Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Doriathrin

garthurian

place name. Fenced Kingdom, Fenced or Hidden Realm, Fenced Realm, Fenced Realm, Hidden Realm, Hidden Realm
Doriathrin [Ety/GAT(H).045; Ety/ƷAR.054; Ety/THUR.014; EtyAC/ƷAR.056; EtyAC/ƷARA.033] Group: Eldamo. Published by

elbereth

masculine name. Valor Star

An earlier name for S. Elurín (LR/147). It appeared in The Etymologies containing Ilk. bereth “valor”, but both this word and the name were rejected, probably when Tolkien introduced N. Elbereth as a name of Varda (Ety/BER). Its initial element might be el “star”.

Doriathrin [Ety/BER.042; LR/147.4304; LRI/Elbereth.001; PMI/Elurín.011; RSI/Elbereth.001; SM/325.4214; SMI/Elbereth.001; SMI/Eldûn.008; WJI/Elboron.003; WRI/Elbereth.004] Group: Eldamo. Published by

galbreth

noun. beech

A Doriathrin (and Falathrin) noun for “beech (tree)”, a combination of gald “tree” and breth “(beech) mast” (Ety/GALAD, BERÉTH). The second element originally meant “beech”, but later meant “mast”; this original meaning seems to be preserved in this compound.

Doriathrin [Ety/BERÉTH.016; Ety/GALAD.096; Ety/NEL.072; Ety/NEL.073] Group: Eldamo. Published by

thorntor

masculine name. King of Eagles

Ilkorin name for N. Thorondor appearing in The Etymologies from the 1930s, translated “King of Eagles” (Ety/THOR). It is a combination of thorn “eagle” and tôr “king”.

Doriathrin [Ety/THOR.051] Group: Eldamo. Published by

torthurnion

masculine name. King of Eagles

A variant form of Ilk. Thorntor, a combination of tôr “king” and the genitive plural of thorn “eagle” (Ety/THOR).

Doriathrin [Ety/THOR.052] Group: Eldamo. Published by

bereth

noun. valor

A rejected noun meaning “valor” developed from the root ᴹ√BER (Ety/BER), perhaps from a primitive form *✶berette. The word was probably rejected when Elbereth change from an Ilkorin to a Noldorin name.

Doriathrin [Ety/BER.035] Group: Eldamo. Published by

basgorn

noun. round bread

This word is marked Ilk. in one entry in The Etymologies (Ety/KOR), but elsewhere the same word is marked as Noldorin: N. basgorn (Ety/MBAS). The elements of this word are also marked as Noldorin: N. bast “bread” (Ety/MBAS) and N. corn “round” (Ety/KOR). It is possible the Ilkorin word underwent the same phonetic development as its Noldorin counterpart, or that it is a loan word from Noldorin.

Doriathrin [Ety/KOR.051] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tangol

noun. pin, brooch

A noun meaning “pin, brooch” derived from primitive ᴹ✶tankla [taŋkla] (Ety/TAK). First the [k] became [g] after the nasal [ŋ] and then final [l] became syllabic and developed into [ol]. These developments were suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/tangol).

Doriathrin [Ety/TAK.043] Group: Eldamo. Published by

dimbar

place name. Sad Home
Doriathrin [Ety/DEM.008; LRI/Dimbar.001; RSI/Dimbar.001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nauglamír

proper name. Dwarf-necklace, Necklace of the Dwarves
Doriathrin [Ety/MIR.012; Ety/NAUK.021; LR/141.1904; LRI/Nauglamír.001; SM/135.2203; SM/155.2803; SM/313.2003; SMI/Nauglamír.001; WJI/Nauglamîr.001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nivon

noun/adverb. forward, forward, west, the West, west

A Doriathrin word meaning “forward” or “west”, derived from the root ᴹ√NIB (Ety/NIB). It could have developed from primitive forms like nibon or nibn(ǝ), with -on developing in the second example because [o] developed between a consonant and a final [n] in Ilkorin. As noted by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Doriathrin/nivon), the sense “west” probably developed from the meaning “forward” because the Elves thought of themselves as facing West when marking directions.

Doriathrin [Ety/NIB.017; Ety/RAD.008; EtyAC/NIB.024; EtyAC/NIB.027] Group: Eldamo. Published by

thuringwethil

feminine name. (Woman of) Secret Shadow
Doriathrin [Ety/THUR.035] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tovon

adjective. lowlying, deep, low

An adjective meaning “lowlying, deep, low” derived from primitive ᴹ✶tubnā (Ety/STAB). The short [u] became [o] before the final [a], while the [b] spirantalized to [v] after a vowel, with the [n] becoming syllabic and developing into [-on] after it became final. These developments were all suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/tovon).

Doriathrin [Ety/TUB.033] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nan dungorthin

place name. Vale of Black Horror

A Doriathrin precursor to S. Nan Dungortheb (LR/261), given in The Etymologies as a combination of nand “valley”, dunn “black” and ngorthin “horrible” (Ety/NAD, DUN, ÑGOROTH).

Doriathrin [Ety/DUN.018; Ety/NAD.021; Ety/ÑGOROTH.031; EtyAC/ÑGOROTH.008; LB/348.0509; LBI/Nan Dungorthin.001; LR/299.0408; LRI/Nan-dungorthin.001; LRI/Nan-dungorthin.008; MR/127.2505; MRI/Nan Dungortheb.008; SMI/Nan Dungorthin.001; WJI/Nan Dungortheb.005] Group: Eldamo. Published by

mîd

noun. fine rain, moisture

A Doriathrin noun for “moisture” derived from primitive ᴹ✶mizdē (Ety/MIZD). The [i] lengthened due to the vocalization of [z] before voiced stops, as suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Doriathrin/míd). According to Carl Hostetter and Patrick Wynne, this form was originally unglossed and may have been initially intended to mean “fine rain” like its Quenya cognate ᴹQ. miste (EtyAC/MIZD, VTE/45).

Doriathrin [Ety/MIZD.011; EtyAC/MIZD.007; EtyAC/MIZD.100; VTE/45.3501] Group: Eldamo. Published by

neldoreth

place name. neldoreth

Elements

WordGlossSource
neldorneldor-
?--
Doriathrin [Ety/NEL.025; LR/126.1306; LRI/Neldoreth.001; TI/307.1702; TII/Neldoreth.001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

alch

noun. swan

An Ilkorin word for “swan” derived from primitive ᴹ✶alkwā (Ety/ÁLAK). This word is a good example of how voiceless stops became spirants after liquids and voiceless stops in Ilkorin.

Doriathrin [Ety/ÁLAK.035] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nef

noun. face

A Doriathrin noun meaning “face” derived from the root ᴹ√NIB (Ety/NIB). The vowel change suggests a primitive form *✶niba, where the [i] became [e] because of Ilkorin a-affection. If this is the case, it is not a direct cognate of N. nîf “front, face”.

Doriathrin [Ety/NIB.010] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ar-

prefix. outside, beside

An Ilkorin prefix meaning “outside, beside”, the same as in Quenya and Noldorin (Ety/AR²).

Doriathrin [Ety/AR².025] Group: Eldamo. Published by

cwess

noun. down, down (feathers)

A noun meaning “down (feathers)” derived from primitive ᴹ✶kwessē (Ety/KWES) when the primitive final vowel was lost.

Doriathrin [Ety/KWES.007] Group: Eldamo. Published by

breth

noun. (beech) mast, beech-mast

A word for “mast” developed from the primitive form ᴹ✶b’rethā or *✶berethā (Ety/BERÉTH), because in Ilkorin unstressed initial syllables reduced to favored clusters. The primitive word originally was originally associated with beech trees, and the Ilkorin meaning was likely due to the use of these trees for masts in ship-building practices of Beleriand. The normal Ilkorin word for “beech” is galbreth or neldor.

Doriathrin [Ety/BERÉTH.007] Group: Eldamo. Published by

gad

noun. fence

A Doriathrin noun meaning “fence” derived from the root ᴹ√GAT(H) (Ety/GAT(H)), most likely from a primitive form *✶gat-. As pointed out by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Doriathrin/gad), its gloss is a bit peculiar, given that the other derivatives of its root same to have meanings associated with caves. As Mr. Fauskanger suggested, this may represent a transition in Tolkien’s thinking on the meaning of the associated name Doriath: “Land of the Cave” (Ety/GAT(H)) >> “Land of the Fence” (WJ/370).

Doriathrin [Ety/GAT(H).061] Group: Eldamo. Published by

gôd

noun. dirtiness, filth

A noun meaning “dirtiness, filth” derived from primitive ᴹ✶wahtē (Ety/WAƷ). This word underwent quite a few phonetic developments, as indicated below and as described by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/gôd).

Doriathrin [Ety/WAƷ.040; EtyAC/WAƷ.013] Group: Eldamo. Published by

neldor

noun. beech

A Doriathrin noun for “beech (tree)”, properly referring to Hirilorn with a true meaning of “three trunks” (Ety/NEL). Tolkien indicated it was a combination of neld “three” and orn “tree”, though it is unclear why the final -n vanished. He marked this derivation with a “?” perhaps because of this uncertainty.

Conceptual Development: Tolkien seems to have coined this word to explain names like Neldoreth. Its most obvious precursor is ᴱQ. neldor (QL/65).

Doriathrin [Ety/BERÉTH.021; Ety/NEL.022] Group: Eldamo. Published by

salch

noun. grass

A noun for “grass” derived from the root ᴹ√SALAK (Ety/SALÁK-(WĒ)). It is a good example of how [w] vanished after medial velars in Ilkorin.

Doriathrin [Ety/SALÁK-(WĒ).006] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tor tinduma

proper name. King of Twilight

A title for Thingol appearing in The Etymologies from the 1930s, a combination of tôr “king” and the genitive of tindum “starry twilight” (Ety/THIN, TIN).

Doriathrin [Ety/THIN.041; Ety/TIN.094] Group: Eldamo. Published by

argador

place name. [Land] Outside the Fence

A name for Doriath translated “Outside the Fence”, a compound of argad “outside the fence” (Ety/AT(AT)) and dôr “land” (Ety/GAT(H), AR²). Thus, its literal meaning is “[Land] Outside the Fence”.

Doriathrin [Ety/AR².027; Ety/GAT(H).072] Group: Eldamo. Published by

gelu

adjective. (pale) blue

A Doriathrin adjective meaning “(pale) blue” derived from the root ᴹ√ƷEL (Ety/ƷEL), probably from a primitive form *✶ʒelwā [ɣelwā] based on its cognates. If so, the initial [ɣ] became [g], the primitive final [a] vanished, after which the final [w] became [u]. These developments were noted by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Doriathrin/gelu).

Doriathrin [Ety/ƷEL.056] Group: Eldamo. Published by

myrilind

noun. nightingale

The Ilkorin noun for “nightingale”, appearing as both murilind and myrilind (Ety/MOR, TIN). Its Quenya cognate ᴹQ. morilinde indicates a primitive form of *✶morilindē, further supported by the rejected Ilkorin form morilind (EtyAC/MOR). This would have produced murilind according to the rules of Ilkorin i-affection. The variant form myrilind hints at a different (dialectical?) phonetic development, as pointed out by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/murilind). See the entry on i-affection for further discussion.

Doriathrin [Ety/MOR.023; Ety/TIN.151; EtyAC/MOR.012; EtyAC/MOR.052] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nand

noun. field, mead, field, valley

A Doriathrin noun meaning “field, valley” (Ety/NAD), also appearing as nan and described as “land at foot of hill with many streams” (EtyAC/NAD).

Doriathrin [Ety/NAD.017; EtyAC/NAD.005; EtyAC/NAD.030] Group: Eldamo. Published by

eglador

place name. Land of the Elves
Doriathrin [Ety/AR².043; Ety/ELED.093; Ety/GAT(H).016] Group: Eldamo. Published by

adar

noun. father

The Ilkorin word for “father” derived from primitive ᴹ✶atar[ă], also attested in its plural form edrin (Ety/ATA). It is identical to its Noldorin cognate N. adar having undergone similar phonetic changes from its primitive form, possibly *✶atară.

Doriathrin [Ety/ATA.021; Ety/ATA.023] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tindum

noun. (starry) twilight, starlight, starlight, twilight, starry twilight

A noun meaning “(starry) twilight, starlight”, a combination of tim “star” and dûm “twilight” (Ety/DOMO, TIN), also appearing in its genitive form tinduma (Ety/THIN). Either the compound preserved the original [n] from tim < ᴹ✶tinmē, or the [n] reformed by assimilation to the [d].

Doriathrin [Ety/DOMO.038; Ety/THIN.042; Ety/TIN.102] Group: Eldamo. Published by

lindon

place name. Musical Land, Region of Music
Doriathrin [Ety/LIN².046; Ety/LIN².047; LR/267.1403; LRI/Lindon.001; TII/Lindon.001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tor thingol

proper name. King Thingol

A title for Thingol appearing in The Etymologies from the 1930s, a combination of tôr “king” with his name (Ety/TĀ, Ety/THIN).

Doriathrin [Ety/TĀ.130; Ety/THIN.034; EtyAC/THIN.011] Group: Eldamo. Published by

adurant

place name. adurant

A river in N. Ossiriand (SM/331), a compound of ado “double” (Ety/AT(AT)) and rant “flow, course of river” (Ety/RAT). It must be an older compound, since it preserved the archaic form adu- of ado.

See S. Adurant for further discussion.

Elements

WordGlossSource
adodouble-
rantflow-
Doriathrin [Ety/AT(AT).043; SMI/Adurant.001; TII/Adurant.001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

balthor

proper name. Vala-king

A title in The Etymologies translated “Vala-king”, a combination of the root ᴹ√BAL and Ilk. tôr “king”, also attested in its plural form Balthorin (Ety/BAL). It is an example of how voiceless stops became spirants after liquids l and r.

Doriathrin [Ety/BAL.095; Ety/BAL.096] Group: Eldamo. Published by

dôl

noun. flat, lowlying vale, flat/lowlying vale

A noun glossed “flat, lowlying vale” (Ety/DAL). Helge Fauskanger pointed out that the gloss is ambiguous, and it may be that this word can also be used an adjective “flat” (AL-Ilkorin/dôl).

Doriathrin [Ety/DAL.039] Group: Eldamo. Published by

gôr

adjective. soiled, dirty

An adjective meaning “soiled, dirty” derived from primitive ᴹ✶waʒrā [waɣrā] (Ety/WAƷ). This word underwent quite a few phonetic developments, as indicated below and as described by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/gôr).

