anta- (1) vb. "give" (ANA1, MC:215, 221), pa.t. antanë (antanen "I gave", VT49:14) or †ánë, perfect ánië (PE17:147, cf. QL:31). According to VT49:14, Tolkien noted that anta- was sometimes often with an "ironic tone" to refer to missiles, so that antanen hatal sena "I gave him a spear (as a present)" was often used with the real sense of "I cast a spear at him". Usually the recipient of the thing given is mentioned in the dative or allative case (like sena in this example), but there is also a construction similar to English "present someone with something" in which the recipient is the object and the gift appears in the instrumental case: antanenyes parmanen, "I presented him with a book" (PE17:91). The verb occurs several times in FS: antalto"they gave"; strangely, no past tense marker seems to be present (see -lto for the ending); antar a pl. verb translated "they gave", though in LotR-style Quenya it would rather be the present tense "give" (pl.); antaróta "he gave it" (anta-ró-ta "gave-he-it"), another verb occurring in Fíriel's Song, once again with no past tense marker. Also antáva "will give", future tense of anta- "give"; read perhaps *antuva in LotR-style Quenya; similarly antaváro* "he will give" (LR:63) might later have appeared as antuvas (with the ending -s rather than "Qenya" -ro for "he"). Antalë imperative "give thou" (VT43:17), sc. anta "give" + the element le "thou", but this was a form Tolkien abandoned. Apparently ana** was at one point considered as another imperative "give", but Tolkien rewrote the text in question (VT44:13), and the normal patterns would suggest *á anta with an independent imperative particle.
verb. to give, present; †to add to
- S. anna- “to give, †add to” ✧ PE17/093; PE17/147
- ✶antā- “to give, cause a thing/person to go to an object, send, to give, cause a thing/person to go to an object, send, [ᴹ✶] present” ✧ PE17/091; PE22/163
- √NA/ANA “to, towards; at side of, alongside, besides; moreover, in addition, plus” ✧ PE17/091; PE22/163
- ✶amtā- “to enlarge, increase” ✧ PE17/091
- √AMA “addition, increase, plus” ✧ PE17/091
- √NA/ANA “to, towards; at side of, alongside, besides; moreover, in addition, plus” ✧ PE17/146
- Q. anna “gift, (orig.) thing handed, brought or sent to a person, gift, (orig.) thing handed, brought or sent to a person, *present” ✧ PE22/163
- Q. ámen anta síra ilaurëa massamma “give us this day our daily bread” ✧ VT43/17; VT43/18; VT43/18
- Q. anessë “given (or added) name, nickname, surname”
- Q. antanen hatal sena “I cast a spear at him” ✧ VT49/14
- Q. antanë ninna “*he gave (it) to me” ✧ PE17/147
- Q. antanen parma sen “I gave a book to him” ✧ PE17/091
- Q. antanenyes parmanen “I presented him with a book” ✧ PE17/091
- ᴺQ. aranta- “to turn over, (lit.) give by”
- Q. Calantar “Light-giver”
- Q. massánië “the Lady, breadgiver”
- Q. mélima yondion, lenna antanyes mélio cenwa “*dear [one] of sons I give it to be read with love” ✧ Minor-Doc/1955-CT
- ᴺQ. nananta- “to give back, *return [something]”
- ᴺQ. atanta- “to give back”
- Q. yan i wilyar antar miquelis “*to whom the air gives kisses” ✧ PE16/096
Word Gloss NA/ANA “to, towards; at side of, alongside, besides; moreover, in addition, plus” -ta “causative verb suffix”
Development Stages Sources ✶an-tā > anta- [antā] > [antā] ✧ PE17/091 ✶am-tā > anta- [amtā] > [antā] > [antā] ✧ PE17/091 √ANA/NĀ > anta- [anta] ✧ PE17/146 ✶antā- > anta- [antā] > [antā] ✧ PE22/163
- anta ✧ PE17/090; PE17/093
verb. cause to go to, send; give
yana demonstrative "that" (the former) (YA)
ta (1) pron. "that, it" (TA); compare antaróta** "he gave it" (FS); see anta-. The forms tar/tara/tanna "thither", talo/tó "thence" and tás/tassë* "there" are originally inflected forms of this pronoun: "to that", "from that" and "in that" (place), respectively. Compare "there" as one gloss of ta (see #4).
i, antevokaliskt in
ne (2) conj. "that" (as in "I know that you are here") (PE14:54), evidently replaced by i in Tolkiens later Quenya (see i #3).
savin elessar ar <u>i</u> nánë aran ondórëo
i (3) conj. "that". Savin Elessar ar i nánë aran Ondórëo "I believe that Elessar really existed and that [he] was a king of Gondor" (VT49:27), savin…i E[lesarno] quetië naitë *"I believe that Elessars speaking [is] true" (VT49:28) Also cf. nai, nái "be it that" (see nai #1), which may seem to incorporate this conjunction.
tana (1) demonstrative "that" (said to be "anaphoric") (TA). According to VT49:11, tana is the adjective corresponding to ta, "that" as a pronoun.
