Quenya zR5Ì#



-lmë 1st person pl. pronominal ending: "we" (VT49:38; 51 carilmë *"we do", VT49:16). It was originally intended to be inclusive "we" (VT49:48), including the person(s) spoken to, but by 1965 Tolkien made this the ending for exclusive "we" instead (cf. the changed definition of the corresponding possessive ending -lma, see above). _(VT49:38) Exemplified in laituvalmet "we shall bless them" (lait-uva-lme-t "bless-shall-we-them") (the meaning apparently changed from inclusive to exclusive "we", VT49:55), see also nalmë under # 1. (LotR3:VI ch. 4, translated in Letters:308_)



-mmë "we", 1st person dual exclusive pronominal ending: "I and one other" (compare the inclusive dual form -ngwë or -nquë). First written -immë in one source (VT49:57). Carimmë, "the two of us do" (VT49:16, cf. VT43:6). At an earlier conceptual stage, the ending was already exclusive, but plural rather than dual: vammë "we won't" (WJ:371), firuvammë "we will die" (VT43:34), etemmë ?"out of us" (VT43:36); see also VT49:48, 49, 55. Also compare the corresponding emphatic pronoun emmë (q.v.). The ending -lmë replaced -mmë in its former (plural exclusive) sense. In some early material, -mmë was apparently used as an ending for plural inclusive "we" (VT49:55).


we, us

me (1) 1st person pl. exclusive pronoun "we, us" (VT49:51; VT43:23, VT44:9). This pronoun preserves the original stem-form (VT49:50). Stressed (VT49:51). Cf. also mel-lumna "us-is-heavy", sc. *"is heavy for us" (LR:47, mel- is evidently an assimilated form of men "for us", dative of me; the form men is attested by itself, VT43:21). For me as object, cf. ála** "do not [do something to] us", negative imperative particle with object pronoun suffixed (VT43:19: álamë tulya, "do not lead us"), ámen** "do [something for] us", imperative particle with dative pronoun suffixed (ámen apsenë "forgive us", VT43:12, 18). Dual exclusive met "we/us (two)" (Nam, VT49:51), "you and me" (VT47:11; the latter translation would make met an inclusive pronoun, though it is elsewhere suggested that it is rather exclusive: "him/her and me", corresponding to wet [q.v.] as the true inclusive dual form). Rá men or rámen "for us/on our behalf", see . Locative messë "on us", VT44:12 (also with prefix o, ó- ?"with" in the same source). See also ménë, ómë.



-lwë, later -lvë, pronominal ending "we" (VT49:51), 1st person pl. inclusive ending, occurring in the verbs carilwë "we do" (VT49:16) and navilwë (see #nav-). The ending became -lvë in later, Exilic Quenya (VT49:51). See -lv-.



emmë (2) pron. "we", emphatic pronoun; dative emmen (VT43:12, 20). In the source this pronoun is intended as the 1st person plural exclusive; later Tolkien changed the corresponding pronominal ending from -mmë to -lmë, and the plural emphatic pronoun would likewise change from emmë to *elmë. Since the ending -mmë was redefined as a dualexclusive pronoun, the form emmë may still be valid as such, as a dual emphatic pronoun "we" = "(s)he and I".



-ngwë "we", 1st person dual inclusive pronominal ending: "thou and I" (compare the exclusive dual form -mmë). Caringwë, "the two of us do" (VT49:16). One source lists the ending as "-inke > -inque" instead (VT49:51, 53, 57; "inke" was apparently Old Quenya). In an earlier pronoun table reproduced in VT49:48, the ending -ngwë is listed as an alternative to -lmë, which Tolkien at the time used as the plural inclusive ending (a later revision made it plural exclusive).



ve (2) pron. "we", 1st person pl. inclusive (corresponding to exclusive me), derived from an original stem-form we (VT49:50, PE17:130). Variant vi, q.v. Stressed , later (VT49:51). Dative (*wéna >) véna, VT49:14. Dual wet*, later vet "the two of us" (inclusive; cf. exclusive met) (VT49:51). Also compare the dative form ngwin or ngwen (q.v.), but this would apparently be wen > ven** according to Tolkiens later ideas.



vi pron. "we", 1st person inclusive (PE17:130), variant of ve #2.



we, , see ve #2

Sindarin iT2#7T5


suffix. we

1st du. pron. suff. #we (you and me). Q. -mmo.See paradigm PE17:132.