Doriathrin [Ety/WAƷ.014] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tingla-

verb. sparkle, to sparkle

A verb meaning “to sparkle” derived from the root ᴹ√TIN (Ety/TIN), mostly likely from a primitive verb tinglā. If so, it is an example of how the Ilkorin a-affection was prevented or reverted before [ŋg]. This development was pointed out by Helge Fauskanger, though he suggested the primitive verb was tintilā, a cognate Q. tintila-, with a medial development of [-nt(i)l-] > [-ngl-] (AL-Ilkorin/tingla-).

Doriathrin [Ety/TIN.100] Group: Eldamo. Published by

trêw

adjective. fine, slender

An adjective meaning “fine, slender” derived from primitive ᴹ✶terēwā (Ety/TER), where the unstressed vowel in the first syllable vanished to produce the favored combination [tr] as suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/trêw).

Doriathrin [Ety/TER.016; EtyAC/TER.024] Group: Eldamo. Published by

noun. muscle, sinew, vigour, physical strength

A noun meaning “muscle, sinew; vigour, physical strength” derived from primitive ᴹ✶tūgu with an attested intermediate form tūgh [tūɣ] (Ety/TUG). It is a good example of how [g] spirantalized to [ɣ] (“gh”) after a vowel, and the resulting voiced velar spirant [ɣ] vanished, as suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/tû).

Doriathrin [Ety/TUG.011; EtyAC/TUG.014] Group: Eldamo. Published by

umboth muilin

place name. Twilight Meres, Twilight Meres, Veiled Pool, Veiled Pool

Doriathrin precursor to S. Aelin-uial translated “Twilight Meres” (LR/262). In The Etymologies, it was translated “Veiled Pool” and given as a combination of umboth “large pool” and muilin “veiled” (Ety/MBOTH, MUY).

Doriathrin [Ety/KHIS.035; Ety/MBOTH.018; Ety/MUY.012; LR/262.1303; LRI/Umboth Muilin.001; SMI/Umboth-muilin.001; WJI/Umboth Muilin.001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

cwindor

noun. narrator

A Doriathrin noun meaning “narrator” derived from primitive ᴹ✶kwentrō (Ety/KWET). This word underwent several notable phonetic changes: first the voiceless stop was voiced after the nasal ([nt] > [nd]), after which [e] became [i] before the [nd] ([end] > [ind]) and finally an [o] developed between the consonant and the final [r] ([-dr] > [-dor]). These changes were all noted by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Doriathrin/cwindor).

Doriathrin [Ety/KWET.026] Group: Eldamo. Published by

denithor

masculine name. Saviour of the Dani

Doriathrin name for the leader of the Danians (LR/188), called in their own language Dan. Denethor (Ety/DAN). This name developed from the primitive form ᴹ✶Ndanithārō.

Conceptual Development: In Silmarillion drafts from the 1930s, this name first appeared in forms resembling the Doriathrin name: Denilos or Denithor (SM/271). Later in these drafts, it was change to its Danian form Denethor (LR/119, 145). It kept that form thereafter.

Doriathrin [LR/119.2502; LR/145.0802; LR/188.1905; LRI/Denilos.001; LRI/Denilos.005; LRI/Denithor.001; SMI/Denethor.003; SMI/Denilos.001; SMI/Denilos.012; SMI/Denithor.001; SMI/Denithor.003; WJI/Denethor.007] Group: Eldamo. Published by

esgaroth

place name. Reedlake
Doriathrin [Ety/ESEK.009; EtyAC/SKAR².010] Group: Eldamo. Published by

goldamir

proper name. Silmaril, Silmaril, (lit.) *Noldo-jewel

A Doriathrin name for the Silmarils, a combination of the genitive form of gold “Noldo” and mîr “jewel” (Ety/MIR, ÑGOLOD), hence: “*Noldo-jewel”. It also appeared in the variant form Goldomir, which may hint at the primitive form of the genitive.

Doriathrin [Ety/MIR.032; Ety/ÑGOLOD.049] Group: Eldamo. Published by

rant

noun. flow, course of river

A word meaning “flow, course of river” derived from the root ᴹ√RAT (Ety/RAT). It probably developed from an nasal-infixed variant of the root such *✶ranta, as suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/rant).

Doriathrin [Ety/RAT.049] Group: Eldamo. Published by

rost

noun. plain, wide land between mountains

A Doriathrin noun meaning “plain, wide land between mountains” derived from the root ᴹ√ROS² (Ety/ROS²).

Doriathrin [Ety/ROS².003] Group: Eldamo. Published by

dair

noun. shadow of trees

A noun meaning “shadow of trees”, derived from root ᴹ√DAY “shadow” and marked as identical in both the Ilkorin and Doriathrin dialects (Ety/DAY). Its primitive form was probably dair- ending in some final vowel, now lost; Helge Fauskanger suggested it might be dairē (AL-Ilkorin/dair, AL-Doriathrin/dair).

Doriathrin [Ety/DAY.024; Ety/DAY.026] Group: Eldamo. Published by

thúren

adjective. guarded, hidden

An adjective meaning “guarded, hidden” derived from the root ᴹ√THUR (Ety/THUR). Most likely the primitive form was *✶thūrinā as suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/thúren), where the short [i] became [e] preceding the final [a], before the final vowel vanished.

Doriathrin [Ety/THUR.009] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ariador

place name. Land Outside, Land outside Eglador [Doriath]

A variant form of Argador “[Land] Outside the Fence”, marked as Falathrin in The Etymologies (Ety/GAT(H), Ety/AR²). If so, it is evidence that in that dialect, primitive [g] became [i] between an [r] and a vowel, just as in the main Ilkorin dialect [g] became [i] between an [l] and a vowel.

Conceptual Development: In the Gnomish Lexicon from the 1910s, ᴱIlk. Aryador or Ariador was also said to be a dialectical word, from (early) Ilkorin (GL/20), possibly with a similar phonetic development.

Doriathrin [Ety/AR².037; Ety/ELED.097; Ety/GAT(H).032; Ety/GAT(H).074] Group: Eldamo. Published by

gwind

adjective. pale blue

An adjective for “pale blue” derived from the root ᴹ√GWINDI, rejected along with its root (EtyAC/GWINDI).

Doriathrin [EtyAC/GWINDI.012] Group: Eldamo. Published by

mablost

masculine name. Emptyhand, Empty-handed

A precursor to Beren’s name S. Camlost “Empty-handed” (SM/311). This name appeared in The Etymologies where it was marked as Doriathrin and given as a combination of mâb “hand” and lost “empty”, the equivalent of N. Camlost (Ety/KAB).

Doriathrin [Ety/KAB.017; LR/405.0604; LRI/Mablost.001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

mabluin

masculine name. Pale-hand

A rejected Ilkorin name from The Etymologies from the 1930s, possibly a variation of Ilk. Mablung (EtyAC/LUY). It seems to be a combination of mâb “hand” and the rejected form luin of lûn “pale”.

Doriathrin [EtyAC/LUY.008] Group: Eldamo. Published by

menegroth

place name. Thousand Caves
Doriathrin [Ety/ROD.020; LR/114.2503; LR/220.2601; LRI/Menegroth.001; PE22/041.0601; SMI/Menegroth.001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

thôn

noun. pine-tree

A noun for “pine-tree” derived from the root ᴹ√THON, also appearing in its genitive plural form thonion “of pines” (Ety/THŌN, EtyAC/THŌN). Helge Fauskanger suggested that it developed from primitive thon- with a short ŏ because the [ō] did not become [ū] before the nasal (AL-Ilkorin/thôn), and only later did the short vowel lengthen in the monosyllable. I think that Mr. Fauskanger may have over-generalized this rule, however, since the other examples of [ō] becoming [ū] occur only before [m] and the change may not have applied to nasals in general. If this is the case, this word could have developed from primitive thōn-. There is not enough evidence to say for certain either way.

Conceptual Development: In notes elsewhere this word was given the form Dor. than with genitive plural form thanion (LR/405), probably associated with the earlier name Dorthanion versus later Dorthonion (LR/145). It is also possible these are Doriathrin and Ilkorin variations of the same word.

Doriathrin [Ety/THŌN.003; Ety/THŌN.026; EtyAC/THŌN.009; LR/405.3309; LR/405.3401] Group: Eldamo. Published by

hirilorn

place name. Tree of the Lady
Doriathrin [Ety/NEL.035] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nan-dairon

place name. Valley of Dairon

An Ilkorin place name appearing in The Etymologies from the 1930s, likely a combination of nand “valley” and the name Dairon (Ety/DAY).

Doriathrin [Ety/DAY.034] Group: Eldamo. Published by

dem

adjective. sad, gloomy

An adjective meaning “sad, gloomy” from the primitive form ᴹ✶dimbā (Ety/DEM). A related form dimb “sad” appears as an element in the Ilkorin name Dimbar. This form dimb is likely either a stem form or a more primitive form.

Possible Etymology: There is no language marker for the word dem in The Etymologies (Ety/DEM). David Salo (GS/248) and Didier Willis (HSD/dem) both suggested that it is Noldorin, based on (1) the fact that the element dimb is explicitly marked as an Ilkorin word for “sad” and (2) the phonological evidence, in that primitive ᴹ✶dimbā would develop into Noldorin dem.

However, the key phonological changes producing dem from primitive ✶dimbā also occurred in Ilkorin: short [i], [u] became [e], [o] preceding final [a] and final [mb] became [m]. I believe that dem is in fact an Ilkorin word, and that the element Ilk. dimb “sad” appearing earlier in the entry is a stem form, as noted above.

Conceptual Development: The root form of this word in The Etymologies was first written ᴹ√DIM, rejected and replaced by ᴹ√DEM (EtyAC/DEM). As pointed out by Helge Fauskanger, the primitive forms could only be derived from the root ᴹ√DIM (AL-Ilkorin/dem), so it seems that Tolkien reverted the change of ᴹ√DIM >> ᴹ√DEM. An earlier form demb “gloomy, sad” of this adjective (EtyAC/DEM) likely reflects this vacillation.

Doriathrin [Ety/DEM.005; Ety/DEM.013; EtyAC/DEM.026] Group: Eldamo. Published by

radhrim

place name. East March, East-march

A Doriathrin place name appearing in The Etymologies from the 1930s, a combination of radhon “east” and rîm “border” (Ety/RAD, RĪ).

Doriathrin [Ety/RAD.012; Ety/RĪ.013; WJI/Radhrim.001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

rond

noun. domed roof

A noun meaning “domed roof” derived from a nasal-infixed form of the root ᴹ√ROD “roof, cave” (Ety/ROD).

Doriathrin [Ety/ROD.044] Group: Eldamo. Published by

umboth

noun. large pool

A Doriathrin noun meaning “large pool”, apparently an elaboration of moth “pool” (Ety/MBOTH). Either the u- is some kind of prefix, perhaps an intensifier, or the initial [m] of the root became syllabic, both as suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/umboth).

Conceptual Development: Tolkien seems to have coined this word to explain Umboth Muilin “Twilight Meres”, a remnant of earlier G. Umboth-muilin “Pools of Twilight”. The meaning of the Ilkorin elements is reversed from the earlier name: in Gnomish the word G. umboth meant “twilight” (GL/75). In later writings, Tolkien replaced this name with S. Aelin-uial “Meres of Twilight”.

Doriathrin [Ety/MBOTH.005] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-ath

noun. collective plural

A class-plural suffix, identical to N. -ath (PE21/57). It is possible this suffix was also used as (and was perhaps inspired by) the Gnomish general plural suffix -th.

Doriathrin [PE21/57.2215-1] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ass

noun. cooked food, meat

A noun meaning “cooked food, meat” (Ety/AP). Given its Quenya cognate ᴹQ. apsa¹, it seems to be an example of how voiceless stops became [s] before [s] in Ilkorin.

Doriathrin [Ety/AP.009] Group: Eldamo. Published by

haudh

noun. heap, ‘piled mound’

@@@

Doriathrin [PE19/045.2704] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ulion

noun. monster, deformed and hideous creature

A noun meaning “monster, deformed and hideous creature” derived from primitive ᴹ✶ulgundō (Ety/ÚLUG). Here the final [un] became [on] after other vowels and consonants were lost. This is also the only attested example of how [g] became [i] between an [l] and a vowel, as noted by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/ulion).

Doriathrin [Ety/ÚLUG.022] Group: Eldamo. Published by

adda

noun. father (hypocoristic)

A diminutive form of “father”, similar to English “daddy” (Ety/ATA). Helge Fauskanger suggested it may have developed from primitive *✶attō based on its Quenya equivalent ᴹQ. atto (AL-Ilkorin/adda), but I think that is likelier to be a child’s invention, unrelated to other languages.

Doriathrin [Ety/ATA.024] Group: Eldamo. Published by

broga

noun. bear

A word for “bear” developed from the primitive form ᴹ✶morókō (Ety/BIRÍT), because in Ilkorin unstressed initial syllables reduced to favored clusters, after which the initial [mr-] became [br-]. This word is unusual in that the primitive final vowel did not vanish, but instead developed into -a, as noted by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/broga). The conditions for this exception are unclear, but may have been due to the consonant [g] that developed from primitive [k].

Doriathrin [Ety/MORÓK.009] Group: Eldamo. Published by

daum

noun. night-time, gloom

A noun meaning “night-time, gloom”, derived from root ᴹ√DOƷ (Ety/DOƷ). The development of its Noldorin and Quenya cognates point to a primitive form of ᴹ✶doʒmē [doɣmē] (Ety/DOƷ, DOMO). This word probably underwent development similar to its Noldorin cognate N. daw but with the retention of the final [-m]: ✶doʒmē > dogme > doume > Ilk. daum. The word Ilk. caun has an attested development that also follows this pattern (Ety/KUƷ). Helge Fauskanger suggested this same phonological history in his study of Ilkorin (Al-Ilkorin/daum).

Doriathrin [Ety/DOƷ.050] Group: Eldamo. Published by

dol dúghol

place name. dol dúghol

An earlier name for Dol Guldur appearing in Lord of the Rings drafts from the 1940s (WR/122), with variations Dol Dúgol (TI/178) and Dol Dûghul (TI/244). The word dûghol appears an earlier rejected word for “sorcery” in the Etymologies (EtyAC/ÑGOL), so perhaps this word was originally intended to be Ilkorin.
Variations of the word: Dol Dûgul, Dol Dúghul, Dol Dúgol, Dol-Dúgol, Dol Dûghul, Dol Dúghol.

