A root in The Etymologies of the 1930s glossed “red, copper-coloured, ruddy” with the derived adjectives ᴹQ. aira and N. goer of similar meaning (Ety/GAWA). It replaced a (deleted) root ᴹ√GAIRĀ (EtyAC/GAIRĀ). Its most notable derivative is the name N. Taragaer “Ruddyhorn” (Ety/TARÁK), which was the precursor in Lord of the Rings drafts of 1940s to the name of S. Caradhras “Redhorn” (RS/419). Given the eventual replacement of this name in the final version of The Lord of the Rings Tolkien likely abandoned this root, especially given its conflict with the later root √GAY(AR) “awe, dread” that was the basis for words for “sea”.
root. *red, copper-coloured, ruddy
- N. Taragaer “Ruddyhorn” ✧ Ety/TARÁK
- GAIRĀ ✧ EtyAC/GAIRĀ (
- N. Fauglith “Thirsty Sand” ✧ Ety/LIT
- PHAU ✧ Ety/LIT; EtyAC/PHAU
- PHAU̯ ✧ Ety/PHAU
This root appeared in The Etymologies of the 1930s glossed “red” (Ety/KARÁN), a later iteration of ᴱ√KṚN of the Qenya Lexicon of the 1910s of the same meaning, but with syllabic ṛ (QL/48). Its main Quenya derivative, Q. carnë, retained the same form throughout Tolkien’s life, but its Gnomish forms G. carn(in) “scarlet” and G. crintha “rosy, pink” (GL/25, 27) became N. caran “red” in the 1930s, and retained that form thereafter.
- KARÁN ✧ Ety/KARÁN; Ety/RAS; Ety/THĒ
- ᴹ√KUL “golden-red” ✧ Ety/GUL; Ety/KUL
- N. coll “red, scarlet” ✧ Ety/GUL; Ety/KUL
- guldā ✧ Ety/GUL (
kárāni→ karani ✧ Ety/KARÁN
- ᴹ√KARAN “red” ✧ Ety/KARÁN
- kárāni ✧ EtyAC/KARÁN (