A noun for a “dead [person]” appearing its plural form in the phrase Dor Gyrth i Chuinar “Land of the Dead that Live” (Let/417) and its mutated class-plural form in the phrase Fui ’Ngorthrim “Paths of the Dead” (RC/526). It is clearly based on the root √ÑGUR “death”.
noun. dead (person)
- √ÑGUR “death; to die”
noun. a dead person
noun. horror, dread
- √ÑGOR “dread, terror, fear, horror” ✧ WJ/415
Word Gloss gor “horror, dread, fear” -oth “augmentative suffix”
Development Stages Sources √NGUR > gorth [ŋgurotʰo] > [ŋguroθo] > [guroθo] > [goroθo] > [goroθ] ✧ WJ/415
- gorth ✧ WJ/415
The usual Sindarin word for “death”, derived from the root √ÑGUR of similar meaning (UT/39; Ety/ÑGUR).
Conceptual Development: This word dates all the way back to the Gnomish Lexicon of the 1910s (GL/43), anchored by well established names like Gurthang or Gurtholf(in), the name of Túrin’s sword. Tolkien experimented with various alternate forms over the years, such as G. urthu (GG/14), G. gurthu (GL/43), ᴱN. gurdh (PE13/146) and N. guruth (Ety/ÑGUR), but kept coming back to gurth as the basic form.
Neo-Sindarin: For purposes of Neo-Sindarin, I would use this word for death in general and especially violent death, as opposed to the more euphemistic [N.] gwanath or gwanu “death”, more literally “departure”.
- Q. urtu “death”
- √ÑGUR “death; to die”
- Gurth ✧ UT/039
noun. the dead
- ✶(ñ)guruk “horror” ✧ WJ/415
Development Stages Sources ✶guruk > gorog [guruk] > [gorok] > [gorog] ✧ WJ/415
noun. extreme horror, terror, haunting fear
_ n. _death. guru << gûru.
noun. death, death (abstract)
A Sindarin word for “death” derived from primitive ✶ñgurū (PE17/87), unusual in that its primitive ancient vowel u did not vanish. In The Etymologies of the 1930s Tolkien had variant forms [N.] gûr and gurw “death” marked with a “?”, both derived from Old Noldorin nguru and indicating some uncertainty on the exact phonetic developments (EtyAC/ÑGUR). Elsewhere in The Etymologies Tolkien said that [N.] guru was “Death as state or abstract”, as opposed to [N.] gwanw or gwanath for the “act of dying” (Ety/GWAN).
Neo-Sindarin: For purposes of Neo-Sindarin, I would assume guru was for death as an abstraction or principle, and for the death of individuals I would use either gurth or gwanu/gwanath; see those entries for discussion.
gûru→ guru ✧ PE17/087
- ᴹQ. nuru “death, death [abstract]”
- S. guruthos “dread of death, death-horror, shadow of death, dread of death, death-horror, shadow of death, [N.] fear of death” ✧ PE17/087
Development Stages Sources ✶ngurū > guru [ŋgurū] > [ŋguru] > [guru] > [guru] > [guru] ✧ PE17/087
- gûru ✧ PE17/087 (
place name. Death
_ topon. _Death, dead water. >> guru
- √NDAY “dreadful, abominable, detestable” ✧ PE17/151
- S. daedelos “horrible fear” ✧ PE17/151
Development Stages Sources √NDAY > dael [ndaila] > [daila] > [dail] > [dael] ✧ PE17/151
_ n. _horror.
noun/adjective. dead, dead person; [N.] dead (of mortals)
An adjective in The Etymologies of the 1930s glossed “dead (of mortals)” under the root ᴹ√PHIR “die of natural causes”, used as a plural noun in the name Dor Firn i Guinar “Land of the Dead that Live” (Ety/PHIR). Christopher Tolkien choose to include the name Dor Firn-i-Guinar in the published version of The Silmarillion (S/188), and most Sindarin writers accept its ongoing validity.
- √PHIR “exhale, expire, breathe out, exhale, expire, breathe out; [ᴹ√] die of natural causes”
- S. Dor Firn-i-Guinar “Land of the Dead that Live” ✧ S/188
noun. death (act of dying, not death as a state or abstract)
gorth (i ngorth = i ñorth, o n**gorth = o ñgorth), pl. gyrth (in gyrth = i ñgyrth), coll. pl. Gorthrim**, the dead as a group (RC:526). Note: a homophone means ”dread, horror”.
(adj.) 1) gorth (lenited ngorth; pl. gyrth), also fern, pl. firn. These adjectives may also be used as nouns ”dead person(s)”. According to LR:381 s.v. _
1) (act of dying) gwanath (i **wanath), pl. gwenaith (in gwenaith), 2) (act of dying, especially the ”death” of Elves by fading or weariness) gwanu (i **wanu), analogical pl. gweny (in gweny). Archaic gwanw (LR:397 s.v. WAN), hence coll. pl. ?gwanwath. Other words (rather referring to Death as a state or abstract): 3) gûr (i ngûr = i ñûr, o n**gûr = o ñgûr, construct gur), pl. guir (in guir = i ñguir), 4) gurth (i ngurth = i ñurth, o n**gurth = o ñgurth), pl. gyrth (in gyrth = i ñgyrth), 5) guruth (i nguruth = i ñuruth, o n**guruth = o ñguruth), pl. gyryth (in gyryth** = i ñgyryth)
1) angos (pl. engys) (VT45:15), 2) dêl (i dhêl, construct del) (disgust, fear, loathing), pl. dîl (i nîl), 3) delos (i dhelos) (fear, abhorrence, dread, detestation, loathing), pl. delys (i nelys), coll. pl. delossath. A side-form ends in -oth (pl. -yth) instead of -os (-ys). 4) girith (i **irith) (shuddering), no distinct pl. form except with article (i ngirith = i ñirith), 5) gôr (i ngôr = i ñôr, o n**gôr = o ñgôr, construct gor) (fear, dread), pl. gŷr (in gŷr = i ñgŷr). Note: a homophone means ”vigour” but has different mutations. 6) gorog (i ngorog = i ñorog, o n**gorog = o ñgorog), pl. geryg (in geryg = i ñgeryg) (WJ:415). Archaic pl. göryg. 7) goroth (i ngoroth = i ñoroth, o n**goroth = o ñgoroth) (dread), pl. geryg (in geryg = i ñgeryg) (WJ:415). Archaic pl. göryth. 8) gorth (i ngorth = i ñorth, o n**gorth = o ñgorth) (dread), pl. gyrth (in gyrth = i ñgyrth). _(WJ:415) _Note: a homophone means ”dead; dead person”, 9) goss (i **oss, construct gos) (dread), pl. gyss (i ngyss = i ñyss).