Elements

WordGlossSource
dolhead-
durgulsorcery-
Doriathrin [WR/122.3701; WRI/Dol Dúghol.001; PMI/Dol Guldur.011; TII/Dol Dúgol.013; TI/244.3201; TI/296.3105; PMI/Dol Guldur.013; TI/244.3004; TI/296.3107; TII/Dol Dúgol.001; PMI/Dol Guldur.009; TI/178.0110] Group: Eldamo. Published by

gald

noun. tree

A Doriathrin noun for “tree” derived from the root ᴹ√GÁLAD (Ety/GALAD), probably from a primitive form *✶galadā with the second a lost due to the Ilkorin Syncope. Note that the first element [gal-] did not reduce to [gl-] because the initial syllable was stressed in the primitive word.

Doriathrin [Ety/GALAD.094] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ganu

noun/adjective. male, male (of Men or Elves), male animal, male (person or animal)

A Doriathrin word (noun and adjective?) for a “male” derived from the root ᴹ√ƷAN (Ety/ƷAN).

Possible Etymology: Its Quenya cognate ᴹQ. hanu indicates a primitive form ʒanū [ɣanū], but ordinarily a primitive final vowel was lost in Ilkorin. Helge Fauskanger suggested that this Ilkorin word was instead derived for adjective form ʒanwā [ɣanwā], which would have produced final -u after the loss of the [-ā] because final [w] became [u]. This derivation is indicated in the Phonetic Developments given below.

An alternate possibility, though, is that [u] was an exception to the rule that final vowels were lost in Ilkorin. The Noldorin development ᴹ√ƷAN > ON. anu > N. anw hints at a similar process. This uncertainly in its etymology makes it difficult to determine the part of speech (noun and/or adjective) that this word belongs to.

Doriathrin [Ety/ƷAN.018; EtyAC/ƷAN.033] Group: Eldamo. Published by

gwau

noun. wind

A noun meaning “wind” derived from the root ᴹ√WAW(A) (Ety/WĀ). Here the initial [w] became [gw], and after the final vowel vanished, the final [w] became [u].

Doriathrin [Ety/WĀ.012] Group: Eldamo. Published by

laf

noun. babe

A rejected Doriathrin noun for “babe” developed from the root ᴹ√LAP (EtyAC/LAP). Its Quenya cognate ᴹQ. lapse suggests a primitive form of *✶lapsē, but elsewhere a medial [ps] became [ss] in Ilkorin, as with tuss < ᴹ✶tupsē.

Doriathrin [EtyAC/LAP.005] Group: Eldamo. Published by

laig

adjective. fresh, keen, fresh, lively, keen, sharp, keen, sharp, fresh, lively

An adjective meaning “fresh, lively” developed from the primitive form ᴹ✶laikwā (Ety/LÁYAK). It is a good example of how [w] vanished after medial velars in Ilkorin, as suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/laig). This allowed it to blend with the derivative of ᴹ✶laikā and assume the additional meanings “keen, sharp” (Ety/LAIK).

Doriathrin [Ety/LAIK.016; Ety/LÁYAK.021; EtyAC/LÁYAK.010] Group: Eldamo. Published by

lalm

noun. elm-tree

A noun meaning “elm-tree” developed from the root ᴹ√(L)ALAM (Ety/ÁLAM). An identical form appeared elsewhere in The Etymologies with its language marked “D”, perhaps for Doriathrin (Ety/LÁLAM). This word is unusual in that its final [m] did not become syllabic after a consonant, although it did for other similar words such as talum.

Doriathrin [Ety/ÁLAM.016; Ety/ÁLAM.018; Ety/LÁLAM.011] Group: Eldamo. Published by

lind

noun/adjective. tuneful, sweet, singing

An adjective meaning “tuneful, sweet” developed from primitive ᴹ✶lindā (Ety/LIND, EtyAC/LIND). It is an example of how the usual Ilkorin a-affection was prevented or reverted before [nd], as suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/lind). This word may also have had the sense “singing” in the word myrilind “nightingale = night singing”, from primitive ᴹ✶lindē.

Doriathrin [Ety/LIND.024; Ety/TIN.151-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

line

noun. pool

A noun for “pool” derived from the root ᴹ√LIN¹ (Ety/LIN¹). Its Quenya cognate ᴹQ. linya suggests its primitive form was *✶linyā [linjā]. If so, it is an example of how, after final [a] was lost, the final [j] became [i] and then became [e], as suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/line).

Doriathrin [Ety/LIN¹.009] Group: Eldamo. Published by

luth

noun. spell, charm

An unglossed Doriathrin word derived from the root ᴹ√LUK “magic, enchantment” appearing as an element in the name Lúthien “Enchantress” (Ety/LUK). Since it ends in -th [θ], it probably developed from a primitive form such as *✶luktē̆, as suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Doriathrin/luth). This primitive form is likely the basis for its Noldorin cognate N. lhûth “spell, charm” as well, so the Doriathrin word probably has a similar meaning. The primitive [kt] would have developed into [xθ] when double voiceless stops became spirants and this simplified to [θ] when double spirants became single. There was a similar development for oth < ᴹ✶oktā.

Doriathrin [Ety/LUK.029] Group: Eldamo. Published by

líw

noun. fish

A Doriathrin noun for “fish” derived from primitive ᴹ✶liñwi (Ety/LIW). It is the clearest example of how [ŋg] vanished before [w] lengthening the preceding vowel, as suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Doriathrin/líw). @@@ same development in ᴱN hiw PE13/147

Conceptual Development: This word first appeared as rejected ling (EtyAC/LIW), probably reflecting Tolkien’s uncertainty on the development of [-ŋgw-] in Ilkorin.

Doriathrin [Ety/LIW.010; EtyAC/LIW.016] Group: Eldamo. Published by

lóm

noun. echo

A Doriathrin noun for “echo” derived from the root ᴹ√LAM (Ety/LAM). Its Quenya cognate láma suggests a primitive form *✶lāmā, from which the long [ā] became [ō], as suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Doriathrin/lóm).

Doriathrin [Ety/LAM.018] Group: Eldamo. Published by

lûn

adjective. pale

A Doriathrin adjective for “pale” derived from primitive ᴹ✶lugni, a revision of the form luin that appeared in The Etymologies as published in The Lost Road (Ety/LUG², EtyAC/LUG²). The revision of [ui] >> [ū] probably reflects Tolkien’s vacillation on how primitive [g] vocalized before [m], [n] in Ilkorin. The earlier form of this word might an element in the name Draugluin “Werewolf” (LR/134), which in earlier writings was glossed “Werewolf Pale” (LB/205). The early Noldorin word ᴱN. lhui “pale” might be a precursor to it (PE13/149).

Doriathrin [Ety/LUG².009; EtyAC/LUG².019; EtyAC/LUY.006] Group: Eldamo. Published by

mablosgen

masculine name. Emptyhanded, Empty-handed

An Ilkorin precursor to Beren’s name S. Camlost “Empty-handed” (SM/311). This name appeared in The Etymologies as a combination of mâb “hand” and losgen “empty” (Ety/MAP), and was at one point changed to Ilk. Mablost (LR/405).

Doriathrin [Ety/MAP.034; LR/131.2302; LR/146.4509; LR/405.0310; LR/405.0603; LRI/Mablosgen.001; SM/311.0105; SMI/Camlost.008; SMI/Mablosgen.001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

moth

noun. pool

A Doriathrin noun for “pool”, derived from root ᴹ√MBOTH (Ety/MBOTH). Its Quenya cognate ᴹQ. motto suggests a primitive form of *✶mbottʰō. As pointed out by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Doriathrin/moth), the primitive [mb-] might be expected to have become [b-], since initial nasals usually vanished before stops in Ilkorin, as for example Ilk. bril < MBIRÍL.

Doriathrin [Ety/MBOTH.003] Group: Eldamo. Published by

radhon

noun. east

A Doriathrin word for “east”, derived from the root ᴹ√RAD “back, return” (Ety/RAD). It could have developed from primitive forms like radon or radn(ǝ), with -on developing in the second example because [o] developed between a consonant and a final [n] in Ilkorin. As noted by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Doriathrin/radhon), the sense “east” probably developed from the meaning “back” because the Elves thought of themselves as facing West when marking directions, so that East was behind them.

Doriathrin [Ety/RAD.005] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ring

noun. cold pool or lake (in mountains)

A Doriathrin noun meaning “cold pool or lake (in mountains)” derived from the root ᴹ√RINGI (Ety/RINGI). Its Quenya cognate ᴹQ. ringwe suggests a primitive form riñgwi [riŋgwi]. This is problematic, since [ŋg] vanished before [w] lengthening the preceding vowel, as with Dor. líw < ᴹ✶liñ(g)wi. It is possible, though, that this word developed directly from the root form riñgi [riŋgi], as suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Doriathrin/ring).

Doriathrin [Ety/RINGI.034] Group: Eldamo. Published by

rôth

noun. cave

A Doriathrin noun for “cave”, also appearing as roth, derived from primitive ᴹ✶rǭda or ᴹ✶roda (Ety/ROD, EtyAC/ROD). The [d] sprirantilized to [ð] (“dh”) as usual, then after the final vowel was lost the final [ð] became [θ] as suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Doriathrin/roth). The original sound [ð] is preserved in the plural rodhin.

Doriathrin [Ety/ROD.015; Ety/ROD.017; Ety/ROD.026; EtyAC/ROD.045] Group: Eldamo. Published by

taig

adjective. deep, steep, tall, deep

An adjective meaning “steep, tall, deep” derived from primitive ᴹ✶taikā (Ety/AYAK, EtyAC/TĀ). The [k] became [g] after a vowel as usual.

Doriathrin [Ety/AYAK.039; EtyAC/TĀ.202] Group: Eldamo. Published by

taur

noun. great wood, forest, wood (place and material), wood (place and material), forest

A noun meaning “wood (place and material), forest” derived from primitive ᴹ✶taurē after primitive final vowels vanished (Ety/TÁWAR).

Doriathrin [Ety/TÁWAR.013; Ety/TÁWAR.046] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tung

adjective. resonant (of strings), taut, tight, taut, tight (of strings: resonant)

An adjective for “taut, tight” derived from primitive ᴹ✶tungā, meaning “resonant” when referring to strings (Ety/TUG). It is an example of how the Ilkorin a-affection was prevented or reverted before [ŋg], as suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/tung).

Doriathrin [Ety/TUG.039] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tâch

adjective. firm, stiff, solid

An adjective meaning “firm, stiff, solid” derived from the root ᴹ√TAK (Ety/TAK). Since it ends with “ch” [x] instead of “g”, most likely its primitive form was *✶takka, since voiceless stops became spirants after liquids and voiceless stops in Ilkorin. Its middle vowel must have been a short [a], otherwise the long [ā] would have become [ō]. Therefore, this word is an example of how short vowels sometimes lengthened in monosyllables in Ilkorin. Both these phonetic developments were noted by Helge Fauskanger in his study of Ilkorin (AL-Ilkoring/tâch).

Doriathrin [Ety/TAK.033; EtyAC/TAK.005] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ungor

adjective. black, dark, gloomy

An adjective meaning “black, dark, gloomy” developed from the root ᴹ√UÑG (Ety/UÑG), perhaps from a primitive form *✶uñgrā̆ [uŋgrā̆] as suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/ungor): after the primitive final [a] was lost, the resulting final [r] would become syllabic and develop into [-or].

Doriathrin [Ety/UÑG.023] Group: Eldamo. Published by

urthin gwethion

place name. Mountains of Shadow

Ilkorin name for N. Eredwethion appearing in The Etymologies from the 1930s, a combination of the plural of orth “mountain” and the genitive plural of gwath “shade” (Ety/WATH, EtyAC/WATH).

Doriathrin [Ety/WATH.011; EtyAC/WATH.009] Group: Eldamo. Published by

belthronding

proper name. belthronding

Elements

WordGlossSource
belstrength-
thrônstiff-
dingsound-
BELstrongEty/BEL.001
STARstiffEty/BEL.116
DIÑGding (onomatopoeic)Ety/BEL.117
ding/dang-Ety/DING.009
Doriathrin [Ety/STARAN.012; Ety/DING.014; Ety/BEL.112] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ding

noun. sound, *twang

A noun that, together with its variant dang, was glossed “sound” (Ety/DING). Given that its root form ᴹ√DING was said to be onomatopoeic, it was probably a word for a particular kind of sound, perhaps like English “twang”, which is a gloss of several derivatives of the similar root ᴹ√TING/TANG.

Doriathrin [Ety/DING.009] Group: Eldamo. Published by

lóminorthin

place name. Echoing Mountains

Ilkorin name of N. Eredlómin, from which the Noldorin name was derived (Ety/LAM). It is a combination of lómen “echoing” and the plural of orth “mountain”.

Doriathrin [Ety/GLAM.030; Ety/LAM.025] Group: Eldamo. Published by

adhum

noun. bridge

A Doriathrin word for “bridge” appearing the Addenda and Corrigenda to The Etymologies (EtyAC/YAT), likely a derivative of the same primitive form ᴹ✶yatmā as its cognates in other languages. An earlier deleted form iaðum may indicate Tolkien’s uncertainty over the development of initial [j] (= “y”) in Ilkorin; elsewhere the rule is that initial [j] vanished.

Doriathrin [EtyAC/YAT.008; EtyAC/YAT.043] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ascar

adjective. violent, rushing, impetious

An adjective meaning “violent, rushing, impetious”, appearing as the river name Ascar (Ety/SKAR).

Doriathrin [Ety/SKAR.037] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ascar

place name. ascar

A river marked Ilkorin in the Etymologies (Ety/SKAR), simply ascar “violent, rushing, impetious” used as a name.
Variations of the word: Ascar, Asgar.

Elements

WordGlossSource
ascarviolent-
Doriathrin [Ety/SKAR.041; LRI/Ascar.001; SM/135.0402; SM/325.2912; SMI/Ascar.001; SM/325.2712; SMI/Ascar.005] Group: Eldamo. Published by

beleg

masculine name. Strong
Doriathrin [Ety/BEL.020; LRI/Beleg.001; RSI/Beleg.001; SMI/Beleg.001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

brith

noun. broken stones, gravel

A word for “broken stones, gravel” developed from the primitive form ᴹ✶b’rittē or *✶birittē (Ety/BIRÍT), because in Ilkorin unstressed initial syllables reduced to favored clusters.

