Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Primitive adûnaic

bel

root. befriend, love

This unglossed root appears only as an element in the name Azrubêl “Friend of the Sea, Sea-lover” (SD/305). It has a sense similar to that of ✶Ad. √ZIR “love, desire”. Perhap it is distinct from ✶Ad. √ZIR in that it has more to do with friendship than desire. It could be distantly related to the elvish root √MEL, perhaps ✶mel- > ✶mbel- > ✶bel- in the Avari tongue that influenced Primitive Adûnaic, but this is purely speculative.

This root also contradicts statements by Tolkien elsewhere that Primitive Adûnaic only had the vowels a, i and u. Perhaps it should be *BIL, as with ✶Ad. √BITH “say” the primitive root of Ad. bêth “expression, saying, word”.

Primitive adûnaic Group: Eldamo. Published by

asad

root.

An otherwise unexplained root Tolkien gave to illustrate a pronunciation example (SD/421). It may not be a real root. If it is real, it is either a biconsonantal-root with vowel-prefixion or a triconsonantal-root with a lost initial consonant such as [ɣ] or [ʔ].

Primitive adûnaic [SD/421.2511] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nak

root.

An otherwise unexplained root that Tolkien used to illustrate the processes of Primitive Adûnaic word formation (SD/422-3). It may have no real meaning. Even if it were, certainly only a few of its derivatives could be real words in Classical Adûnaic.

Primitive adûnaic [SD/422.2104; SD/422.2312; SD/422.2706; SD/422.3008; SD/422.3306; SD/422.3502; SD/423.0501; SD/423.0502; SD/423.0503] Group: Eldamo. Published by

sapad

root.

An otherwise unexplained root Tolkien gave to illustrate a pronunciation example. It may not be a real root.

Primitive adûnaic [SD/421.2506] Group: Eldamo. Published by