Quenya 

toina

adjective. wood, wood, *wooden, made of wood

A word glossed “wood” appearing in a list of “large & small” roots from around 1968 derived from primitive ✶tawĭnā (PE17/115) and hence probably an adjective “✱wooden, (made) of wood” as suggested by Helge Fauskanger (QQ/toina).

Conceptual Development: In The Etymologies of the 1930s Tolkien instead had ᴹQ. taurina “of wood”, an adjectival form of ᴹQ. tavar “wood (material)” (Ety/TÁWAR). The word ᴹQ. toina appeared in notes on The Feanorian Alphabet from the 1940s, but was unglossed, so whether it meant “✱wooden” is unclear.

Cognates

  • S. tawen “wood (of material), ?wooden (of make), wood (of material), wooden (of make)” ✧ PE17/115

Derivations

  • tawinā “wood” ✧ PE17/115
    • TAW “wood” ✧ PE17/115

Elements

WordGloss
-ina“adjective suffix; passive participle”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
tawĭnā > toina[tawinā] > [toinā] > [toina]✧ PE17/115

toina

wood of material

toina adj.? "wood of material" (PE17:115). Since -ina is normally an adjectival ending, the word is best understood as meaning "(made) of wood".

finca

noun. [unglossed]

Cognates

  • S. fing “lock of hair” ✧ PE17/017

Derivations

  • phinik ✧ PE17/017
    • SPIN(ID) “fine thread, filament; hair” ✧ PE17/017

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
finik/fink > finca[pʰinika] > [pʰinka] > [pʰiŋka] > [ɸiŋka] > [fiŋka]✧ PE17/017

Variations

  • finca ✧ PE17/017

tomba

noun. [unglossed]

Derivations

  • TOM “of resonant sounds” ✧ PE17/138

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
TOM > tomba[tomba]✧ PE17/138

conta-

verb. [unglossed]

Derivations

  • KOM “gather, collect” ✧ PE17/157

Elements

WordGloss
-ta“causative verb suffix”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
KOM > conta[komta-] > [konta-]✧ PE17/157

Variations

  • conta ✧ PE17/157 (conta)

þúna

?. [unglossed]

Derivations

  • stuknā ✧ PE19/086
    • STUK “[unglossed]” ✧ PE19/086

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
stuknā > thúna[stuknā] > [stugnā] > [θugnā] > [θuŋnā] > [θūnā] > [θūna] > [sūna]✧ PE19/086

Variations

  • thúna ✧ PE19/086 (thúna)

melya-

verb. [unglossed], *to be in love

Derivations

  • MEL “love, love, [ᴹ√] love (as friend)”

naue

?. [unglossed]

Derivations

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
ndagwē > ndau̯we > nau̯we > naue[ndagwē] > [ndaɣwē] > [ndauwē] > [nauwē] > [naue]✧ PE19/094

Variations

  • nawe ✧ PE19/094 (nawe)

éna

?. [unglossed]

Derivations

  • eñna ✧ PE19/097
    • “be, exist”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
eñna > enna > éna[eŋna] > [enna]✧ PE19/097

hindo

noun. [unglossed]

Derivations

  • KHIN “child” ✧ PE17/157

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
KHIN > hindo[kʰindo] > [xindo] > [hindo]✧ PE17/157

hindë

noun. [unglossed]

Derivations

  • KHIN “child” ✧ PE17/157

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
KHIN > hinde[kʰinde] > [xinde] > [hinde]✧ PE17/157

Variations

  • hinde ✧ PE17/157 (hinde)

sóla

?. [unglossed]

Derivations

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
soglā > sóla[sogrā] > [soɣlā] > [sōlā] > [sōla]✧ PE19/095

tavar

wood

tavar (1) noun "wood" (TÁWAR)

thar-

verb. [unglossed]

Derivations

  • STAR “*stiff, [ᴹ√] stiff” ✧ PE22/133

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
STAR > thar[star-] > [θar-]✧ PE22/133

Variations

  • thar ✧ PE22/133

tompë

noun. [unglossed]