Doriathrin [Ety/BIRÍT.009] Group: Eldamo. Published by

garth

noun. realm

A Doriathrin noun meaning “realm” derived from the root ᴹ√ƷAR or possibly ᴹ√GAR (Ety/ƷAR), perhaps from a primitive form ɣarda or garda given its cognates ᴹQ. arda and N. ardh. Likely the [d] became [ð] after [r] and then the final [ð] became [θ], a derivation that is supported by the (rejected) earlier entry Dor. garth (dh) in The Etymologies (EtyAC/ƷARA). These probable developments were noted by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Doriathrin/garth).

Doriathrin [Ety/ƷAR.052; EtyAC/GAR.033; EtyAC/ƷARA.029] Group: Eldamo. Published by

gwath

noun. shade

A noun glossed “shade” (shadow) derived from the root ᴹ√WATH (Ety/WATH). It is a clear example of how initial [w] became [gw] in Ilkorin, and it appears in several names: Thuringwethil “(Woman of) Secret Shadow” and Urthin Gwethion (unglossed but presumably “*Mountains of Shadow”).

Doriathrin [Ety/WATH.008; EtyAC/WATH.010] Group: Eldamo. Published by

gwine

noun. evening

A noun for “evening” derived from primitive ᴹ✶winyā [winjā], but it was rejected along with its root ᴹ√WIN (Ety/WIN). It is the clearest example of the Ilkorin phonetic development whereby final [j] became [i] and then became [e], since Tolkien indicated the intermediate forms before rejecting the word.

Doriathrin [Ety/WIN.026] Group: Eldamo. Published by

laudh

noun. licking up (food or drink), gluttonous eating

@@@

Doriathrin [PE19/045.2606] Group: Eldamo. Published by

talum

noun. ground, floor

A noun meaning “ground, floor” derived from the root ᴹ√TALAM (Ety/TALAM). Most likely it developed from primitive *✶talama, first losing the second [a] due to the Ilkorin syncope and the final [a] when short final vowels vanished, after which the resulting final [m] became syllabic and developed into [um]. These developments were suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/talum).

Doriathrin [Ety/TAL.039; Ety/TAL.041] Group: Eldamo. Published by

thorn

noun. eagle

A noun for “eagle” derived from the root ᴹ√THÓRON (Ety/THOR). Its cognates ᴹQ. soron and N. thoron suggest a primitive form *✶thoronē, where the middle [o] was lost due to the Ilkorin syncope. Its plural form is not thurin as printed in The Lost Road, but is actually thurnin matching its singular (EtyAC/THOR), as predicted by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/thorn).

Doriathrin [Ety/THOR.038; Ety/THOR.040; Ety/THOR.052-2; EtyAC/THOR.017] Group: Eldamo. Published by

(n)gôl

adjective. wise, magical

A Doriathrin adjective for “wise, magical” derived from the root ᴹ√ÑGOL (Ety/ÑGOL, THIN). In an earlier version of this entry, the forms were ngûl and gûl, but these were rejected (EtyAC/ÑGOL). It may be that Tolkien was considering making this another case where long [ō] became [ū] in Ilkorin, but he rejected the idea. In the entry for ÑGOL in The Etymologies, it appeared as both ngôl and gôl; the first of seems to be a variant of the usual rule that initial [ŋg] became [g] in Ilkorin.

Doriathrin [Ety/ÑGOL.040; Ety/THIN.029; EtyAC/ÑGOL.026; EtyAC/ÑGOL.075; EtyAC/THIN.007] Group: Eldamo. Published by

cwên

noun. small gull, petrel, sea-bird

A noun meaning “small gull, petrel, sea-bird” derived from primitive ᴹ✶kwǣnē (EtyAC/KWǢ, PE22/32), an example of how primitive [ǣ] became [ē] in Ilkorin. In the Etymologies, this word was marked as Ilkorin (EtyAC/KWǢ), while in Tolkien’s description of the “Fëanorian Alphabet”, it was marked as Falathrin (PE22/32).

Doriathrin [EtyAC/KWǢ.008; PE22/032.1008] Group: Eldamo. Published by

dorthonion

place name. Land of Pines
Doriathrin [Ety/THŌN.025; LR/145.3108; LR/145.3109; LR/257.1708; LR/257.1803; LR/405.3301; LRI/Dorthonion.001; LRI/Dorthonion.004; SMI/Dorthonion.001; TII/Dorthonion.001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

gôl

adjective. wise, magical
Doriathrin Group: Eldamo. Published by

nivrost

place name. West Vale, West Vale, West-dales, West-dales

Ilkorin precursor to S. Nevrast translated “West Vale” (LR/259). In The Etymologies, it was translated “West-dales” and given as a combination of nivon “west” and rost “plain, wide land between mountains” (Ety/NIB, ROS²).

Doriathrin [Ety/NIB.022; Ety/ROS².010; EtyAC/NIB.032; LR/145.2007; LR/145.2008; LR/256.4403; LR/256.4409; LR/259.3610; LR/266.3606; LRI/Nevrast.005; LRI/Nivrost.001; LRI/Nivrost.018; PMI/Nivrost.001; WJ/197.0102; WJI/Nevrast.013] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ado

adjective. double

An adjective meaning “double” derived from the primitive root for two: ᴹ√AT (Ety/AT(AT)). The entry includes both intermediate and final forms adu and ado. Its Quenya cognate atwa indicates a primitive form *✶atwā, so this word is the clearest evidence that final [w] became [u] and final [u] became [o] in Ilkorin.

Doriathrin [Ety/AT(AT).040] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aman

noun. mother

Ilkorin for “mother” (Ety/AM¹), also appearing in its plural form emnin (EtyAC/AM¹).

Doriathrin [Ety/AM¹.009; Ety/AM¹.011; EtyAC/AM¹.005] Group: Eldamo. Published by

dolmed

place name. Wet Head, Wet-head
Doriathrin [Ety/MIZD.024; Ety/NDOL.029; LR/146.2607; LR/146.2707; LR/278.4303; LR/278.4306; LRI/Dolm.001; LRI/Dolm.011; SM/232.1001; SM/232.1102; SMI/Dolm.001; SMI/Dolmed.001; SMI/Dolmed.007; WJI/Dolmed.011] Group: Eldamo. Published by

lómen

adjective. echoing

A Doriathrin adjective for “echoing”, a combination of lóm “echo” and the adjective suffix -en (Ety/LAM). Its Quenya cognate lámina suggests a primitive form *✶lāminā, from which the long [ā] became [ō] and the -en developed due to Ilkorin a-affection, as suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Doriathrin/lómen).

Conceptual Development: Tolkien first wrote lómin (EtyAC/LAM), perhaps indicating some uncertainty on the exact functioning of Ilkorin a-affection on Tolkien’s part. In the North Sindarin dialect that was in some ways the conceptual successor to Ilkorin, final [a] did not mutate preceding vowels.

Doriathrin [Ety/LAM.020; EtyAC/LAM.016] Group: Eldamo. Published by

naugol

noun. Dwarf

A Doriathrin word for “Dwarf” derived from the root ᴹ√NAUK- or NAWAK (Ety/NAUK). Tolkien said that it was a diminutive form, not a direct cognate of ᴹQ. nauko or N. naug. It may be derived from a primitive form such as *✶naukle, as suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Doriathrin/naugol), though there isn’t enough evidence to determine the original final vowel, since primitive final vowels vanished in Ilkorin. The final -ol appeared because [o] developed between a consonant and final [l] in Ilkorin.

Its genitive form naugla appears as an element in Dor. Nauglamír “Necklace of the Dwarves” (Ety/NAUK).

Doriathrin [Ety/NAUK.021-1; Ety/NAUK.056] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ngorth

noun. horror

A Doriathrin noun for “horror” derived from the root ᴹ√ÑGÓROTH (Ety/ÑGOROTH). Its Noldorin cognate N. goroth indicates a primitive form *✶ŋgorotʰo, where the second o was lost due to the Ilkorin syncope. Ordinarily, an initial ng- became g- in Ilkorin, as noted by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Doriathrin/ngorth), and ngorth seems to be a variation on this rule.

Doriathrin [Ety/ÑGOROTH.039] Group: Eldamo. Published by

telf

noun. silver

A noun for “silver” derived from the root ᴹ✶KYÉLEP (Ety/KYELEP), most likely from a primitive form *✶kyelepē [kjelepē]. In Ilkorin, the initial [t] developed from [kj] because initial palatalized velars became dentals, the middle [e] vanished due to the Ilkorin syncope, and the [p] became [f] because voiceless stops became spirants after liquids (like [l]). These developments were all suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/telf).

Doriathrin [Ety/KYELEP.065] Group: Eldamo. Published by

espalass

noun. foaming (?fall)

A noun derived from the root ᴹ√SPÁLAS and glossed “foaming (?fall)”; the second word in the gloss is unclear (Ety/PHAL). It was marked as Ilkorin (EtyAC/PHAL). Apparently the initial [sp-] became syllabic [ṣp-] and then became [esp-].

Doriathrin [Ety/PHAL.066; EtyAC/PHAL.007] Group: Eldamo. Published by

gwelo

noun. air, lower air

A noun for “air” or “the lower air”, derived from the same primitive form ᴹ✶wilwā as its Quenya equivalent ᴹQ. Wilwa (Ety/WIL). Here the initial [w] became [gw]. Furthermore, after the final [a] was lost, the final [w] became [u] and then became [o], as suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/gwelo).

Conceptual Development: In the Addenda and Corrigenda to The Etymologies, Carl Hostetter and Patrick Wynne indicated the Tolkien revised this form to gwelm at the same time as he change its primitive to ᴹ✶wilmā and the Quenya form to ᴹQ. Wilma (EtyAC/WIL). This entry keeps the earlier Ilkorin form gwelo because Tolkien never revised ᴹQ. Wilwa in the narratives of this period.

Doriathrin [Ety/WIL.035; EtyAC/WIL.025] Group: Eldamo. Published by

mir(nang)eluið

proper name. mir(nang)eluið

A rejected and hard-to-analyze Ilkorin name for the Silmarils appearing in the Etymologies from the 1930s, revised to N. Mîr in Geleidh (EtyAC/MIR). It seems to contain mîr “jewel”.

Elements

WordGlossSource
mîrjewel-
?--
Doriathrin [EtyAC/MIR.035] Group: Eldamo. Published by

muilin

adjective. secret, veiled

A Doriathrin adjective meaning “secret, veiled” derived from root ᴹ√MUY (Ety/MUY), apparently a combination of muil “vagueness” and the adjective-suffix -in.

Doriathrin [Ety/MBOTH.019; Ety/MUY.009] Group: Eldamo. Published by

(n)gold

noun. one of the wise folk, Gnome

A Doriathrin name for the ᴹQ. Noldo from the same primitive root ᴹ√ÑGÓLOD (Ety/ÑGOLOD). In the entry for ÑGOLOD in The Etymologies, it appeared as (n)gold, indicating a variation of the usual rule that initial [ŋg] became [g] in Ilkorin. The second [o] of the primitive form was lost due to the Ilkorin syncope. Its genitive form golda also appeared as an element in the name Goldamir “*Noldo-jewel” = Silmaril.

Doriathrin [Ety/ÑGOLOD.022; Ety/ÑGOLOD.049-1] Group: Eldamo. Published by

brithon

adjective. pebbly

An Ilkorin adjective meaning “pebbly” used for the river name Brithon (Ety/BIRÍT). It seems to be a combination of brith “broken stones, gravel” and an adjective suffix -on.

Doriathrin Group: Eldamo. Published by

brithon

place name. Pebbly
Doriathrin [Ety/BIRÍT.016; SMI/Brithon.001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

caun

adjective. bowed, bow-shaped, bent

An adjective meaning “bowed, bow-shaped, bent” developed from the primitive form ᴹ✶kuʒnā (Ety/KUƷ). The middle diphthong went through various sound changes as indicated in The Etymologies. First the [u] became [o] preceding the final [a] (kogna), then the [g] (from ✶ʒ) vocalized to [u] before the [n] (coun) and finally the diphthong [ou] became [au] (caun).

Doriathrin [Ety/KUƷ.028] Group: Eldamo. Published by

eglamar

place name. Elvenhome
Doriathrin [Ety/ELED.089; LRI/Eglamar.001; SMI/Eglamar.001; SMI/Eldamar.003] Group: Eldamo. Published by

elrond

masculine name. Vault of Heaven
Doriathrin [Ety/ROD.048] Group: Eldamo. Published by

hest

noun. captain

A noun glossed “captain” derived from the root ᴹ√KHES “command” (EtyAC/KHES). The language of this word is unclear; Carl Hostetter and Patrick Wynne indicated it might be ?Bel. for Beleriandic = Ilkorin.

Doriathrin [EtyAC/KHES.006] Group: Eldamo. Published by

istil

noun. silver light, starlight

A Doriathrin noun for “silver light, starlight”, also given as istel, which developed from the root ᴹ√SIL (Ety/SIL). Tolkien said that it was probably originally a (ancient?) Quenya word learned from Melian. This apparently this means its development was unusual. Along with the identical Istil “Moon”, it is the only Ilkorin noun with a medial [st]. Helge Fauskanger suggested it must have developed by a strengthening of [s] to [st]. It may also be another example of a development from syllabic [ṣ], though elsewhere initial [s] became [es] before voiceless stops.

Doriathrin [Ety/SIL.077] Group: Eldamo. Published by

saum

noun. drinking-vessel

A noun meaning “drinking-vessel” derived from primitive ᴹ✶sukmā (Ety/SUK). This word went through a number of phonetic changes:

  • the [k] became [g] before the nasal [m]
  • the [u] shifted to [o] before the final [a]
  • the [g] vocalized to [u] before the nasal [m] producing the diphthong [ou]
  • the resulting diphthong [ou] became [au]

Helge Fauskanger originally suggested these developments (AL-Ilkorin/saum).

Doriathrin [Ety/SUK.030] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tag-

verb. to fix, construct, make

A verb meaning “to fix, construct, make” derived from the root ᴹ√TAK, attested only its 3rd singular present tense form taga “he fixes, constructs, makes” (Ety/TAK). The [k] became [g] after a vowel as usual.

Doriathrin [Ety/TAK.028] Group: Eldamo. Published by

bel

noun. strength

An Ilkorin word for “strength”, developed from primitive ᴹ✶belē (Ety/BEL), an example of how final vowels vanished in Ilkorin.

