Quenya zR5Ì#

-ië

suffix. is

- (3) "is", -ier "are", stative verb suffix occurring in Fíriel's Song: númessier "they are in the west", meldielto "they are...beloved", talantië "he is fallen", márië "it is good" (< *númessë "in the west", melda "beloved", *talanta "fallen"); future tense -iéva in hostainiéva "will be gathered" (< *hostaina "gathered"). Compare ye "is", yéva "will be", verbs that also occur in Fíriel's Song. This suffix is probably not valid in LotR-style Quenya: - is an infinitival or gerundial ending in CO, for ye "is" Namárië has , and the phrase "lost is" is vanwa ná, not *vanwië.

is

(1) vb. "is" (am). (Nam, RGEO:67). This is the copula used to join adjectives, nouns or pronouns "in statements (or wishes) asserting (or desiring) a thing to have certain quality, or to be the same as another" (VT49:28). Also in impersonal constructions: ringa ná "it is cold" (VT49:23). The copula may however be omitted "where the meaning is clear" without it (VT49:9). is also used as an interjection "yes" or "it is so" (VT49:28). Short na in airë [] na, "[] is holy" (VT43:14; some subject can evidently be inserted in the place of [].) Short na also functions as imperative: alcar mi tarmenel na Erun "glory in high heaven be to God" (VT44:32/34), also na airë "be holy" (VT43:14); also cf. nai "be it that" (see nai #1). The imperative participle á may be prefixed (á na, PE17:58). However, VT49:28 cites as the imperative form. Pl. nar or nár "are" (PE15:36, VT49:27, 9, 30); dual nát (VT49:30). With pronominal endings: nányë/nanyë "I am", nalyë or natyë "you (sg.) are" (polite and familiar, respectively), nás "it is", násë "(s)he is", nalmë "we are" (VT49:27, 30). Some forms listed in VT49:27 are perhaps to be taken as representing the aorist: nain, naityë, nailyë (1st person sg, and 2nd person familiar/polite, respectively); does a following na represent the aorist with no pronominal ending? However, the forms nanyë, nalyë, , nassë, nalme, nar (changed from nár) are elsewhere said to be "aorist", without the extra vowel i (e.g. nalyë rather than nailyë); also notice that *"(s)he is" is here nassë rather than násë (VT49:30).Pa.t. nánë or "was", pl. náner/nér and dual nét "were" (VT49:6, 9, 10, 27, 28, 30, 36). According to VT49:31, "was" cannot receive pronominal endings (though nésë "he was" is attested elsewhere, VT49:28-29), and such endings are rather added to the form ane-, e.g. anen "I was", anel "you were", anes "(s)he/it was" (VT49:28-29). Future tense nauva "will be" (VT42:34, VT49:19, 27; another version however gives the future tense as uva, VT49:30). Nauva with a pronominal ending occurs in tanomë nauvan "I will be there" (VT49:19), this example indicating that forms of the verb may also be used to indicate position. Perfect anaië "has been" (VT49:27, first written as anáyë). Infinitive (or gerund) návë "being", PE17:68. See also nai #1.

ye

is

ye (2) copula "is" (FS, VT46:22); both earlier and later sources rather point to (q.v.) as the copula "is", so ye may have been an experiment Tolkien later abandoned. Future tense yéva, q.v.

úyë

is

úyë vb., a form occurring in Fíriel's Song (cf. VT46:22), apparently ye "is" with the negative prefix ú-, hence "is not" (úyë sérë indo-ninya símen, translated "my hearth resteth not here", literally evidently *"[there] is not rest [for] my heart here")

lantë

fall

#lantë (1) noun "fall" in Noldolantë, q.v. Also lanta.

lanta-

fall

lanta- (2) "fall" (DAT/DANT (TALÁT), Narqelion, VT45:26, VT49:54); lantar aorist tense pl. (Nam, RGEO:66); pl. pa.t. lantaner "fell" (pl.) (SD:246); lantier "they fell", a plural past tense of lanta- "fall" occurring in LR:47; read probably lantaner in LotR-style Quenya, as in SD:246. Also sg. lantië "fell" (LR:56); read likewise *lantanë? (The forms in -ier, - seem to be properly perfects.) Future tense lantuva, VT49:47. Participle lantala "falling" (with locative ending: lantalassë) in Markirya.

lanta-

verb. fall, to fall

[LotR/0377.2803; MC/222.1602; PE17/062.0302; PE17/062.0304; PE17/062.0402; RGEO/58.0503; RGEO/58.4203; VT49/47.2801] Group: Eldamo. Published by

lantar

fall

-r plural ending used on verbs with a plural subject (VT49:48, 50, 51), e.g. lantar "fall" in Namárië (with the plural subject lassi "leaves"), or unduláver as the pl. form of undulávë "licked down, covered" (PE17:72). The ending is sometimes missing where we might expect it; for instance, the verb tarnë "stood" has multiple subjects and yet does not appear as *tarner in PE17:71.

lanta

noun/adjective. fall, fall, falling, falling

[LotR/1107.4402-2; PE16/096.0902-1; PE16/096.1706-1] Group: Eldamo. Published by

lanta

fall

lanta (1) noun "a fall" (DAT/DANT (TALÁT) ), also lantë.

lantë

noun. fall

The word lasselanta “leaf-fall, autumn” (LotR/1107) indicate the form this word should be lanta, which is how it appears in the Etymologies. However, the alternate lassewinta (PM/376) seems to be formed with the infinitive of the verb winta- rather than a noun, so perhaps lasselanta is a similar formation from the verb lanta- “to fall”.

