firm
parchadjective. naked (of persons)
aewnoun. (small) bird
A noun meaning “(small) bird” (SA/lin¹, Ety/AIWĒ), appearing in the name Linaewen “Lake of Birds” (S/119, UT/401). It was derived from primitive ᴹ✶aiwē like its Quenta cognate aiwë (Ety/AIWĒ), with the [[s|primitive diphthong [ai] becoming the [ae]]] in Sindarin.
Conceptual Development: In the Gnomish Lexicon from the 1910s, G. aigli “bird” was given as a derivative of the root ᴱ√aı̯ (GL/17). In Early Noldorin notes from the 1920s, it became ᴱN. aiw “bird” (PE13/136, 158). In The Etymologies from the 1930s, the form became N. aew “(small) bird” (Ety/AIWĒ), and this is the source of the derivation given above.
a hîr annûn gilthoniel*oh Lady of the West, Star-kindler
The fourth phrase of Lúthien’s Song (LB/354). Three translations of this phrase are:
Patrick Wynne: “*O Lord of the West, star-kindling” (NTTLS/11)
David Salo: “*O Lady of the West, star-kindler” (GS/211)
Bertrand Bellet and Benjamin Babut: “*O Lady of the West, Starkindler” (GTLC)
The first word is the vocative particle a “O”. The second word hîr is typically translated as masculine “lord”, but since in this case it is addressing Elbereth, I think (like Salo, Bellet and Babut) it is better to translate it as “lady”, even though elsewhere the Sindarin word for “lady” is given as híril or heryn. The third word is annûn “west” and the last word is Gilthoniel “Star-kindler”, one of the names of Elbereth (Varda).
Patrick Wynne instead suggested (NTTLS/10) that the fact that the word gilthoniel is lower case might mean it is an adjectival form “star-kindling” applied to the Moon rather than Varda, and he is addressed as “Lord” (the Elves considered the Moon to be male). This does explain the masculine form Hîr, but I find it difficult to believe that Lúthien would address the Moon by one of Varda’s name, and follow Salo, Bellet and Babut in assuming the words are spoken to Elbereth.
anno ammen sír i mbas ilaurui víngive us this day our daily bread
The sixth line of Ae Adar Nín, Tolkien’s Sindarin translation of the Lord’s Prayer (VT44/21). The first word anno is the imperative form of anna- “to give”, followed by ammen “to us”, a combination of an “to” and men “us”. The third word sír “this day” seems to be the equivalent of Q. síra.
The fourth word is the definite article i “the”, followed by the lenited form mbas of bas(t) “bread”, the adjective ilaurui “daily” and the lenited form vín of the possessive pronoun mín “ours”. The adjectival elements follow the noun as is usual in Sindarin. See the entry for the second line of this prayer for a discussion of the use of the definite article i “the” before the possessed noun in this phrase.
Decomposition: Broken into its constituent elements, this phrase would be:
> ann-o am-men sír i mbas [← bas] ilaurui vín [← mín] = “*give-(imperative) to-us this-day the bread daily ours”
Conceptual Development: Tolkien first wrote the unlenited form mín of the pronoun “our” before replacing it with the lenited form vín.
aeglosproper name. Snow-point
Spear of Gil-galad (S/294), translated “Snow-point” (SI/Aeglos), a compound of aeg “point” and loss “snow” (SA/los). In editions of The Lord of the Rings prior to 2005, this name was spelled Aiglos (RC/231), but Tolkien commented that this was only a variant spelling for English speakers who would have difficulty distinguishing [ae] and [ai] (VT42/11). The word aeglos was also the Sindarin name for a plant, translated “snowthorn”.
aegnormasculine name. Fell Fire, Sharp Flame
Fourth son of Finarfin (S/61), variously translated “Fell Fire” and “Sharp Flame”. His name is an adaption of his Quenya mother name Aicanáro (PM/346). This name seems to be a compound of aeg “point” and the suffixal form -nor of naur “fire” (SA/nár).
Possible Etymology: His Quenya name was translated “Fell Fire”, from the element Q. aica “fell”, but Tolkien said that Aegnor was not a true Sindarin name, since there was no Sindarin word **aeg meaning “fell” (PM/347). Rather, a true translation of his name would be Goenor (PM/363).
There is, however, a Sindarin word aeg meaning “point; sharp, pointed, piercing”, attested in the name Aeglos “Snow-point” and in the word aeglir “range of mountain peaks” as in Hithaeglir “Misty Mountains”. Thus “Sharp Flame” might be a false etymology for this name. This alternate translation appeared in the Silmarillion Appendix (SA/nár) and some early writings from the 1950s (MR/323), but it may be that this was simply an earlier, rejected translation rather then a false etymology.