Doriathrin [Ety/BEL.017] Group: Eldamo. Published by

brilthor

place name. Glittering Torrent
Doriathrin [Ety/MBIRIL.020; Ety/THOR.076; LRI/Brilthor.001; SMI/Brilthor.001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

côm

noun. sickness

A noun meaning “sickness” (Ety/KWAM). Its Quenya cognate ᴹQ. qáme indicates a primitive form *✶kwāmē, so this word is an example of how initial [kwo] became [ko] after the primitive vowel [ā] became [ō]. Both these developments were noted by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/côm).

Conceptual Development: This word is nearly identical to earlier Gnomish côma “disease, illness” before Tolkien revised the phonological history of the Noldorin language so that [kw] became [p].

Doriathrin [Ety/KWAM.008] Group: Eldamo. Published by

eglorest

place name. eglorest

Variations of the word: Eglorest, Eldorest, Eglarest.

Elements

WordGlossSource
restcut-
EglorElf-riverSM/227.3301
Doriathrin [SM/310.2403; Ety/ELED.090; Ety/RIS².019; LR/180.2603; LRI/Eglorest.001; MRI/Eglarest.010; SM/227.3711; SM/310.2404; SMI/Eglorest.001; SMI/Eldorest.011; SM/227.3601; SM/310.2402; SMI/Eglorest.008; SMI/Eldorest.001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

esgar

noun. reed-bed, shore

A noun for “reed-bed”, apparently an elaboration of Ilk. esg¹ “reed” (Ety/ESEK). In a hastily written entry in The Etymologies, a similar form esgar was glossed “shore” as a derivative of the root ᴹ√SKAR², but with no language specified (EtyAC/SKAR²). If it was Ilkorin, it probably underwent the same development as esgar¹ “wound”. Both these words appeared to have been coined to explain the name of the town Esgaroth from the Hobbit.

Doriathrin [Ety/ESEK.005; EtyAC/SKAR².008] Group: Eldamo. Published by

gwo-

prefix. together

An archaic prefix meaning “together” derived from primitive ᴹ✶wō̆- (Ety/WŌ). It was lost because it coalesced with the preposition go “from”. As such, it is the clearest example of how initial [gwo] became [go] in Ilkorin.

Doriathrin [Ety/WŌ.143] Group: Eldamo. Published by

lúthien

feminine name. Enchantress
Doriathrin [Ety/LUK.014; Ety/LUK.031; LRI/Lúthien.001; PE21/60.0803; RSI/Lúthien.001; SDI1/Lúthien.001; SDI2/Lúthien.001; SMI/Lúthien.001; TII/Lúthien.001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ngorthin

adjective. horrible

A Doriathrin adjective meaning “horrible”, a combination of ngorth “horror” with the adjective suffix -in (Ety/ÑGOROTH).

Doriathrin [Ety/ÑGOROTH.034] Group: Eldamo. Published by

radhrost

place name. East Vale, East-vale

Ilkorin precursor to S. Talath Rhúnen translated “East Vale” (LR/265). In The Etymologies, it was given as a combination of radhon “east” and rost “plain, wide land between mountains” (Ety/RAD, ROS²).

Doriathrin [Ety/RAD.018; Ety/ROS².012; LR/265.4103; LRI/Radhrost.001; WJI/Radhrost.001; WJI/Talath Rhúnen.005] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ungol

noun. darkness

A noun for “darkness” developed from the root ᴹ√UÑG (Ety/UÑG), perhaps from a primitive form *✶uñglē̆ [uŋglē̆] as suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/ungol): after the primitive final [e] was lost, the resulting final [l] would become syllabic and develop into [-ol].

Doriathrin [Ety/UÑG.021] Group: Eldamo. Published by

rîm

noun. edge, hem, border

A Doriathrin noun meaning “edge, hem, border” derived from the root ᴹ√ (Ety/RĪ). Its Quenya cognate ᴹQ. ríma suggests a primitive form *✶rīmā, where the primitive final vowel vanished in Ilkorin.

Doriathrin [Ety/RĪ.008; EtyAC/RĪ.010] Group: Eldamo. Published by

thavon

noun. carpenter, wright, builder

A noun meaning “carpenter, wright, builder” derived from primitive ᴹ✶stabnō (Ety/STAB). The initial [s] spirantalized the following [t] to [θ] (“th”), while the [b] spirantalized to [v] after a vowel, and [n] became syllabic, developing into [-on] after it became final. These developments were all suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/thavon).

Doriathrin [Ety/STAB.045] Group: Eldamo. Published by

esgalduin

place name. River under Veil
Doriathrin [Ety/DUI.007; Ety/EZGE.011; Ety/SKAL¹.056; EtyAC/DUI.017; LRI/Esgalduin.001; SMI/Esgalduin.001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

lómendor

place name. lómendor

Ilkorin name of N. Dor-lómen, from which the Noldorin name was derived (Ety/LAM). It is a combination of lómen “echoing” and dôr “land”.
Variations of the word: Lómindor.

Elements

WordGlossSource
lómenechoing-
dôrland-
Doriathrin [Ety/LAM.024; EtyAC/LAM.018] Group: Eldamo. Published by

rhass

noun. precipice

A Doriathrin noun for “precipice” derived from primitive ᴹ✶khrassē (EtyAC/KHARÁS), an example of how initial [x] unvoiced following [l], [r], [w] in Ilkorin.

Doriathrin [EtyAC/KHARÁS.007] Group: Eldamo. Published by

taiglin

place name. Deep-pool

Ilkorin precursor to S. Taeglin in the Silmarillion drafts from the 1930s (SM/127, LR/260). In The Etymologies it was translated “Deep-pool” and given as a combination of taig “deep” and shortened form of line “pool” (EtyAC/TĀ, Ety/LIN¹).

Doriathrin [Ety/LIN¹.013; EtyAC/TĀ.213; LRI/Taiglin.001; SMI/Taiglin.001; WJI/Taiglin.001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

boron

noun/adjective. steadfast, steadfast, trusty man, faithful vassal, trusty man, faithful vassal

A word meaning “steadfast, trusty man, faithful vassal” developed from the primitive form ᴹ✶bóron- (Ety/BOR). Because the initial syllable was stressed in the primitive form, the initial [bor-] did not reduce to [br-] as it did when the primitive vowel was unstressed. The glosses seem to indicate that it could be used as an adjective “steadfast” or a noun “trusty man, faithful vassal”. However, it is possible that the first part of the gloss is meant to read “steadfast/trusty man”, so that the word is only an noun.

Doriathrin [Ety/BOR.042; Ety/BOR.044] Group: Eldamo. Published by

gold

noun. one of the wise folk, Gnome
Doriathrin Group: Eldamo. Published by

brithombar

place name. Brithon-home
Doriathrin [Ety/BIRÍT.020; LR/180.2602; LRI/Brithombar.001; SMI/Brithombar.001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

erdh

noun. seed, germ

A noun meaning “seed, germ” derived from primitive ᴹ✶eredē (Ety/ERÉD). The middle [e] was lost due to the Ilkorin syncope, and afterwards the [d] became [ð] after [r], as suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/erdh).

Doriathrin [Ety/ERÉD.011; EtyAC/ERÉD.012] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ermabuin

masculine name. One-handed

Predecessor to the name S. Erchamion. In The Etymologies, the form Ermab(r)in “One-handed” was marked Ilkorin (Ety/MAP), and the similar form Ermabuin from the narratives may also be Ilkorin, since it appeared beside the Ilkorin name Mablosgen “Empty-handed” (LR/131). This name is a compound of er “one”, mâb “hand” and a variation of the adjective suffix -en. The u might be explained as a fossilized dual element [u], but the absence of this vowel in The Etymologies may mean that Tolkien rejected it in the Ilkorin form of the name.

Doriathrin [Ety/MAP.028; EtyAC/MAP.029; LR/131.2206; LR/146.4502; LR/405.0403; LRI/Ermabuin.001; SM/310.4005; SMI/Erchamion.008; SMI/Ermabwed.009] Group: Eldamo. Published by

go

preposition. from, from, away, from, away; patronymics, patronymic

A preposition “from, away” marked as both Ilkorin (Ety/ƷŌ̆; PE21/60) and Doriathrin (EtyAC/ƷŌ̆). It developed from primitive ᴹ✶ʒō̆ (Ety/WŌ), with the initial [ɣ] becoming [g]. It was also used as patronymic, as in go-Thingol “*child of Thingol” (Ety/ƷŌ̆).

Conceptual Development: This preposition may be a restoration of the Gnomish patronymic G. go-².

Doriathrin [Ety/ƷŌ̆.026; Ety/WŌ.146; EtyAC/ƷŌ̆.008; PE21/60.0708] Group: Eldamo. Published by

legol

adjective. nimble, active, running free

An Ilkorin adjective meaning “nimble, active, running free” developed from the root ᴹ√LEK, an element in the river name Legolin (Ety/LEK). It probably developed from a primitive form *✶leklā: after the primitive final [a] was lost, the resulting final [l] became syllabic and developed into [-ol], as suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/legol).

Conceptual Development: Tolkien did not revise the river name Legolin after abandoning the Ilkorin language, so it is possible he reconceived this word as Sindarin. Its phonetic development from *✶leklā would have produced the same result in Noldorin/Sindarin.

Doriathrin [Ety/LEK.024] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nivrim

place name. West-march
Doriathrin [Ety/NIB.019; Ety/RĪ.011; EtyAC/NIB.031; LR/261.4207; LRI/Nivrim.001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ber

noun. valiant man, warrior

A noun meaning “valiant man, warrior” developed from primitive ᴹ✶berō (Ety/BER) after the primitive final vowel vanished in Ilkorin.

Doriathrin [Ety/BER.030] Group: Eldamo. Published by

esg

noun. reed, sedge, sedge, sedge, reed

A noun meaning “sedge” derived from the root ᴹ√ESEK (Ety/ESEK), probably from a primitive form *✶eseke. The middle [e] was lost due to the Ilkorin syncope, and afterwards the [esk] became [esg], as suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/esg).

Doriathrin [Ety/ESEK.003; EtyAC/ESEK.012] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tim

noun. spark, star

A noun for “star”, more literally meaning “spark” derived from primitive ᴹ✶tinmē (Ety/TIN). As suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/tim), probably the primitive [nm] became [mm] in Ilkorin to produce the final form.

Conceptual Development: Edward Kloczko suggested that Tolkien later reused this word as North Sindarin tim with the same meaning (Tyalië Tyelelliéva #9).

Doriathrin [Ety/TIN.097] Group: Eldamo. Published by

esgal

noun. screen, hiding, roof of leaves

A noun meaning “screen, hiding, roof of leaves” derived from the root ᴹ√SKAL¹ (Ety/SKAL¹). Apparently the initial [sk-] became syllabic [ṣk-], which then became [esk-]. Afterwards the [esk] became [esg].

Doriathrin [Ety/SKAL¹.035] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tell

noun. close, end, last part

A noun meaning “close, end, last part” derived from the root ᴹ√TELES (EtyAC/TELES). Its Quenya cognates ᴹQ. telle and ᴹQ. tella (< ᴹ✶télesā) suggest a primitive form of *✶telesē. The middle [e] would have vanished due to the Ilkorin syncope, after which apparently the [ls] became [ll], though this is the only example of this change.

Doriathrin [EtyAC/TELES.010] Group: Eldamo. Published by

dim

noun. gloom, gloom, sadness

A noun meaning “gloom, sadness” from the primitive form ᴹ✶dimbē (Ety/DEM).

Conceptual Development: The root of this word in The Etymologies was first written ᴹ√DIM, rejected and replaced by ᴹ√DEM (EtyAC/DEM). As pointed out by Helge Fauskanger, the primitive forms could only be derived from the root ᴹ√DIM (AL-Ilkorin/dem), so it seems that Tolkien did not carry through with the revision of ᴹ√DIM >> ᴹ√DEM.

In an earlier version of the entry, there is a primitive form ᴹ✶dembē > Ilk. dim, so perhaps Tolkien was considering an alternate phonetic development, a parallel for [mb] to the rule that [e], [o] became [i], [u] before [nn], [nd], [ŋg]. Maybe Tolkien rejected this rule for [mb] and reverted back to the root form ᴹ√DIM, but neglected to revert the root in the entry itself.

Doriathrin [Ety/DEM.009; EtyAC/DEM.023] Group: Eldamo. Published by

esg

noun. rustle, noise of leaves

A rejected noun meaning “rustle, noise of leaves” derived from the root ᴹ√EZGE (Ety/EZGE). Its (rejected) Quenya cognate ᴹQ. eske indicates a primitive form *✶eseke, despite the root form. If so, middle [e] was lost due to the Ilkorin syncope, and afterwards the [esk] became [esg].

Doriathrin [Ety/EZGE.009] Group: Eldamo. Published by

gwing

noun. spindrift, flying spray

A noun for “spindrift, flying spray” derived from primitive ᴹ✶wingē (Ety/WIG). Here the initial [w] became [gw].

Doriathrin [Ety/WIG.023] Group: Eldamo. Published by

mêd

adjective. wet

Mêd is a Doriathrin adjective for “wet” derived from primitive ᴹ✶mizdā, appearing as an element in the mountain name Dolmed “Wet Head” (Ety/MIZD). First the short [i] became [e] preceding the final [a], then the [e] lengthened due to the vocalization of [z] before voiced stops. It is unclear, though, whether the vowel lengthened directly (as suggested by Helge Fauskanger, AL-Doriathrin/méd), or whether it first became the diphthong [ei] after which [ei] became [ē] (the theory used here).

Conceptual Development: After abandoning the Ilkorin language, Tolkien retained the name Dolmed. It is possible Tolkien reconceived of this word as Sindarin, but if so, its Sindarin form should perhaps be *mêdh, not mêd, since voiced stops became spirants after vowels in Sindarin. In Silmarillion map revisions from the 1950s-60s, Tolkien did write Dolmeð (WJ/183 section F14), but he never made the corresponding change in the narratives.

Neo-Sindarin: For the purposes of Neo-Sindarin writing, it would be better to use one of the other attested Sindarin words for “wet”, such as nîn¹.

Doriathrin [Ety/MIZD.014; EtyAC/MIZD.013] Group: Eldamo. Published by

oth

noun. war

A noun for “war” derived from primitive ᴹ✶oktā (Ety/OKTĀ). It is a good example of how double spirants became single in Ilkorin, in this case [kt] > [xθ] (or [θθ]) > [θ].

Doriathrin [Ety/OKTĀ.010] Group: Eldamo. Published by

rest

noun. cut

A noun meaning “a cut” derived from the root ᴹ√RIS (Ety/RIS²). Its Quenya cognate ᴹQ. rista suggests a primitive form *✶ristā, where the [i] became [e] due to Ilkorin a-affection, as noted by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/rest).