Derivations

  • TOM “of resonant sounds” ✧ PE17/138

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
TOM > tompe[tompe]✧ PE17/138

Variations

  • tompe ✧ PE17/138

hendas

?. [unglossed]

Element in

  • Q. calma hendas “*light in the eyes” ✧ PMCH/02; TMME/192
Quenya [PMCH/02; TMME/192] Group: Eldamo. Published by

lingi-

verb. [unglossed]

felehta-

verb. [unglossed], *to excavate, tunnel, mine

Derivations

  • PHELEGexcavation, excavation; [ᴹ√] cave” ✧ PE17/118

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
PHELEK > felehta[pʰelektā] > [ɸelektā] > [ɸelextā] > [ɸelextā] > [felextā]✧ PE17/118

Variations

  • felehta ✧ PE17/118

umbacarin

noun. [unglossed]

arra

adjective. [unglossed]

Derivations

  • SRAG “awkward, awry; hard, (very) difficult” ✧ PE17/172

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
SRA-G > asra > arra[asra] > [azra] > [arra]✧ PE17/172

sal-

verb. [unglossed]

Derivations

  • SAL “[unglossed], *harp(ing), lyre” ✧ PE22/133

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
SAL > asálie[asālie]✧ PE22/133

turu

wood

turu (3) noun "wood" (properly firewood, but used of wood in general) (LT1:270)

amya-

verb. [unglossed]

Derivations

  • AM “go up, go up, [ᴹ√] up” ✧ PE17/157

Elements

WordGloss
-ya“verbal suffix”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
AM > amya[amja-]✧ PE17/157

Variations

  • amya ✧ PE17/157 (amya)

cairë

?. [unglossed]

Cognates

  • S. caer “*flat isle on a river, [N.] flat isle on a river” ✧ PE17/101

Derivations

  • KAY “lie, lie, [ᴹ√] lie down; [ᴱ√] rest, dwell” ✧ PE17/101

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
KAYA > caire[kaire]✧ PE17/101

Variations

  • caire ✧ PE17/101

ceura

noun. [unglossed]

cúma

noun. [unglossed]

Cognates

  • S. “bow, bow; [N.] arch, crescent; [G.] waxing or waning moon” ✧ PE17/122

Derivations

  • kūma ✧ PE17/122
    • KU(H) “bow, [ᴱ√] bend”

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
kūma > cúma[kūma]✧ PE17/122

felca

adjective. [unglossed]

Derivations

  • PHELEGexcavation, excavation; [ᴹ√] cave” ✧ PE17/118

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
PHELEK > felca[pʰelka] > [ɸelka] > [felka]✧ PE17/118

holdë

noun. [unglossed]

Derivations

  • SKOL “shut, close” ✧ PE17/098

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
KHOL > holde[kʰolde] > [xolde] > [holde]✧ PE17/098

Variations

  • holde ✧ PE17/098

háro

?. [unglossed]

Derivations

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
khādo > hāzo > hāro[kʰādo] > [xādo] > [xāðo] > [hāðo] > [hāro]✧ PE22/148

Variations

  • hāro ✧ PE22/148

malsa

?. [unglossed]

Derivations

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
maslā > malsa[maslā] > [malsā] > [malsa]✧ PE19/101

sélo

?. [unglossed]

Derivations

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
steglō > thélo > þélo > sélo[steglō] > [θeglō] > [θeɣlō] > [θēlō] > [θēlo] > [sēlo]✧ PE19/095

úpa-

verb. [unglossed]

maitya

?. [unglossed]

Variations

  • mahtya ✧ PE19/084 (mahtya)

um(ba)-

prefix. [unglossed]

Derivations

  • UMU “not, expressing privation, not, expressing privation; [ᴹ√] negative stems” ✧ PE17/172
    • Ū “denial of fact, privation, negative element, denial of fact, privation, negative element, [ᴱ√] not”

Element in

Phonetic Developments

DevelopmentStagesSources
UMU > um(ba)[umba-]✧ PE17/172

Variations

  • um(ba) ✧ PE17/172 (um(ba))