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:132] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by


suffix. we (probably the excl

1st pl. pron. suff. #we (probably the excl. form). Q. -mbe.See paradigm PE17:132.

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:132] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by


suffix. we

1st du. pron. suff. #we (you and me). Q. -lmo.See paradigm PE17:132. -ngid

[(PE17 Sindarin Corpus) PE17:132] -. Group: Parma Eldalamberon 17 Sindarin Corpus. Published by



men (accusative mín ”us”, presumably usually lenited vín, which is also the genitive ”our”).



prefix. should, so-as

A verbal prefix in the sentence azrîya du-phursâ akhâsada and translated as either “so-as” (SD/247) or “should” (VT24/12). It almost certainly indicates some verb-mood. Most authors have suggested it indicates the subjunctive mood based on its glosses (VSH/25, LGtAG, AL/Adûnaic). I think it could also be the optative mood, since in the first draft versions of the sentence the word was nai, clearly related to Q. nai “maybe, may it be that” used for the expression of a wish. Since it appears in only a single example, we don’t have enough information to be sure.

[SD/247.1005; VT24/12.2005] Group: Eldamo. Published by


adverb. might (draft), might

A verbal prefix in the first draft sentence [azrē nai phurrusim akhās-ada](/w/azrē nai {phurusam >>} phurrusim akhās-ada) (SD/311), expressing either the subjunctive or optative verbal mood. It almost certainly related to Q. nai “maybe, may it be that” used for the expression of a wish, as suggested by Carl Hostetter and Patrick Wynn (AAD/20). In later versions of the Lament of Akallabêth, this word was changed to du.

[SD/311.4001] Group: Eldamo. Published by


suffix. verb-plural

A suffix appearing in Adûnaic verbs that have plural subjects. See plural-verbs for further discussion.


suffix. participle suffix

A suffix that appears in some adjectives, and may be used to form a participle in Adûnaic, that is an adjective formed from a verb. Helge Fauskanger suggested (AL/Adûnaic) that it may be a cognate of Q. -ina, derived from Primitive Elvish ✶-nā. There are two examples: zîrân “beloved” ← zîr- “to love” and zabathân “humbled” ← *zabath- “to humble”. Both cases seem to be passive participles (also called “past participles” in English grammar), describing a noun that is the object of the verbal action: that which is loved, that which is humbled.

Unlike other Adûnaic adjectives, these participle forms appear after the noun they modify instead of before. See the entry on the participle for further discussion.

Element in: AD. zabathân, AD. zîrân

Beware, older languages below! The languages below were invented during Tolkien's earlier period and should be used with caution. Remember to never, ever mix words from different languages!

Primitive elvish


suffix. ancient plural formation, plural affix, plural

Element in: P. kwayam, P. LEPEN

[VT42/24.2204; VT42/26.2913; VT47/25.0108; VT47/10.1108] Group: Eldamo. Published by

Qenya zR5Ì#


pronoun. we, us

Imported inflections

ménerstative-past plural-PE22/123.3803
ménetstative-past dual-PE22/123.3902
mierstative plural-PE22/123.3303
mietstative dual-PE22/123.3402

[LR/056.3204; PE22/112.3101; PE22/118.0918; PE22/119.2004; PE22/124.0809; PE22/127.0307; PE22/119.1907; LR/047.1205; SD/310.3101; PE22/123.3803; PE22/123.3902; PE22/123.3303; PE22/123.3402] Group: Eldamo. Published by



pronoun. we

Variations of the word: umin.

[GL/74.8401; GL/74.8402] Group: Eldamo. Published by


pronoun. we, [1st person plural], 1st-plural pronoun

Imported inflections

mirdativeto usGL/57.7001

[PE13/097.1101; GL/57.7001] Group: Eldamo. Published by

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