Sindarin

bo

prep. on

[VT44/26.3101] Group: Eldamo. Published by

or

on

(prep.) 1) or (above), with article erin ”on the” (followed by ”mixed mutation” according to David Salos reconstructions). Erin represents archaic örin. 2)

po

on

po (lenited bo) (VT44:23)

Quenya

apa

on

apa (2) prep. denoting "on" with reference to contact of surfaces, especially vertical surface (in the sense in which a picture hangs on a wall). Apa is said to have this meaning in various Tolkien manuscripts (VT44:26), but apa is also used for "after" (see apa #1 above), and the two were probably never meant to coexist in a single variant of Quenya. The clash may be avoided by consistently using the variants , pa (q.v.) mentioned by Tolkien in the sense of apa #2. Another variant gives apa, "on (above but touching)" (VT49:18).

[Quettaparma Quenyallo] Group: Quettaparma Quenyallo. Published by

on

, pa (1) prep. "on" with reference to contact of surfaces, especially vertical surface (in the sense in which a picture hangs on a wall); also used = "touching, as regards, concerning" (VT44:26). Another variant gives (and apa) with the meaning "on (above but touching)". (2) Variants of apa "after" (VT44:36), which preposition is in one source also ascribed the first meaning here discussed. For Neo-Quenya purposes, and pa may be used for "on" or "concerning", whereas apa is used for "after" (see entries for apa #1 and #2), or pa may also be seen as a shorter form of apa "after", as in the phrase yéni pa yéni *"years upon years" (VT44:36)

[Quettaparma Quenyallo] Group: Quettaparma Quenyallo. Published by

Adûnaic

-nud

prep. on

A preposition attested only in the phrase “on us” in the Lament of Akallabêth, changing through the drafts as nēnum >> nēnu >> nēnud (SD/247, 312). Most authors identify -nud as the prepositional element (/20, , /14), perhaps related to Q. nu “under”. If so, it may be a derivative of the Elvish roots √NŪ/UNU “under” or √NDU “down”, with a semantic shift to the meaning “on”.

[SD/247.17031, SD/312.03011, SD/312.28041] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Qenya

píke

prep. on

[MC/214.1601] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ta

prep. on, above

[QL/087.7601] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Gnomish

or-

pref. on, onto, up, in addition to

[GL/62.8801] Group: Eldamo. Published by

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