arya (3) noun "twelve hours, day" (AR1; compare aurë). In deleted notes this word was also used as an adjective: "of the day, light" (VT45:6). Still according to VT45:6, arya is also the name of Tengwa #26 in the pre-classical Tengwar system presupposed in the Etymologies, but Tolkien would later call #26 arda instead (indeed arya was changed from arda in the source; Tolkien would later change his mind back again). The abandoned name arya suggests that the letter was to have the value ry (rather than rd as in the classical system outlined in LotR Appendix E). Since the word for "day" (daylight period) is given as aurë in later sources, and arya is assigned other meanings in late material (see #1, 2 above), the conceptual validity of arya "day" is questionable.%
twelve hours, day
arya (1) adj. "excelling", used as the comparative form of mára "good", hence "better" (PE17:57). The superlative ("best") is i arya with the article, with genitive to express *"the best of…" Cf. mára.
adjective. excelling, *better
epemára→ eremára ✧ PE17/058
- S. ro- “*superlative” ✧ PE17/147
- √RĀ/ARA “noble, high, royal” ✧ PE17/147
Development Stages Sources √ARA > arya [arja] ✧ PE17/147
- arimára ✧ PE17/058 (
- epemára ✧ PE17/058 (
- eremára ✧ PE17/058 (
useful, fit, good
mára adj. "useful, fit, good" (of things) (MAG; see MA3; Arct, VT42:34, VT45:30). Nás mara nin "I like it", literally "it is good to me" (VT49:30; read mára for mara?) As the comparative of mára, the unrelated adjective arya "excelling" is used in the sense of "better"; for the superlative *"best", one adds the article: i arya (with genitive to express "the best of…") (PE17:57),
ar- (2), also ari-, prefix for superlative (compare arya #1, 2), hence arcalima "brightest", arimelda *"dearest" (PE17:56-57). In the grammar described in the source, this prefix was to express superlative as the highest degree (in actual comparison), whereas the alternative prefix an- rather expressed "very" or "exceedingly" with a more purely augmentative or adverbial force, but these distinctions do not seem to have been clearly present at all stages of Tolkiens work. See an- #2, am- #2.