Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Middle Primitive Elvish

lug

root. be heavy

A root in The Etymologies of the 1930s glossed “be heavy”, with the derived adjectives ᴹQ. lunga and N. lhong of the same meaning (Ety/LUG¹). Given the appearance of G. lung “heavy; grave, serious” in the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s, I think the idea for this root dates back to this period, though the related verb G. luntha- “balance, weigh” indicates the Early-period root may have been ✱ᴱ√LUŊU instead (GL/55). Tolkien’s continued used of Q. lungu- and S. -lung for “heavy” in his later writings indicates its ongoing validity (S/185; PE17/162; VT47/19).

Derivatives

  • ᴹ✶lungā “heavy” ✧ Ety/LUG¹
    • Ilk. lung “heavy” ✧ Ety/LUG¹
    • ᴹQ. lunga “heavy; fraught” ✧ Ety/LUG¹
    • N. lhong “heavy” ✧ Ety/LUG¹
  • lungu “heavy”
    • Q. lungo “heavy, heavy [prefix only]”
    • S. lung “heavy, heavy; [G.] grave, serious”
  • ᴹQ. lu- “to be heavy, be sad” ✧ PE22/102
  • ᴺQ. lungwë “pound”

Element in

  • ᴹQ. Lunguma “Heavy Hand”
  • Ilk. Mablung “Heavy-hand” ✧ Ety/MAP

Variations

  • LUG ✧ PE22/102
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/LUG¹; Ety/MAP; PE22/102] Group: Eldamo. Published by

lug

root. *blue

Derivatives

  • Ilk. lûn “pale” ✧ EtyAC/LUY
  • ᴹ✶lugni “blue” ✧ Ety/LUG²
    • Ilk. lûn “pale” ✧ Ety/LUG²
    • Dan. lygn “pale” ✧ Ety/LUG²
    • ᴹQ. lúne “blue, blue, [ᴱQ.] deep blue” ✧ Ety/LUG²; EtyAC/LUG²
    • N. lhûn “blue” ✧ Ety/LUG²
  • ᴹQ. luina “pale” ✧ EtyAC/LUY

Variations

  • LUY ✧ EtyAC/LUY (LUY)
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/LUG²; EtyAC/LUY] Group: Eldamo. Published by

dag

root. dig

A rejected root in The Etymologies of the 1930s glossed “dig” (Ety/DAG), it may have been a transient replacement for √SAP.

Derivatives

  • ᴹ✶dagdā “pit” ✧ EtyAC/DAG
    • N. daudh “pit” ✧ EtyAC/DAG
  • ᴹQ. lára “grave” ✧ EtyAC/DAG
Middle Primitive Elvish [EtyAC/DAG] Group: Eldamo. Published by

angwa

root. snake

The root √ANGWA “snake” with variant √ANGU appeared in The Etymologies of the 1930s as the basis for the words ᴹQ. ango “snake” (Ety/ANGWA) and angulóke “dragon” (Ety/LOK). The Noldorin equivalent am- seems to have survived only as a prefix (Ety/ANGWA), and is a good example of how [[on|[ŋgw] > [mb]]] in that language. There are a variety of other words for “snake” in Tolkien’s later writings, so whether this root remained valid is unclear.

Derivatives

  • ᴹQ. ango “snake, dragon” ✧ Ety/ANGWA
  • N. am- “snake” ✧ Ety/ANGWA

Element in

Variations

  • ANGU ✧ Ety/ANGWA
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/ANGWA; Ety/LOK] Group: Eldamo. Published by