Doriathrin [Ety/RIS².017] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tal

noun. foot

A noun for “foot” derived from the ᴹ√TAL¹ (Ety/TAL). It is unusual in that its plural form tel involved Ilkorin i-affection but not the suffix -in, as noted by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/tal).

Doriathrin [Ety/TAL.012; Ety/TAL.014] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tass

noun. pin

A noun for “pin” derived from primitive ᴹ✶taksē (Ety/TAK), where the [ks] became [ss] because medial voiceless stops became [s] before [s] in Ilkorin.

Doriathrin [Ety/TAK.054] Group: Eldamo. Published by

thall

adjective. steep, falling steeply (of river)

An adjective meaning “steep, falling steeply (of river)” derived from primitive ᴹ✶stalrā (Ety/STAL). The initial [s] spirantalized the following [t] to [θ] (“th”), and the [lr] became [ll], as suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/thall).

Doriathrin [Ety/STAL.004] Group: Eldamo. Published by

argad

noun. ‘outside the fence’, the exterior, the outside, exterior, outside, (lit.) outside the fence

A Doriathrin noun meaning “the exterior, the outside”, literally “outside the fence” (Ety/GAT(H)). It is a combination of ar- “outside” and gad “fence”. The entry in The Etymologies also had a rejected variant argadon (EtyAC/GAT(H)).

Doriathrin [Ety/GAT(H).063; EtyAC/GAT(H).014] Group: Eldamo. Published by

benn

noun. husband

A noun meaning “husband” developed from primitive ᴹ✶besnō (Ety/BES), the only example of how [sn] became [nn] in Ilkorin.

Doriathrin [Ety/BES.028] Group: Eldamo. Published by

duin

noun. water, river

A noun meaning “water, river”, simply an elaboration of its root ᴹ√DUY (Ety/DUI).

Doriathrin [Ety/DUI.003] Group: Eldamo. Published by

dôn

noun. back

A Doriathrin word for “back” explicitly marked as a noun (Ety/NDAN). Its primitive form might have been *✶ndān, so that the primitive long [ā] became [ō] and the initial nasal [n] was lost before the stop (as suggested by Helge Fauskanger, AL-Doriathrin/dôn).

Doriathrin [Ety/NDAN.015] Group: Eldamo. Published by

dôr

noun. land

A Doriathrin noun for “land” (EtyAC/NDOR) apparently from primitive ᴹ✶ndorē (Ety/NDOR). If its primitive form indeed had a short [o], then this word may be an example of how short vowels sometimes lengthened in monosyllables in Ilkorin.

Doriathrin [Ety/THŌN.025-1; EtyAC/NDOR.011] Group: Eldamo. Published by

egla

noun. Star-folk, Elf

A Doriathrin word for “Elf” (Ety/ELED), also attested in its class-plural form Eglath which was marked as both Doriathrin (Ety/ELED) and Ilkorin (Ety/GAT(H), LED). This word developed from the inverted primitive form ᴹ✶edel[a] of the root ᴹ√ELED (Ety/ELED). First the middle [e] was lost because of the Ilkorin syncope, after which the resulting [dl] became [gl].

This word was a frequent element in Ilkorin names. As noted by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Doriathrin/Eglador), ordinarily the primitive final [a] would be lost in Ilkorin. Perhaps it was preserved in Ilk. Egla by analogy with the various names where it appeared, or perhaps Egla was actually the genitival form (of unattested *Egol as Ilk. legol) with the suffix -a(n).

Conceptual Development: In the Gnomish Lexicon from the 1910s, G. Egla was the Gnomish word for “Elf”. In The Etymologies from the 1930s, Tolkien first wrote Ilk. Eld for “Elf”, derived from the uninverted form of the root. This was rejected in favor of Ilk. Egla, perhaps an attempt to preserve the earlier Gnomish form.

Doriathrin [Ety/ELED.086; Ety/ELED.087; Ety/GAT(H).025; Ety/LED.047] Group: Eldamo. Published by

garm

noun. wolf

A Doriathrin noun for “wolf” derived from the root ᴹ√ÑGAR(A)M (Ety/ÑGARAM), probably from a primitive form *✶ŋgaramō given its Quenya and Noldorin cognates ᴹQ. narmo and N. garaf (as suggested by Helge Fauskanger, AL-Doriathrin/garm). If so, the second a was lost due to the Ilkorin Syncope, and the the initial [ŋg-] simplified to [g-]. The initial syllable of the primitive form was probably stressed, since the initial [ŋgar-] did not simplify to [ŋgr-].

Conceptual Development: An earlier version of this entry had the root ᴹ√ƷARAM, but this produced the same form Dor. garm in Doriathrin [Ilkorin] since initial [ɣ] became [g].

Doriathrin [Ety/ƷARAM.003; Ety/ÑGAR(A)M.003; EtyAC/ƷARAM.021] Group: Eldamo. Published by

garon

noun. lord

A Doriathrin noun for “lord” derived from the root ᴹ√ƷAR or possibly ᴹ√GAR (Ety/ƷAR), perhaps from a primitive form *✶ɣarān-. If so, the initial [ɣ] became [g], while the long [ā] became [ō] and then shortened to [o] in the final syllable of a polysyllable.

Conceptual Development: An earlier version of this entry had Dor. garan, which likely had a short [a] in the second syllable which was preserved. Since it did not undergo the Ilkorin Syncope, the primitive form likely either had no final vowel or ended in a short [a], so the second [a] was in the final syllable, which seems to have prevented the syncope; this theory is supported by its Quenya cognate ᴹQ. haran.

Doriathrin [Ety/ƷAR.058; EtyAC/ƷAR.054; EtyAC/ƷARA.027] Group: Eldamo. Published by

gwen

noun. girl

A noun for “girl” derived from primitive ᴹ✶wen- (Ety/WEN). Here the initial [w] became [gw].

Doriathrin [Ety/WEN.036] Group: Eldamo. Published by

laur

noun. gold

A Doriathrin noun for “gold” developed from primitive ᴹ✶laurē, properly golden light rather than the metal (Ety/LÁWAR).

Doriathrin [Ety/LÁWAR.023] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nass

noun. web

A Doriathrin noun for “web” (Ety/NAT). Its Quenya cognate ᴹQ. natse indicates a primitive form *✶natsē, where the [ts] became [ss] because medial voiceless stops became [s] before [s] in Ilkorin.

Doriathrin [Ety/NAT.015] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nîw

noun. nose

A Doriathrin noun for “nose” derived from ᴹ✶neñwi (Ety/LIW). It is likely an example of how [ŋg] vanished before [w] lengthening the preceding vowel, especially if the [e] first became [i] before the [ŋg], as suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Doriathrin/nîw).

Doriathrin [Ety/NEÑ-WI.012] Group: Eldamo. Published by

orth

noun. mountain

A Doriathrin noun for “mountain” derived from the root ᴹ√ÓROT (Ety/ÓROT). Its Old Noldorin cognate ON. oroto suggests a primitive form *✶orotō, where the second [o] was lost due to the Ilkorin syncope [orto]. Later the [t] became [θ] (“th”) because voiceless stops became spirants after liquids and voiceless stops in Ilkorin. Both these developments were noted by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Doriathrin/orth). This word has two distinct plural forms attested: Dor. orthin (Ety/ÓROT) and Ilk. urthin (EtyAC/WATH); this could represent distinct rules for the formation of plural-nouns in the two dialects.

Doriathrin [Ety/ÓROT.031; Ety/ÓROT.033; EtyAC/WATH.009-1] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tund

adjective. tall

An adjective for “tall” derived from primitive ᴹ✶tundā (Ety/TUN). It is an example of how the Ilkorin a-affection was prevented or reverted before [nd], as suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/tund).

Doriathrin [Ety/TUN.018] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tôr

noun. king

A noun for “king” derived from primitive ᴹ✶tār(ō), also appearing in its plural form tórin (Ety/TĀ, BAL). Tolkien said that it was “only used of the legitimate kings of whole tribes”, though apparently it also survived in compounds like Torthurnion “King of Eagles” (Ety/THOR) and Balthor “Vala-king” (Ety/BAL). It is an example of how [ā] became [ō] in Ilkorin, as noted by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/tôr).

Doriathrin [Ety/BAL.088; Ety/TĀ.125; Ety/THIN.041-1; Ety/THOR.052-1; EtyAC/BAL.013] Group: Eldamo. Published by

urch

noun. goblin

A Doriathrin noun for “goblin” developed from primitive ᴹ✶orku, also attested in its plural form urchin (Ety/ÓROK). The change of [k] to [x] (“ch”) after the liquid [l] was a normal Ilkorin development, but the change of [o] to [u] is harder to explain, as noted by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Doriathrin/urch). In an earlier version of the entry Tolkien wrote Dor. orch (EtyAC/ÓROK), which is the expected form. The simplest explanation is that this form actually developed from a variant primitive form *✶urku. There is a similar issue with Dan. urc, so perhaps this variant was used by those Eldar who did not complete the journey to Valinor.

Doriathrin [Ety/ÓROK.017; Ety/ÓROK.019; EtyAC/ÓROK.031; EtyAC/ÓROK.032] Group: Eldamo. Published by

êd

feminine name. Rest

The Ilkorin name of ᴹQ. Este, developed from the same primitive form ᴹ✶ezdē (EtyAC/EZDĒ).

Doriathrin [EtyAC/EZDĒ.013; PE19/045.2809] Group: Eldamo. Published by

celon

place name. celon

Elements

WordGlossSource
celonriver-
Doriathrin [LRI/Celon.001; SMI/Celon.001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

celon

noun. river

A noun meaning “river” developed from the primitive form ᴹ✶kelun (Ety/KEL), where the final [un] became [on].

Conceptual Development: This word was initially marked as Noldorin.

Doriathrin [Ety/KEL.029; Ety/KEL.054] Group: Eldamo. Published by

cwend

noun. Elf

A Doriathrin noun meaning “Elf” derived from primitive ᴹ✶kwenedē (EtyAC/KWEN(ED)), an example of the Ilkorin syncope.

Conceptual Development: This word is nearly identical to earlier Gnomish Cwenn “Elf” before Tolkien revised the phonological history of the Noldorin language so that [kw] became [p].

Doriathrin [EtyAC/KWEN(ED).007] Group: Eldamo. Published by

duil

noun. river

A noun meaning “river”, simply an elaboration of its root ᴹ√DUY (Ety/DUI).

Doriathrin [Ety/DUI.009; EtyAC/RAMBĀ.044] Group: Eldamo. Published by

dunn

adjective. black

A Doriathrin adjective meaning “black” (Ety/DUN). Its Noldorin and Danian cognates imply development from a primitive form *✶dunnā. Since the primitive form ended in [a], the Ilkorin a-affection would ordinarily have produced **donn. However, it seems that a-affection was prevented or reversed before [nn], as suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Doriathrin/dunn).

Doriathrin [Ety/DUN.006; Ety/ÑGOROTH.036] Group: Eldamo. Published by

dûm

noun. twilight

A noun for “twilight” developed from primitive ᴹ✶dōmi (Ety/DOMO), where the long [ō] became [ū] before [m].

Doriathrin [Ety/DOMO.031] Group: Eldamo. Published by

esgar

noun. wound

A noun for “wound” derived from the root ᴹ√SKAR¹ (Ety/SKAR). Apparently the initial [sk-] became syllabic [ṣk-], which then became [esk-]. Afterwards the [esk] became [esg].

Doriathrin [Ety/SKAR.010] Group: Eldamo. Published by

gwedh

noun. bond

A noun meaning “bond” derived from primitive ᴹ✶wedā (Ety/WED). Here the initial [w] became [gw], and the [d] spirantalized to [ð].

Doriathrin [Ety/WED.010] Group: Eldamo. Published by

gwene

adjective. green

An adjective for “green” derived from the root ᴹ√GWEN (Ety/GWEN). Its Quenya cognate ᴹQ. wenya suggests its primitive form was *✶gwenyā [gwenjā]. If so, it is an example of how, after final [a] was lost, the final [j] became [i] and then became [e], as suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/gwene).

Doriathrin [Ety/GWEN.027] Group: Eldamo. Published by

gôl

noun. light

A (rejected?) Doriathrin noun for “light” derived from primitive ᴹ✶gālæ appearing in The Etymologies (Ety/KAL, EtyAC/KAL). According to Christopher Tolkien’s notes, it was part of a rejected etymology for the name Thingol, but it isn’t clear whether this noun was rejected or if it was just the etymology. Its long primitive vowel [ā] became [ō] as was the norm in Ilkorin.

Doriathrin [Ety/KAL.077; EtyAC/KAL.060] Group: Eldamo. Published by

istil

noun. Moon

The Doriathrin word for the “Moon” developed from the primitive name ᴹ✶Ithil (Ety/I²), though it is unclear how the [st] developed. Perhap it was of the same origin as istil “silver light, starlight” (Ety/SIL).

Doriathrin [Ety/I².018] Group: Eldamo. Published by

maig

noun. dough

A noun for “dough” derived from primitive ᴹ✶mazgē (Ety/MASAG), where the primitive [z] became [i] before voiced stops, as suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/maig).

Doriathrin [Ety/MASAG.028; EtyAC/MASAG.038] Group: Eldamo. Published by

môr

noun. night

A noun for “night” derived from primitive ᴹ✶mǭri (EtyAC/MOR), where the primitive [ǭ] became [ō].

Doriathrin [Ety/MOR.041] Group: Eldamo. Published by

thind

adjective. grey

An adjective for “grey” derived from primitive ᴹ✶thindi (Ety/THIN) because primitive final vowels vanished in Ilkorin.

Doriathrin [Ety/THIN.056] Group: Eldamo. Published by

thind

masculine name. thind

A shorter Ilkorin name for Ilk. Thingol appearing in the Etymologies from the 1930s (Ety/THIN). It is simply thind “grey” used as a name.

Elements

WordGlossSource
thindgrey-
Doriathrin [Ety/THIN.021] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tóril

noun. queen

A noun for “queen”, a combination of tôr “king” with the feminine suffix -il, though according to Tolkien it was used only as a title for Melian (Ety/TĀ).

Doriathrin [Ety/TĀ.188; EtyAC/TĀ.024] Group: Eldamo. Published by

usc

noun. smoke

A noun for “smoke” developed from primitive ᴹ✶us(u)kwē (Ety/USUK). In this example, the loss of the second [u] was probably very early, since it appears in all child languages. This word is a good example of how [w] vanished after medial velars in Ilkorin, as noted by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/usc).

