carishe/him, she/her, it
-s (1) 3rd person sg. pronominal ending "he/him, she/her, it" (VT49:48, 51), occurring in caris "he/she/it does" (VT49:16, PE17:129), caitas "it lies" (PE17:65), tentanes "it pointed" (VT49:26), tulis "(s)he comes" (VT49:19), eques (q.v.), anes (see ná #1), also (in object position) in camnelyes, caritas, caritalya(s), melinyes, tiruvantes, and utúvienyes, q.v. (Tolkien mentions -s as an "objective" ending for the 3rd person sg. in PE17:110.) The longer form -së (perhaps with personal meaning "he, she" only) is said to be "rare" (VT49:51); cf. násë "he is", nésë "he was" (see ná #1). In nésë the ending is suggested to be shortened from -sse (VT49:28), an ending that may also be attested in the untranslated verbal form tankassen (PE17:76), where it is perhaps followed by a second pronominal ending -n "me". According to PE17:129, the 3rd person sg. ending at one stage appeared as -ze "when pronominal affixes followed" (Tolkien citing the form carize-, e.g. apparently *carizet for "he makes them"); normally z would later become r, but it actually became (historically: reverted to) s by analogy with the short form caris as well as the independent pronoun se*. Exilic Quenya would then evidently have (e.g.) cariset for "he makes them", with a rare example of intervocalic s that is not derived from older þ**.