Conceptual Development: In Silmarillion drafts from the 1930s, his name was N. Egnor (SM/15, 88; LR/116, 223), and at this stage the initial element of his name was N. êg “thorn” from the root ᴹ√EK “spear” (Ety/EK, NAR¹). In draft notes associated with the “Shibboleth of Fëanor”, Tolkien considered changing this name to S. Eignor (VT41/19 note #19), but this seems to have been a transient idea.
alagosnoun. storm of wind
amlothnoun. uprising flower
This word is only directly attested in the Etymologies, appearing as N. †cunn “prince” (Ety/KUNDŪ) and marked as an archaic form (EtyAC/KUNDŪ). It still appears in later writings as a element in some first-age Sindarin names from The Silmarillion: Baragund, Belegund and (perhaps) Felagund. Its Quenya cognate Q. cundo also appears in later writings (PM/260, PE17/117-8), indicating that †cund may have remained conceptually valid. Elsewhere, the third-age Sindarin word for “prince” is said to be caun¹ (PE17/102), so it seems likely the older form †cund fell out use.
dannennoun. ebb, lowtide
úlannadjective. not broad, narrow
gostnoun. dread, terror
maeadverb/adjective. well, excellent, admirable
taurnoun. forest, forest, (great) wood, wood, forest
al-²prefix. well, happily
angrenadjective. of iron
annúnaidproper name. Westron
The Sindarin name for the “Westron” language (PM/316). Its initial element is clearly annûn “west”, but the meaning of the suffix -aid is unclear. It might be some variation on the gerund-suffix -ed/-ad seen in nouns like genediad “reckoning”, though this suffix usually forms nouns from verbs, not adjectives.
annon edhellen, edro hi ammenElvish gate open now for us
hadornoun. thrower (of spears and darts)
angrenostplace name. Isengard, (lit.) Iron Fortress
Conceptual Development: In Lord of the Rings drafts from the 1940s, this name first appeared as N. Angrobel (TI/71), variously revised to N. Angost or Angrenost (TI/420; WR/44, 72), eventually settling on the latter.
opreposition. (?origin), from, from, of, of
@@@ for o + in = uin, compare no + i = nui (Ety/NU)
halladjective. veiled, hidden, shadowed, shady
tauradjective. vast, mighty, overwhelming, awful, huge, high, sublime
echpronoun. you, yourself (singular)
ai²pronoun. *those who
bôrnoun/adjective. steadfast, trusty man, faithful vassal
anpreposition. to, for, *[N. and G.] of
anfalasplace name. Langstrand, (lit.) Long Beach
Conceptual Development: This region was named as N. Anfalas “Langstrand” in the drafts of the Lord of the Rings as well (TI/310, WR/287).
anfauglithplace name. Gasping Dust
The name of the plain of Ard-galen after it was devastated by the fires of Morgoth, translated “Gasping Dust” (S/150). The name includes of faug “thirsty” and lith “dust” (SA/faug, lith). Its initial element may be an intensive prefix, the equivalent of Q. an-, with “gasping” an intensive form of “thirsty”.
Conceptual Development: In the earliest Silmarillion drafts, the site of the Battle of Unnumbered Tears was named G. Niniach (SM/4), but later in the 1930s Tolkien revised the name to N. Fauglith (LR/289). In The Etymologies, this name was translated as “Thirsty Sand” but otherwise had essentially the same derivation as given above, missing only the intensive prefix (Ety/LIT, PHAU).
angrenplace name. Isen, (lit.) Iron
naugolnoun. Dwarf (diminutive)
dartha-verb. to wait, stay, remain, last, endure
asgaradjective. violent, rushing, impetious
adbed-verb. to rephrase
rasgnoun. wain, *wagon
al-¹prefix. no, not
ancnoun. jaw, row of teeth
a¹conjunction. and, †by, near, beside
caragnoun. spike, tooth of rock
glir-verb. to sing, recite poem
amon gwarethplace name. Amon Gwareth
Conceptual Development: In the earliest Lost Tales, G. Amon Gwareth was translated “Hill of Watch” (LT2/158), and appeared in the Gnomish Lexicon as the lenited form Amon ’Wareth “Hill of Ward”. Similar translations of N. Amon Gwareth appeared early drafts of the Silmarillion from the beginning of the 1930s (SM/34, 137, 139), but the name was left untranslated in Tolkien’s later writings. It is unclear whether the name retained its original meaning. The closest forms in The Etymologies from the 1930s is N. gwarth “betrayer” < ᴹ√WAR “give way, betray” (Ety/WAR), but it seems unlikely this was connected.
According to Christopher Tolkien, this name was at one point revised to Amon Gwared (WJ/200) in the his father’s later writings, but this form did not appear in the published Silmarillion.
ann-thennathproper name. *Long-shorts
baraadjective. fiery, eager
anglennatha i varanduiniant erin dolothen ethuilwill approach the Bridge of Baranduin on the eighth day of Spring
gellnoun. joy, triumph, (?victory)
halladjective. exalted, high
taurnoun. king (of a whole tribe)
estpronoun. 3rd sg. pronoun
amrasmasculine name. Top-russet
Twin brother of Amrod and second(?) youngest of the sons of Fëanor (it is unclear which of the twins was born first). The name is a compound of am “up” and ross “red-haired” (PM/353, VT41/10), an adaption of his Quenya nickname Q. Ambarussa. In a few places the name appears as Amros (PM/366, VT41/10), closer to its Sindarin elements.