Doriathrin [Ety/USUK.009] Group: Eldamo. Published by

dairon

masculine name. dairon

Elements

WordGlossSource
dairdair-
-onmasculine suffix-

Element in: ILK. Nan-Dairon

Doriathrin [Ety/DAY.032; LR/301.3904; LRI/Dairon.001; PM/076.0107; PMI/Daeron.006; RSI/Dairon.001; SMI/Dairon.001; TII/Dairon.001; VT42/11.2210; WJI/Dairon.001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

gangel

noun. harp

A noun meaning “harp” derived from the root ᴹ√ÑGAN(AD) (Ety/ÑGAN), probably from a primitive form *✶ngandellē based on its Quenya cognate ᴹQ. nandelle. Its plural form genglin is a good representation of the rules for plural-nouns in Ilkorin: the suffix -in, the syncope of the final vowel and mutation of other vowels. It is also an example of how primitive [nd] sometimes became [ŋg] in Ilkorin. As suggested by Helge Fauskanger, this may be due to assimilation to the preceding [g] (AL-Ilkorin/gangel).

Doriathrin [Ety/ÑGAN.043; Ety/ÑGAN.044] Group: Eldamo. Published by

gelion

adjective. bright

An adjective meaning “bright” derived from the root ᴹ√GAL¹, the basis of the river name Gelion (Ety/GYEL). There isn’t enough information to deduce its primitive form, but Helge Fauskanger suggested *✶galjānā (AL-Ilkorin/gelion), which seems reasonably plausible.

Doriathrin [Ety/GYEL.060] Group: Eldamo. Published by

gwên

noun. greenness

A noun for “greenness” derived from the root ᴹ√GWEN (Ety/GWEN).

Doriathrin [Ety/GWEN.025] Group: Eldamo. Published by

góda-

verb. to soil, stain

A verb meaning “to soil, stain” derived from primitive ᴹ✶wahtā- (Ety/WAƷ). This word underwent quite a few phonetic developments similar to those of related gôd “dirtiness, filth”, as indicated below and as described by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/góda-).

Doriathrin [Ety/WAƷ.026; EtyAC/WAƷ.007] Group: Eldamo. Published by

melian

feminine name. melian
Doriathrin [LRI/Melian.001; RSI/Melian.001; SMI/Melian.001; SMI/Wendelin.005; TII/Melian.001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

nivra-

verb. to face, go forward

A Doriathrin verb meaning “to face, go forward”, derived from the root ᴹ√NIB (Ety/NIB).

Doriathrin [Ety/NIB.012] Group: Eldamo. Published by

region

place name. Hollin
Doriathrin [Ety/ERÉK.034; LR/126.1301; LRI/Region.001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

regornion

place name. Hollin

A Doriathrin variation of Region appearing in The Etymologies from the 1930s (Ety/ÉREK). It was translated “Hollin” and appears to be the genitive plural of Ilk. regorn “holly-tree”.

Doriathrin [Ety/ERÉK.047; RSI/Regornion.001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

thalos

place name. Torrent
Doriathrin [Ety/STAL.019; LRI/Thalos.001; SMI/Thalos.001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

thalos

noun. torrent

A noun for “torrent” (Ety/STAL), apparently a combination of the adjective thall “falling steeply” and the suffix -os.

Doriathrin [Ety/STAL.011] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tuss

noun. thatch

A noun for “thatch” derived from primitive ᴹ✶tupsē (Ety/TUP), where the [ps] became [ss] because medial voiceless stops became [s] before [s] in Ilkorin.

Doriathrin [Ety/TUP.009] Group: Eldamo. Published by

(n)golo

noun. magic, lore

A Doriathrin noun for “magic, lore” from the primitive root ᴹ√ÑGOL (Ety/ÑGOL), most likely from the primitive form *✶ŋgolwe based on its Quenya cognate ᴹQ. nolwe. In the entry for ÑGOL in The Etymologies, it appeared as (n)golo, indicating a variation of the usual rule that initial [ŋg] became [g] in Ilkorin. After its final vowel was lost, the final [w] became [u], which then became [o], the only Doriathrin example of this second change.

Doriathrin [Ety/ÑGOL.044] Group: Eldamo. Published by

duilwen

place name. duilwen

Elements

WordGlossSource
duilriver-
gwenegreen-
DUYDUYEty/GWEN.031
Doriathrin [Ety/DUI.012; Ety/GWEN.030; LRI/Duilwen.001; SMI/Duilwen.001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

durgul

noun. sorcery

A Doriathrin noun for “sorcery” (Ety/ÑGOL). The elements of this word seem to be a combination of derivatives of the roots ᴹ√DOƷ and ᴹ√ÑGOL. If it were derived from such a primitive form, it would imply that in its phonological history the [o] because [u] in both syllables. This does not seem to be a general rule in Ilkorin, however: compare Ilk. dorn and (n)golo. A simpler explanation would be that it was a loan word from Noldorin: N. durgul seen in a marginal note (EtyAC/ÑGOL).

Conceptual Development: There is a rejected form dûghol in this entry of The Etymologies that may represent Tolkien’s first attempt to formulate a native Ilkorin word for “sorcery” (EtyAC/ÑGOL). Similar forms appear among the precursors to S. Dol Guldur in Lord of the Rings drafts from the 1940s: Dol Dúgol or Dol Dúghol (TI/178; WR/122). The entry also has a deleted variant form of gûl of Ilk. (n)gôl, so it may be Tolkien originally envisioned a different phonological history of [o] in Ilkorin allowing the production of words like durgul. Perhaps he added the Noldorin form durgul in the margin because he abandoned [o] > [u] in Ilkorin.

Doriathrin [Ety/ÑGOL.047; EtyAC/ÑGOL.081] Group: Eldamo. Published by

legolin

place name. legolin

Variations of the word: Legolin, Loeglin.

Elements

WordGlossSource
legolnimble-
?--
Doriathrin [Ety/LEK.030; LRI/Legolin.001; SM/135.0903; SMI/Legolin.001; SMI/Loeglin.005; SM/135.0902; SMI/Legolin.004; SMI/Loeglin.001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

morgul

noun. sorcery

A Doriathrin noun for “sorcery”, written as mor(n)gul indicating the loss of an earlier n (Ety/ÑGOL). The elements of this word seem to be a combination of derivatives of the roots ᴹ√MOR and ᴹ√ÑGOL. The u in the final element -gul is problematic phonetically, as it is in the similar word durgul. Tolkien first wrote this word as morgol (EtyAC/ÑGOL), probably reflecting this phonetic uncertainty. As with durgul, Tolkien may have resolved this uncertainty by deciding this word was Noldorin, since N. morgul appears in a marginal note in The Etymologies (EtyAC/ÑGOL).

Doriathrin [Ety/ÑGOL.048; EtyAC/ÑGOL.082] Group: Eldamo. Published by

thingol

masculine name. Grey-wise
Doriathrin [Ety/KAL.081; Ety/THIN.026; LBI/Thingol.001; LBI/Tinwelint.006; LR/215.2705; LRI/Thingol.001; LT2/051.3001; LT2I/Thingol.001; LT2I/Tinwelint.006; PE21/60.0805; PE22/041.0405; RSI/Thingol.001; SMI/Thingol.001; TII/Thingol.001; WRI/Thingol.001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

thrôn

adjective. stiff, hard

An adjective meaning “stiff, hard” derived from primitive ᴹ✶starāna (Ety/STARAN). First the unstressed vowel in the first syllable vanished to produce the favored combination [tr], after which the initial [s] spirantalized the following [t] to [θ] (“th”), while the long [ā] became [ō]. All these developments were suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/thrôn).

Doriathrin [Ety/STARAN.004] Group: Eldamo. Published by

-a(n)

suffix. genitive

The Ilkorin genitive suffix (Ety/NAUK), attested in Dor. Tor Tinduma “King of Twilight” (Ety/TIN). It might have developed from the root ᴹ√NĀ¹/ANA¹, which is the source of the Quenya genitive suffix ᴹQ. -n and the Noldorin preposition N. na “of”. Helge Fauskanger suggested instead that it developed from a suffixal form of ᴹ✶ʒō (AL-Ilkorin/-a). This second derivation seems more plausible given its plural form -ion, though the plural could also have developed from (plural) ✶ī + (genitive) ✶āna > *✶-iān(a) > -iōn > -ion. See the entry on the genitive inflection for further discussion.

Conceptual Development: This suffix and its plural are the same as the Gnomish genitive suffix -a with plural -ion (GG/10). The derivation of the Gnomish genitive is closer to Mr. Fauskanger’s suggested etymology of the Ilkorin genitive, giving further support to his theory.

Doriathrin [Ety/NAUK.029] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tog-

verb. to bring

A verb for “to bring” derived from the root ᴹ√TUK, attested only in its 3rd-singular present form toga “he brings” (Ety/TUK). Here the short [u] became [o] before the final [a] and the [k] voiced to [g] after the vowel, as suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/toga). The base form might be tug-.

Doriathrin [Ety/TUK.017] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tolda-

verb. to fetch

A verb for “to fetch” derived from primitive ᴹ✶tultā-, attested only in its 3rd-singular present form tolda “he fetches” (Ety/TUK). Here the short [u] became [o] before the final [a]. The change of [lt] to [ld] is harder to explain, since ordinarily voiceless stops became spirants after liquids in Ilkorin, as noted by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Ilkorin/tolda).

Doriathrin [Ety/TUL.033] Group: Eldamo. Published by

dior

masculine name. Successor, Thingol’s Heir
Doriathrin [Ety/NDEW.016; LRI/Dior.001; SMI/Dior.001; TII/Dior.001; WRI/Dior.001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

eglor

place name. Elf-river

An earlier name for S. Nenning, the river flowing past the haven of Eglorest, marked Ilkorin and translated “Elf-river” in The Etymologies (Ety/ELED). It is likely an elaboration of Ilk. Egla “Elf”. Earlier still the river was named Eldor (SM/227), perhaps containing the earlier (rejected) Ilkorin word Ilk. Eld “Elf”.

Doriathrin [Ety/ELED.103; Ety/RIS².027; LRI/Eglor.001; RSI/Eglor.001; SM/227.3301; SM/227.3402; SMI/Eglor.001; SMI/Eglor.004; SMI/Eldor.001; SMI/Eldor.005; SMI/Nenning.008; WJ/117.3109; WJ/117.3401; WJI/Eglahir.007] Group: Eldamo. Published by

gwilwering

noun. butterfly

A noun for “butterfly” derived from the root ᴹ√WIL (Ety/GWEN). Its Quenya cognate ᴹQ. wilwarind- suggests its primitive form was *✶wilwarinde. If so, it is an example of how [nd] sometimes became [ŋg] in Ilkorin. As suggested by Helge Fauskanger, this may be due to assimilation to the preceding [g] (AL-Ilkorin/gwilwering).

Doriathrin [Ety/WIL.066] Group: Eldamo. Published by

tiog

adjective. thick, fat

An adjective meaning “thick, fat” derived from primitive ᴹ✶tiukā (Ety/TIW), where the primitive [iu] became [io] and the [k] voiced to [g] after the vowel, as was usual in Ilkorin.

Doriathrin [Ety/TIW.014] Group: Eldamo. Published by

golo

noun. magic, lore
Doriathrin Group: Eldamo. Published by

maig

adjective. soft, pliant

An adjective meaning “soft, pliant” derived from primitive ᴹ✶mazgā (EtyAC/MASAG). It had essentially the same development as the noun maig¹ “dough” (from ᴹ✶mazgē), because in both cases the primitive final vowel vanished without further effect.

Doriathrin [EtyAC/MASAG.052] Group: Eldamo. Published by

targ

adjective. tough, stiff

An adjective meaning “tough, stiff” derived from primitive ᴹ✶targā after primitive final vowels vanished (Ety/TÁRAG).

Doriathrin [Ety/TÁRAG.013] Group: Eldamo. Published by

bril

noun. glass, crystal

A word for “glass, crystal” developed from the primitive form ᴹ✶mbiríl- (Ety/MBIRIL), because in Ilkorin unstressed initial syllables reduced to favored clusters.

Doriathrin [Ety/MBIRIL.016] Group: Eldamo. Published by

el

noun. star

A Doriathrin noun meaning “star”, a simple derivative of the root ᴹ√EL (Ety/EL).

Doriathrin [Ety/EL.009; Ety/EL.034] Group: Eldamo. Published by

arn

adjective. red

A Doriathrin adjective meaning “red” derived from the root ᴹ√YAR (Ety/YAR), likely derived from a primitive form such as *✶yarna [jarna]. It is a good example of how initial [j] vanished in Ilkorin.

Doriathrin [Ety/YAR.019] Group: Eldamo. Published by

dorn

noun. oak

A Doriathrin noun meaning “oak” derived from the primitive form ᴹ✶dóron[o] (Ety/DÓRON). The accent mark in the root indicated that the first syllable was stressed, thereby preventing the initial [dor-] from becoming [dr-]. The second [o] was lost, however, due to the Ilkorin syncope.

Doriathrin [Ety/DÓRON.009; Ety/DÓRON.011] Group: Eldamo. Published by

eld

noun. Star-folk, Elf

A rejected Doriathrin word for “Elf”, a derivation of the root ᴹ√ELED and a direct cognate of ᴹQ. Elda, also appearing in its plural form Eldin (Ety/ELED). It was replaced by Ilk. Egla derived from the inverted form of the root: ᴹ✶edel[a].

Doriathrin [Ety/ELED.060; Ety/ELED.062] Group: Eldamo. Published by

hidhum

noun. fog

A Doriathrin noun for “fog” written hiðum in The Etymologies, and derived from the primitive form ᴹ✶khithme [kʰitʰme] (Ety/KHIS, EtyAC/KHIS). This word illustrates several interesting phonetic changes in Ilkorin.

  • Both the : [kʰ-] > [x-] and [-tʰ-] > [-θ-].

Later the . Meanwhile the medial [-θ-] voiced to [-ð-] (“dh”).

  • Later the .
  • Meanwhile the medial [-θ-] voiced to [-ð-] (“dh”).
  • The primitive final [e] was lost.
  • Afterwards, the resulting final [m] became syllabic and developed into [-um].
Doriathrin [EtyAC/KHIS.026] Group: Eldamo. Published by

olg

adjective. hideous, horrible

An adjective meaning “hideous, horrible” derived from the root ᴹ√ULUG (Ety/ÚLUG). Its Telerin cognate ᴹT. ulga indicates a primitive form *✶ulgā, so that in the Ilkorin word the short [u] became [o] preceding the final [a] before that final vowel vanished.