- Q. tambë “*as, so”
Word Gloss ta “that, there, that, there, [ᴹQ.] it”
- tănā ✧ VT49/11
tanya demonstrative "that" (MC:215; this is "Qenya", perhaps corresponding to later tana)
†ánë, see anta-
[-ntyë "you", abandonded pronominal ending for 2nd person pl. familiar (VT49:49)]
ánië, see anta-
you, thou, thee
tye pron. "you, thou, thee", 2nd person intimate/familar (LR:61, 70, Arct, VT49:36, 55), corresponding to formal/polite lye. According to VT49:51, tye was used as an endearment especially between lovers, and (grand)parents and children also used it to address one another ("to use the adult lye was more stern"). Tyenya "my tye", used = "dear kinsman" (VT49:51). The pronoun tye is derived from kie, sc. an original stem ki with an added -e(VT49:50). Stressed tyé; dual tyet "the two of you" (VT49:51 another note reproduced on the same page however states that tye has no dual form, and VT49:52 likewise states that the 2nd person familiar "never deleloped" dual or plural forms). Compare the reflexive pronoun intyë "yourself". Possibly related to the pronominal stem KE (2nd person sg.), if tye represents earlier *kye.
-ldë (1) pronominal suffix "you", 2nd person pl. (VT49:51; carildë *"you do", VT49:16). This ending Tolkien revised from -llë in earlier sources (VT49:48, cf. PE17:69).
[-llo (2) "you", dual; abandoned pronominal ending. Also written -illo. (VT49:49)]
-llë (2) abandoned pronominal ending "you", 2nd person pl. (VT49:48); Tolkien later revised this ending to -ldë.
-l or -lyë (VT49:48, 51), pronominal endings for 2nd person sg. polite/formal "you, thou": caril or carilyë *"you do" (VT49:16), hamil "you judge" (VT42:33), anel "you were" (see ná #1); see -lyë for further examples. These endings may also be added to pronouns (etel/etelyë or mil, milyë; see et, mi). In one source, -l is rather used as a reduced affix denoting plural "you"; see heca! (WJ:364)
[#-ndë (2) pronominal suffix for dual "you", as in carindë *"you (two) do". Tolkien changed the ending to -stë (VT49:33)]
-stë "you", 2nd person dual pronominal ending (VT49:51, 53), e.g. caristë "the two of you do" (VT49:16). Tolkien first wrote carindë, but changed the ending (VT49:33). The ending -stë is derived from earlier -dde (VT49:46, 51). An archaic ending of similar form could also be the third person dual, "the two of them" (but see -ttë #1).
-t (3) reduced pronominal affix of the 2. person, "you" (sg.), the long form being -tyë (both endings are listed in VT49:48). See heca regarding the example hecat (WJ:364). However, in a later source, Tolkien denies that -tyë has any short form (VT49:51, 57). The status of the ending -t is therefore doubtful.
-tyë pronominal ending "you, thou" (VT49:48, 51), 2nd person familiar/intimate: carityë *"you do" (VT49:16; the corresponding formal/polite ending is -l, -lyë, cf. PE17:135 where Tolkien states that hiruvalyë "thou shalt find" from Namárië would be hiruvatyë if the polite pronoun were replaced by the familiar one). Compare the independent pronoun tye. In VT49:51, Tolkien denies that the ending -tyë has any short form (see, however, -t # 3). Cf. natyë "you are"; see ná #1. Compare tye, -tya.
alyë imperative particle with ending -lyë "you"; see a #3.
incë ("k") *"you", emphatic pronoun for 2nd person pl. familiar, apparently a form abandoned by Tolkien. It is listed as an alternative to ilcë in the source, a query appearing between the forms (VT49:48, 49). The word could also be read as intë (VT49:49)
ilcë ("k") (2) *"you", emphatic pronoun of the 2nd person pl. familiar, apparently a form abandoned by Tolkien. An alternative form incë was also listed; a query appears between the forms (VT49:48).
le, pronominal element "you", (originally) the "reverential 2nd person sing" (RGEO:73, VT49:56). However, singular le was apparently altered to lye (q.v.), and le took on a plural significance (le for pl. "you" is apparently derived from de, the ancient 2nd person pl. stem, VT49:50-51). Stressed lé (VT49:51), dual let "the two of you" (ibid.). At certain points in Tolkiens conception, le was still sg. "thou" rather than pl. "you". It is attested as an ending in the imperative form antalë "give thou" (VT43:17); see anta-. The form ólë in VT43:29 apparently means *"with thee"; according to Tolkiens later system, it would rather mean "with you" (pl.) Compare aselyë "with thee" (sg.) in a later source (see as).