ʔirroot. one, alone
saphdānnoun. wise man, wizard
-thsuffix. feminine suffix
-ksuffix. *masculine suffix
-yīnoun. plural inflection
The likely primitive form of the Classical Adûnaic plural inflection -î- (SD/429), appearing in a few examples of primitive plurals in the form -yi: manaw+yi, izray+yi (SD/424). Tolkien gave no indication of whether the primitive inflection was also used as an infix, as was the case for Classical Adûnaic plurals of strong-nouns.
amānmasculine name. *Manwë
The primitive form of Amân, the Adûnaic name of Manwë, written in allcaps as AMĀN (SD/420). Usually Tolkien used capitalization for primitive roots, but in this case it is more like to be a form derived from an unattested Primitive Adûnaic root √MAN, probably related to the Primitive Elvish root ᴹ√MAN*.
kulubroot. *root (as a kind of plant)
The root from which dâur “gloom” is derived (SD/423), perhaps with a similar meaning.
A Primitive Adûnaic word glossed “gloom” (SD/423), the only attested example of a single-vowel-form for a triconsonantal-root. Ordinarily such a form would not be possible, since final consonant clusters did not appear in Primitive Adûnaic (SD/418, 426). It is possible that such forms were valid in the case of medial semi-vowels [w] and [j], however, since [[ad|[w] and [j] became [u] and [i] before consonants and finally]], thereby preventing a cluster from forming.
The primitive form of manô “spirit” (SD/424). Its plural form manaw+yi is also attested.
minilroot. heaven, sky
A Primitive Adûnaic root glossed “heaven, sky” that Tolkien used as an example of an “early borrowing” from Primitive Elvish: the ancient Elvish root √MENEL became ✶Ad. √MINIL from whatever Avari language influenced Primitive Adûnaic (SD/414).
A root glossed “small” that Tolkien wrote in its full-form ✶Ad. √MIYI (SD/427). For consistency this entry has normalized it to the basic form of biconsonantal roots. Although glossed as “small”, all of its attested derivatives have to do with babies.
The primitive form of thâni “land”, written in allcaps as THĀNI (SD/420). Usually Tolkien used capitalization for primitive roots, but in this case it is more like to be a form derived from an unattested Primitive Adûnaic root √THAN*.
belroot. *befriend, love
This unglossed root appears only as an element in the name Azrubêl “Friend of the Sea, Sea-lover” (SD/305). It has a sense similar to that of ✶Ad. √ZIR “love, desire”. Perhap it is distinct from ✶Ad. √ZIR in that it has more to do with friendship than desire. It could be distantly related to the elvish root √MEL, perhaps ✶mel- > ✶mbel- > ✶bel- in the Avari tongue that influenced Primitive Adûnaic, but this is purely speculative.
This root also contradicts statements by Tolkien elsewhere that Primitive Adûnaic only had the vowels a, i and u. Perhaps it should be *BIL, as with ✶Ad. √BITH “say” the primitive root of Ad. bêth “expression, saying, word”.
nakhroot. come, approach
A Primitive Adûnaic root glossed “come, approach” (SD/416), no doubt the basis for the verb nakh- “to come”.
An otherwise unexplained root that Tolkien used to illustrate the processes of Primitive Adûnaic word formation (SD/422-3). It may have no real meaning. Even if it were, certainly only a few of its derivatives could be real words in Classical Adûnaic.
One of the roots Tolkien used to illustrate various processes of Primitive Adûnaic word formation (SD/422-5). It also seems to be the basis of words related to stars, such as gimli.
A rejected Adûnaic root attested as iri- and having to do with love (SD/305), perhaps related to the Primitive Elvish root ᴹ√IR “desirable, beautiful”.
A Primitive Adûnaic word glossed “crow” (SD/426). Tolkien gave two primitive forms of this word, khāw and khăw, which could just be variant forms of the same root *KHAW. A more intriguing possibility is that khāw is actually the subjective form of khăw, since this would indicate that this subjective formation dates back to the primitive stages of the language. As evidence of this, the derived plural khāwī(m) (SD/426) does resemble the Classical Adûnaic subjective plural.
Contradicting this conjecture is the fact that khaw, as an animal name, should be declined as a common-noun, using the common subjective suffix -an. Elsewhere, though, Tolkien declined some animal names as if they were neuter nouns, for example narîka as the subjective plural of #narak (SD/251). Perhaps not all animals were common nouns, or perhaps Tolkien’s ideas for the subjective tense were not fully formed when these examples were written.
A Primitive Adûnaic root glossed “hand”, the basis for the noun pâ of the same meaning (SD/416).
The Primitive Adûnaic form of the noun pâ “hand” (SD/426).
ruthroot. scar, score, furrow
This root, glossed “scar, score, furrow”, appeared as part of a discussion of the origin of the Sindarin word S. ross “foam” appearing in the name Elros “Star-foam” (PM/368-371). Tolkien was uncertain whether this Sindarin word could coexist with its homophone S. ross “copper-coloured”, and investigated the possibility that Elros was instead derived from a Beorian word rôs “foam”. According to Christopher Tolkien, his father was forced to abandon this line of reasoning when he remembered that the unrelated name S. Cair Andros also contained this element, forcing it to be of Sindarin rather than Beorian origin (SD/371).
Despite all this, the related Adûnaic word Ad. roth “foam” survived in The Silmarillion in the Adûnaic name Rothinzil “Foam-flower” of Earendil’s ship. Therefore, perhaps this root remains valid. According to Tolkien, this root originally had to do with ploughs and ploughing, and was later used for the white crest of waves by analogy with the churning dirt of a furrow (PM/376).
zirroot. love, desire
izraynoun. *sweetheart, beloved
An unglossed root (SD/415), likely the basis for the noun karab “horse” (SD/434).
A Primitive Adûnaic root glossed “shine” (SD/416), apparently the basis for Nimir “Elf”.
An otherwise unexplained root Tolkien gave to illustrate a pronunciation example. It may not be a real root.
An unglossed root with a different meaning than KARAB (SD/415).
* -ānsuffix. agental suffix
* hiroot. she
* ʒuroot. he
A Primitive Adûnaic form attested as u “he” (SD/435), but given the later Adûnaic pronoun Ad. u or hu “he”, the actual primitive pronoun may have been ƷU* [ɣu], *ʔU or HU [xu], as Tolkien indicated in a footnote (SD/433, note #7). The suffix -u was also a common feature of Classical Adûnaic masculine-nouns*.