Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!



noun. man

A noun for “man” that developed from the blending of primitive ᴹ✶besnō “man” and ᴹ✶berō “valiant man, warrior” > ber(n)ō (Ety/BER, BES). The simplest explanation is that ᴹ✶besnō > beznō > bernō, where first the [[dan|[s] voiced to [z] before the nasal [n]]] and then the resulting [[dan|[z] becoming [r]]]. The similarity of this word to ᴹ✶berō could have led it to develop into ber(n)ō as well. From there, the [[dan|[e] broke into the diphthong [eo] before the liquid [r]]] and then the final vowel vanished.


  • Ilk. ber “valiant man, warrior” ✧ Ety/BER
  • ᴹQ. venno “husband” ✧ Ety/BES


  • ᴹ✶berō “valiant man, warrior” ✧ Ety/BES
    • ᴹ√BER “valiant” ✧ Ety/BER; Ety/BES
  • ᴹ✶besnō “husband” ✧ Ety/BES
    • ᴹ√BES “wed” ✧ Ety/BER; Ety/BES

Phonetic Developments

ᴹ✶ber(n)ō > beorn[bernō] > [beornō] > [beorn]✧ Ety/BES
ᴹ✶besnō > beorn[besnō] > [beznō] > [bernō] > [beornō] > [beorn]✧ Ety/BES
Ossriandric [Ety/BER; Ety/BES] Group: Eldamo. Published by