Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Middle Primitive Elvish


root. ?cook

The root √AP appeared in The Etymologies of the 1930s as the basis for the words ᴹQ. apsa, N. aes “meat, cooked food” (Ety/AP). Tolkien glossed this root as “cook” which he marked with a “?”, then deleted the gloss (EtyAC/AP). Despite this deletion, I’ve seen a few Neo-Elvish writers use this root as the basis for verbs “to cook”, but I personally find this problematic as such forms tend to collide with Q. apta- “to refuse” < √BĀ/ABA. I prefer to retain the Early Qenya and Gnomish words maxa- and brath- for “to cook”.


  • Ilk. ass “cooked food, meat” ✧ Ety/AP
  • ᴹQ. apsa “meat, cooked food” ✧ Ety/AP
  • ᴺQ. aptaina “cooked, broiled”
  • N. aes “cooked food, meat” ✧ Ety/AP
Middle Primitive Elvish [Ety/AP; EtyAC/AP] Group: Eldamo. Published by