Doriathrin [Ety/ÚLUG.005] Group: Eldamo. Published by

orn

noun. tree

A Doriathrin noun for “tree” derived from the root ᴹ√ÓR-NI or ᴹ√ÓRON (Ety/ÓR-NI, EtyAC/NEL). According Tolkien, it was “in Doriath used especially of beech, but as a suffix [it was] used of any tree of any size” (Ety/ÓR-NI). The root ᴹ√ÓR-NI in The Etymologies suggests a primitive form of ᴹ✶ornĭ, but elsewhere Tolkien indicated the primitive form was ᴹ✶ornē (e.g. on SD/302). Both primitive forms would have produced Ilk. orn, as noted by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Doriathrin/orn).

Doriathrin [Ety/NEL.044-2; Ety/ÓR-NI.011] Group: Eldamo. Published by

aros

place name. aros

A river in Doriath described as “a river with reddish water” (Ety/YAR). This name seems to include a variant of arn “red” or perhaps the root ᴹ√YAR, combined with the suffix -os “land” also seen in thalos.

Elements

WordGlossSource
arnred-
-osabstract ending-
Doriathrin [Ety/YAR.022; LRI/Aros.001; SMI/Aros.001; TII/Aros.001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

cîr

noun. ship

A noun for “ship”, though it is possible Tolkien conceived of it as Noldorin instead; the languages associated with the form changed several times (PE21/57). It was used to in some linguistic notes in the mid-1930s to illustrate the class-plural: círiath. Its proper etymology is unclear; based on the example of gwene < *gwenyā we might expect Ilk. **cere instead.

Doriathrin [PE21/57.2218; PE21/57.2302] Group: Eldamo. Published by

drôg

noun. wolf

A Doriathrin noun meaning “wolf” derived from the primitive form ᴹ✶d’rāk (Ety/DARÁK), probably from older *✶darākă. The accent mark in the root ᴹ√DARÁK indicated that the first syllable was unstressed, so that the initial [dar-] became [dr-]. Thereafter the long [ā], became [ō] and the voiceless stop [k] voiced to [g] after the vowel.

Doriathrin [Ety/DARÁK.009] Group: Eldamo. Published by

gell

noun. sky

A Doriathrin noun for “sky” derived from the root ᴹ√ƷEL (Ety/ƷEL), probably from a primitive form *✶ʒellē [ɣellē] based on its cognates. It is a clear example of how initial [ɣ] became [g] in Ilkorin.

Doriathrin [Ety/ƷEL.054] Group: Eldamo. Published by

hedhu

adjective. grey

A Doriathrin adjective for “grey” written heðu in The Etymologies, and derived from the primitive form ᴹ✶khithwa [kʰitʰwa] (Ety/KHIS). This word illustrates several interesting phonetic changes in Ilkorin.

  • The [i] became [e] before the final [a].
  • Both the : [kʰ-] > [x-] and [-tʰ-] > [-θ-].

Later the . Meanwhile the medial [-θ-] voiced to [-ð-] (“dh”).

  • Later the .
  • Meanwhile the medial [-θ-] voiced to [-ð-] (“dh”).
  • The primitive final [a] was lost.
  • Afterwards, the resulting final [w] became [u].

In most other Doriathrin words, a final [u] from [w] further developed into [o]; it is unclear why this change did not occur here.

Doriathrin [Ety/KHIS.029; EtyAC/KHIS.031] Group: Eldamo. Published by

lung

adjective. heavy

A Doriathrin adjective for “heavy” derived from primitive ᴹ✶lungā (Ety/LUG¹). It is an example of how the Ilkorin a-affection was prevented or reverted before [ŋg], as suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Doriathrin/lung).

Doriathrin [Ety/LUG¹.009] Group: Eldamo. Published by

muil

noun. twilight, shadow, vagueness

A Doriathrin noun meaning “twilight, shadow, vagueness” derived from root ᴹ√MUY (Ety/MUY). Its Quenya cognate ᴹQ. muile suggests a primitive form of *✶muı̯lē [mujlē].

Conceptual Development: Tolkien seems to have coined this word to explain Umboth Muilin “Twilight Meres”, a remnant of earlier G. Umboth-muilin “Pools of Twilight”. The meaning of the Ilkorin elements is reversed from the earlier name: in the Gnomish name muilin “pools” was the plural form of the word G. muil, glossed “tarn” in the Gnomish Lexicon (GL/58) which is an older English word for “(mountain) lake”. In later writings, Tolkien replaced this name with S. Aelin-uial “Meres of Twilight”.

Doriathrin [Ety/MUY.022] Group: Eldamo. Published by

mâb

noun. hand

An Ilkorin and Doriathrin noun for “hand” derived from primitive ᴹ✶mapā (Ety/MAP, EtyAC/MAP), where the voiceless stop [p] voiced to [b] after the vowel. Since its primitive form had a short [a] and its Ilkorin form a long [ā] (EtyAC/MAP), this word is an example of how short vowels sometimes lengthened in monosyllables in Ilkorin.

Doriathrin [Ety/KAB.017-1; Ety/MAP.019; Ety/MAP.020; EtyAC/MAP.006; EtyAC/MAP.006-1; EtyAC/MAP.025] Group: Eldamo. Published by

taum

noun. holder, socket, hasp, clasp, staple

A noun meaning “holder, socket, hasp, clasp, staple” developed from the primitive form ᴹ✶takmā (Ety/KUƷ). Most likely its development was similar to that of caun: first the [k] became [g] before the nasal, then the [g] vocalized to [u] before the [m] and finally the diphthong [ou] became [au].

Doriathrin [Ety/TAK.080] Group: Eldamo. Published by

trum

noun. shield

A noun for “shield” derived from primitive ᴹ✶turumbē (Ety/TER), where the unstressed vowel in the first syllable vanished to produce the favored combination [tr], and later the [mb] simplified to [m] when this cluster became final.

Doriathrin [Ety/TURÚM.012] Group: Eldamo. Published by

orgof

masculine name. orgof

Precursor to Nan. Saeros in the Silmarillion drafts from the 1930s (LR/321), probably an Ilkorin name at the stage.

Doriathrin [LRI/Orgof.001; LRI/Saeros.009; SMI/Orgof.001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

ôr

noun. blood

A noun for “blood” derived from the root ᴹ√YAR (Ety/YAR). Its cognates ᴹQ. yár and N. iâr indicates a primitive form yār(ǝ) [jārǝ], where the vowel changed to [o] because of Ilkorin a-affection. Helge Fauskanger suggested instead that the primitive form was yara because of the Quenya stem form yar-, with a lengthening of the vowel in the primitive monosyllabic form (AL-Ilkorin/ôr) @@@ examine further.

Doriathrin [Ety/YAR.017] Group: Eldamo. Published by

dilion

place name. dilion

A hypothetical name for the river N. Gelion, what the Ilkorin name would have been if it had the same origin as the Noldorin misinterpretion of the river’s actual Ilkorin name, Gelion (Ety/GYEL). It is an illustration of the rule that [[initial velars with following [j] became dentals]] in Ilkorin.

Doriathrin [Ety/GYEL.055] Group: Eldamo. Published by

grûm

masculine name. grûm

A rejected Doriathrin name for ᴹQ. Orome, developed from the rejected primitive form ᴹ✶Górōmē (EtyAC/GÓROM).

Doriathrin [EtyAC/GÓROM.015] Group: Eldamo. Published by

regorn

noun. holly-tree

A Doriathrin noun meaning “holly-tree”, a combination of (archaic?) reg “holly” and orn “tree” (Ety/ERÉK, ÓR-NI).

Doriathrin [Ety/ERÉK.036; Ety/ÓR-NI.023] Group: Eldamo. Published by

uduvon

place name. uduvon

Ilkorin name for ᴹQ. Utumno appearing in the Etymologies from the 1930s, a derivative of the same primitive form ᴹ✶Utubnu (Ety/TUB).

Doriathrin [Ety/TUB.047] Group: Eldamo. Published by

elboron

masculine name. Steadfast Star

An earlier name for S. Eluréd (LR/147). It appeared in The Etymologies containing Ilk. boron “steadfast”, but the name were rejected, probably at the same time as the name of his brother Ilk. Elbereth (Ety/BOR). Its initial element might be el “star”.

Doriathrin [Ety/BOR.104; LR/147.4302; LRI/Elboron.001; PMI/Eluréd.011; SM/325.4212; SMI/Elbereth.003; SMI/Eldûn.010; WJI/Elboron.001; WRI/Elboron.001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

mablung

masculine name. Heavyhand, Heavy-hand, Heavy-handed
Doriathrin [Ety/LUG¹.012; Ety/MAP.025; LRI/Mablung.001; RS/183.3404; RSI/Mablung.001; SMI/Mablung.001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

* -ien

suffix. element in female names

Apparently a feminine suffix attested only in the name Lúthien (Ety/LUK).

Doriathrin [Ety/LUK.031-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

* -il

suffix. feminine suffix

Apparently a feminine suffix attested in the name Thuringwethil “(Woman of) Secret Shadow” (Ety/THUR) and the noun tóril “queen” (Ety/TĀ).

Doriathrin [Ety/TĀ.188-2; Ety/THUR.035-3] Group: Eldamo. Published by

* losgen

adjective. empty

An adjective meaning “empty” attested only as an element in the Ilkorin name Mablosgen (Ety/MAP). As suggested by Helge Fauskanger, it might be a combination of Dor. lost and the adjective suffix -en, but if so it is unclear where the medial g came from (AL-Ilkorin/Mablosgen). Alternately, perhaps losgen is the general Ilkorin adjective for “empty” and lost is a variant used only in the Doriathrin dialect.

Doriathrin [Ety/MAP.034-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

* lost

adjective. empty

A Doriathrin adjective meaning “empty” attested only as an element in the name Dor. Mablost (Ety/KAB). Its Quenya cognate lusta suggests a primitive form *✶lustā, with the [o] developing from Ilkorin a-affection. It might be a Doriathrin-only variant of more general Ilkorin losgen “empty”.

Doriathrin [Ety/KAB.017-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

* -on

suffix. masculine suffix

Apparently a masculine suffix attested in the name Dairon.

Doriathrin Group: Eldamo. Published by

* -en

suffix. adjectival suffix

An adjectival suffix appearing as both -en and -in, and in one place as -on: Brithon. The -en form can be easily explained as a derivative of the primitive suffix ᴹ✶-ina, with the primitive [i] becoming [e] due to Ilkorin a-affection, the same origin as the Noldorin adjectival suffix -en. The -in variant is more difficult to explain. At least one example lómen had variations with both -en and -in, so perhaps the two forms represented vacillation on the function of Ilkorin a-affection, or an alternate primitive form ᴹ✶-ină where the final ă was lost before a-affection.

Alterately, -in could be a Doriathrin-specific variant, since the forms where it appears are all Doriathrin, while the forms where -en appear are marked Ilkorin, excepting only lómen which was itself revised from lómin.

Doriathrin [Ety/LAM.020-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

* -in

suffix. plural suffix

A suffix appearing in almost all attested Ilkorin plurals.

Conceptual Development: This suffix is the same as the most common Gnomish plural suffix -in¹ (GG/10).

Doriathrin [Ety/BAL.088-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

* -th

suffix. plural suffix

A suffix appearing in one Ilkorin plural: Eglath “Elves” ← Egla (Ety/ELED). This example is notable as the only attested plural of an Ilkorin noun ending in a vowel. It may have the same origin as the Noldorin class-plural suffix -ath.

Conceptual Development: This suffix is the same as the common Gnomish plural suffix -th, also used with nouns ending in vowels (GG/10, 13-14).

Doriathrin [Ety/ELED.087-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

* bar

noun. home

A noun meaning something like “home” attested only in compounds like Eglamar “Elvenhome”.

Doriathrin Group: Eldamo. Published by

* er

cardinal. one

The Ilkorin word for “one” attested only in the name Ermabuin or Ermab(r)in “One-handed” (Ety/MAP).

Doriathrin Group: Eldamo. Published by

* hiril

noun. lady

A Doriathrin noun for “lady” attested only as an element in the name Hirilorn (Ety/NEL). It probably had essentially the same derivation as its Noldorin cognate N. hiril (Ety/KHER).

Doriathrin Group: Eldamo. Published by

* neld

cardinal. three

The Doriathrin number “three” attested only as an element in the word neldor “beech” = “three trunks” (Ety/NEL). Its cognates ᴹQ. nelde and N. neledh indicates a primitive form *✶neledē, which would have become Ilk. neld due to the Ilkorin syncope, as suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Doriathrin/neldor).

Doriathrin [Ety/NEL.044-1] Group: Eldamo. Published by

* meneg

cardinal. thousand

A Doriathrin word meaning “thousand” (or possibly just “*large in number”) attested only as an element in the name Dor. Menegroth “Thousand Caves” (Ety/ROD, LR/220). Its etymology is entirely unclear.

Doriathrin [Ety/ROD.020-1] Group: Eldamo. Published by

* mîr

noun. jewel

A word for “jewel” attested only in compounds, probably of the same derivation and meaning as its Noldorin cognate N. mîr.

Doriathrin Group: Eldamo. Published by

* -os

suffix. abstract ending

Apparently an abstract noun suffix appearing in the words Aros and thalos, perhaps of the same origin as the abstract endings ᴹQ. -sse² and N. -as, though Helge Fauskanger suggested instead that it is related to the locative suffix ᴹQ. -sse¹ (AL-Ilkorin/thalos).

Doriathrin [Ety/STAL.011-2; Ety/YAR.022-2] Group: Eldamo. Published by

* dol

noun. head, *hill

An Ilkorin noun for “head” attested only as an element in the name Dolmed “Wet Head” (Ety/MIZD, NDOL). It might also appear in Dol Dúghol, assuming that name is Ilkorin. Assuming it functions similarly to its Noldorin equivalent N. dôl, it can probably also be used to refer to a hill.

Doriathrin Group: Eldamo. Published by

* reg

noun. holly

A Doriathrin noun for “holly” attested only in the plural forms regin and region (Ety/ERÉK). It also appeared as an element in the word regorn “holly-tree”. It seems that the latter word replaced reg in the singular, and the original survived only in the plurals, as suggested by Helge Fauskanger (AL-Doriathrin/regorn).

Doriathrin [Ety/ERÉK.040; Ety/ERÉK.042] Group: Eldamo. Published by