Silmaril (Silmarill-, as in pl. Silmarilli), noun, name of the shining jewels made by Fëanor; full sg. form Silmarillë (SA:sil, SIL, RIL, MIR).Translated "radiance of pure light" in Letters:148. Gen. pl. Silmarillion, as in (Quenta) Silmarillion "(the Story) of the Silmarils".
radiance of pure light
proper name. Great Jewel
The name of the great jewels crafted by Fëanor from which The Silmarillion legends gets their name (S/33). It sometimes appeared in the longer form Silmarillë (PE17/47, PM/363). Tolkien translated this name as “radiance of pure light” (Let/148) and said that it was a combination of silima, the crystaline substance from which the jewels were made (RGEO/65), and a derivative of the root √RIL “brilliant, brilliance” (PM/363), perhaps in the form [ᴹQ.] rille “brilliance”.
Conceptual Development: The name ᴱQ. Silmaril dates back to the earliest Lost Tales (LT1/128). Christopher Tolkien suggested that at this early stage it was a compound of ᴱQ. Sil “Moon” and ᴱQ. marilla “pearl” (LT1A/Silmaril), which is consistent with its Gnomish cognate G. Silubrilt. In The Etymologies, the name ᴹQ. Silmaril appears as a combination of silma “silver, shining white” and the root ᴹ√RIL (Ety/RIL, SIL), similar to its later etymology.
- Q. Quenta Silmarillion “History of the Silmarils” ✧ S/033
Word Gloss silima “crystal substance devised by Fëanor” RIL “brilliant (light), brilliance, brilliant (light), brilliance, [ᴹ√] glitter”
- silmaril ✧ LotR/1034; PE17/112
- silmaril(le) ✧ PE17/047
- silmaril(lë) ✧ PM/363
- Silmarillë ✧ PMI/Silmaril
- silma-ril ✧ RGEO/65
[sanda, sandë] (þ) (2) noun "name" (VT46:16)
[sanya] (þ) (2) noun ?"name" (reading of gloss uncertain, VT46:16)
-on gen.pl. ending (3O), in aldaron, aranion, elenion, Eldaron, #esseron, Ingweron, Istarion, Númevalion, Quendion, Silmarillion, Sindaron, tasarion (see Nan-Tasarion), Valion, wenderon, yénion. Normally the ending -on is added to the nominative plural, whether it ends in -i or -r, but some nouns in -ë that would have nominative plurals in -i seem to prefer the ending -ron in the genitive (hence #esseron as the gen. pl. of essë "name", though the nominative pl. is attested as essi and we might have expected the gen. pl. *ession; similarly wenderon, Ingweron).
essë (1) noun "name", also later name of Tengwa #31, originally (MET) called árë (ázë). (Appendix E). With a pronominal ending esselya "thy name" (VT43:14). Pl. #essi in PM:339 and MR:470, gen.pl. #esseron "of names" in the compound Nómesseron (q.v.); we would rather have expected *ession, given the nom.pl. essi; perhaps #esser is a valid alternative plural form. Essecarmë noun "name-making" (MR:214, 470), Eldarin ceremony where the father announces the name of his child. Essecenta *("k") noun "Name-essay" (see centa) (MR:415); Essecilmë noun "name-choosing", an Eldarin ceremony where a child named him- or herself according to personal lámatyávë (q.v.) (MR:214, 471). The meaning Tolkien originally assigned to the word essë** in the Etymologies was "place" rather than "name" (VT45:12).
- ᴺS. ess “name”
- ᴹ√ES “indicate, name”
- Q. amilessë “mother-name”
- Q. anessë “given (or added) name, nickname, surname” ✧ MR/216
- Q. cilmessë “self-name”
- Q. epessë “after-name”
- Q. Essecarmë “Name-making” ✧ MR/470
- Q. Essecenta Eldarinwa “Enquiry (into the origins) of the Elvish names” ✧ WJ/359
- Q. Essecilmë “Name-choosing” ✧ MR/470
- Q. na airë esselya “hallowed be thy name” ✧ VT43/14
- Q. nómessë “place-name” ✧ VT42/17
- Q. notessë “numeral”
- ᴺQ. tengessë “address, (lit.) indication-name”
- esse ✧ LotR/1123
- essë ✧ MR/470
- Esse ✧ WJ/359