Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Middle Primitive Elvish


root. *beat

A root appearing in both The Etymologies of the 1930s as well as the contemporaneous Tengwesta Qenderinwa (first version, TQ1) appearing as both short ᴹ√PAL “beat” and extended form ᴹ√PALAP of similar meaning (Ety/PALAP; PE18/33). In The Etymologies, the entry for short ᴹ√PAL was erased (EtyAC/PAL), and the extended root ᴹ√PALAP had a couple of derivatives: ᴹQ. palpa- “to beat, batter” and N. blab- “flap, beat (wings etc.)” (Ety/PALAP). A variant root ᴹ√PALAK may have been the basis for ᴹQ. palka- “to beat flat” from the Quenya Verbal System of 1948 (PE22/114).

The short form ᴹ√PAL may also have been the basis for some words in the earlier Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s: G. palta- “beat” [sic., rather than expected paltha-], G. paltha “blade (of swords, knives, oars, etc.); wide flat leaf; page of book” and G. plados “oar” (GL/63-64), though these words might be blended with root ᴱ√PALA “flatness” from the contemporaneous Qenya Lexicon (QL/71); see that entry for discussion.


  • ᴺQ. falpa- “to flog”
  • ᴺQ. palampa “drum”
  • ᴹQ. palpa- “to beat, batter” ✧ Ety/PALAP
  • N. blab- “to flap, beat (wings etc.)” ✧ Ety/PALAP
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/PALAP; PE18/033] Group: Eldamo. Published by