The form lantë, appearing in Noldolantë “Fall of the Noldor” (S/87), more strongly resembles other Quenya nouns, which more often end in -e rather than -a. The noun atalantë “collapse, downfall” is a similar formation from the related verb atalta-, though it could also be the past formation “downfallen” of this TALAT-stem verb.

[S/087.2708-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Sindarin iT2#7T5

danna-

verb. to fall

Written dant- in the Etymologies

[Ety/354, X/Z] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

danna

fall

_ v. _fall. Q. lanta-.

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:66] DAN-TA. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by

danna

fall

(verb) ?danna- (i dhanna, i nannar), pa.t. dant, past participle ("fallen") dannen, pl. dennin.

dant

noun. fall

[MR/373] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

lant

noun. fall

[Lanthir S/406, PM/349] Q lanta. Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

lant

fall

_(noun) _1) #lant (pl. laint, coll. pl. lannath). This is apparently a Quenya borrowing, dant being the native Sindarin word. Note: a homophone means ”clearing in forest”. 2) pend (i bend, o phend; construct pen) (declivity), pl. pind (i phind), coll. pl. pennath. 3)

Adûnaic

-n

suffix. is, predicate suffix

A suffix appearing at the end of several words in the first draft of Lament of Akallabêth, variously glossed with different forms of the verb “to be”: burudan “heavy-is”, rōkhī-nam “bent-are”, īdōn “now is” (SD/312). Evidentally the suffix -n “is” is the singular form and -nam “are” is plural. The plural form probably includes the plural verbal suffix -m. This use of the suffix -n is probably no longer be valid in later versions of Adûnaic, as discussed below.

Carl Hostetter and Patrick Wynne suggested (VSH/36) that -nam maybe related to Q. ná- “to be”, but they fail to analyze the singular forms of the suffix. Andreas Moehn (LGtAG) does connect the singular instances of the suffix -n to the plural -nam, but without connecting it to Q. ná-. I think both authors got part of the story right: the suffixal form -na is mostly likely derived from the same Elvish root √ as Q. ná-, losing its final a in the singular form but preserving it in the plural form when the plural suffix -m is added.

In its first two appearances in the draft version of the Lament, this suffix is attached to the predicate of a copula (a linguistic term for a “to be” expression). For that reason, this lexicon uses the term “predicate suffix” for this use of the -n suffix:

  • agannūlo buruda~n~ nēnum “death-shade heavy-~is~ on-us”subject agannūlo “death-shade”, predicate buruda “heavy” + -n “is”.
  • īdō kathī batānī rōkhī-~nam~ “lo! now all ways bent-~are~”subject batānī “ways”, predicate rōkhī “bent” + -nam “are”.

The suffix’s second two appearances in the draft version of the Lament are more ambiguous.

  • ēphalek īdō~n~ akallabēth “far away lo!now ~is~ She-that-is-fallen”.
  • ēphal ēphalek īdō~n~ athanātē “far far away ~is~ now the Land of Gift”.

Going by word order alone, it seems that the -n is attached to the predicate in both of these sentences as well. However, as Andreas Moehn points out (LGtAG), īdō could be the subject of both sentences if the predicates are the final word of each sentence, which is more consistent with the later subjective inflection.

In the later version of Adûnaic described in Lowdham’s Report, the suffix -n has a new function, namely as the common subjective suffix: -an/-n. This new use differs from the older one in that it applies to the subject of a copula instead of the predicate. Despite this grammatical change from draft-Adûnaic, the word form īdōn appears in all later versions of the Lament of Akallabêth except the final manuscript version.

  • Ēphalak īdōn Yōzāyan “far away now (is) Land of Gift” (SD/247).
  • Ēphal ēphalak īdōn hi-Akallabēth “far far away now (is) She-that-hath-fallen” (SD/247).

These later appearances of īdōn still have the gloss “now (is)”, so it seems possible that these they are remnants of the predicate suffix from draft Adûnaic. Moehn, Hostetter and Wynne all suggested (LGtAG, AAD/16) that these later appearances of īdōn can be reinterpreted as a subjective inflection. However, this interpretation is still problematic, since îdô would surely be a neuter instead of a common noun, whose subjective form would therefore be *îdôwa.

The suffix -n did not appear after īdō in the final manuscript version of the Lament, and the gloss “is” was removed as well:

ul>

It is my belief that Tolkien eventually decided that the suffix -n could no longer be used in this context and removed it.

[SD/247.25021; SD/312.01041; SD/312.0503; SD/312.07011; SD/312.09031] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Noldorin 5^mY7T5

dant-

verb. to fall

Written dant- in the Etymologies

[Ety/354, X/Z] Group: Hiswelókë's Sindarin Dictionary. Published by

Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Primitive adûnaic

kalab

root. fall

A Primitive Adûnaic root gloss “fall” (SD/416) appearing as an element in the name Akallabêth (PM/158) and also most likely the basis for the verb kalab- “to fall (down)”.

[PM/158.0202; SD/416.1207] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Black Speech, Nandorin, Noldorin, Quendya, Quenya, Sindarin, Telerin are languages conceived by Tolkien and they do not belong to us; we neither can nor do claim affiliation with Middle-earth Enterprises nor Tolkien Estate.