Conceptual Development: In the earliest Lost Tales, this character was first named G. Dinithel (LT2/251), revised in the Lays of Beleriand to G. Durithel, then G. Díriel (LB/86). The name remained N. Díriel in Silmarillion drafts from the 1930s, and the form Diriel (with a short i) appeared in The Etymologies (Ety/DER, GYEL). The name was revised to Amras in Silmarillion revisions from the 1950s-60s (WJ/197).
hûrnoun. readiness for action, vigour, fiery spirit
-(r)ilsuffix. feminine suffix
annûnnoun. sunset, west, (lit.) going down
lûthnoun. inflorescense, mass of flowers (on one plant)
angbandplace name. Iron Prison
Conceptual Development: The name G. Angband appeared in the earliest Lost Tales, but in these early stories it was translated “Hells of Iron” (LT2/77, GL/19). This translation persisted into Silmarillion drafts from the 1930s (SM/13, LR/259). However, N. Angband was translated “Iron Prison” in The Etymologies (Ety/MBAD), and this was the usual interpretation in Silmarillion revisions from the 1950s-60s (MR/305, WJ/15). Christopher Tolkien gave both translations in the Silmarillion Index (SI/Angband).
-asuffix. [old] genitive suffix
-egsuffix. 2nd person singular familiar possessive suffix
demadjective. sad, gloomy
silifnoun. light of Silpion, †silver
hûnoun. spirit, shadow
* aedaithnoun. reverence, worship, religion
* ammuia-verb. to work (hard) for, to earn
* ammalnoun. (death) agony
* lainnoun. thread, warp, ‽twine
* aeda-verb. to revere, worship
* abpreposition. after
* ad-prefix. back, again, re-
* aebinnoun. cherry (tree)
* aeronnoun. saint
* aewenadjective. of birds
* aithnoun. spear-point, [ᴱN.] spear, thorn
* thandnoun. shield
* onna-verb. to be born
* aeglirnoun. line of peaks, *[N.] range of mountain peaks, *[ᴱN.] peak, *mountain top
* aglannnoun. ray of light
* aenunoun. (male) angel
@@@ phonetic adaptation from Quenya
* thinnasnoun. shortness
* adertha-verb. to reunite
* aegadjective. sharp, *[N.] pointed, *piercing
* nod-verb. count, to count
* aeninoun. (female) angel
@@@ phonetic adaptation from Quenya
* aelnoun. lake, pool
* ainadjective. same, identical
A Neo-Sindarin analog of Q. imya. As originally coined by Fiona Jallings this word was aif, but Elaran pointed out that likely it would become ain because [[os|[mj] became [nj]]] in Old Sindarin: [imjā] > [inja] > [enja] > [ein] > [ain].
* achar-verb. to avenge, do back, react, requite
Conceptual Development: The initial element of this word was first derived from √AT “again” (PE17/166). Apparently the prefix ✶at- (also meaning “twice”) did not have the connotation Tolkien wanted, because he rejected this etymology, and went on to explore several different possible primitive forms meaning “back (again)”. Among these discussions, he coined the new root √AK, from which he derived the related Sindarin words acharn “(act of) revenge” and achared “vengeance”. The latter is clearly the gerund of achar-, so it seems this was also the new derivation of this verb.
* agreitha-verb. to despise, contemn
* anglenna-verb. to approach
* aníra-verb. to desire, **long for
* adenpreposition. until
* aedhnoun. nest
* andnoun. gate, door
* landadjective. broad, broad, wide
* nornnoun/adjective. hard, dwarf
* agreitharoladjective. despicable, contemptible
* ammosnoun. *breast, chest, bosom, breastplate
* achasnoun. dread, fear
* aenornoun. god
* agla-verb. to shine out, flash
* alvarnoun. (good) luck, fortune
* ammanadverb. why, (lit.) for what
* astnoun. light or heat of the sun
* cenednoun. looking
* gorthnoun. dead (person)
* talifnoun. ankle
* adaba-verb. to build, establish
* thalosnoun. torrent
* anna-verb. to give, †add to
* fara-verb. to hunt
* amadverb. up, *[G.] upwards, *towards head of, *above
* aluadjective. wholesome
* -adsuffix. noun-suffix
* -ad¹suffix. noun-suffix
* achnoun. bone
* an-prefix. intensive prefix
* an-prefix. intensive prefix
* agarnoun. blood
* agolnoun. flash
* amadverb/adjective. more
* uiradjective. fiery
* agrechnoun. contempt
* ebpreposition. ?before
* popreposition. on
* ûrnoun. fire