-ait is said
-r nominative plural ending regularly used on nouns ending in -a, -i, -ië, -o, -u, e.g. Ainur, Valar, tier. Occasionally it is added also to nouns ending in -ë (that normally take the ending -I in the pl.). This seems to regularly happen in the case of nouns in -lë (see #fintalë, mallë, tyellë), sometimes also otherwise (see Ingwë, wendë, essë #1). This plural ending was ("it is said") first used by the Noldor (PM:402).
-asuffix. adjectival suffix
This suffix is frequently used to create the adjective form of a noun, especially in the form -ëa for nouns ending in -ë. This function dates back to CE. ✶-ā.
Variations of the word: -a.
Element in: Q. airëa, Q. Aldëa, Q. amaurëa, Q. andúna, Q. endëa, Q. eressëa, Q. fínëa, Q. ilaurëa, Q. ilyarëa, Q. laurëa, Q. lillassëa, Q. lilótëa, Q. lómëa, Q. mírëa, Q. noa, Q. núla, Q. oialëa, Q. rávëa, Q. taurëa, Q. túrëa, Q. úfanwëa, Q. úpahtëa, Q. yaimëa
shine (suddenly and) brilliantly, blaze
Word Gloss Source ilya all (of a particular group of things) - árë sunlight - -a adjectival suffix -
Word Gloss Source il- all - aurë day (as opposed to night) - -a adjectival suffix -
Also glossed as “every”.
hína noun "child", also hina used in the vocative to a (young) child (also hinya "my child", for hinanya) (WJ:403). Pl. híni (surprisingly not **hínar) in Híni Ilúvataro "Children of Ilúvatar" (Silmarillion Index); dative hínin in VT44:35. In compounds -hin pl. -híni (as in Eruhíni, "Children of Eru", SA:híni). According to one source, the word is hín(i) and solely plural (PE17:157), but this is obviously contradicted by some of the sources quoted above.
helca ("k")adj. "icy, ice-cold" (misprint "helk" in the Etymologies as printed in LR, entry KHELEK; both the Silmarillion Appendix and LT1:254 have helka, and VT45:21 finally confirmed that there is a final -a in Tolkien's Etymologies manuscript as well). In Helcar, the Inland Sea in the north-east of Middle-earth, and Helcaraxë, the Grinding Ice between Araman and Middle-earth_ (SA; spelt "Helkarakse" in the Etymologies, stem KARAK)_
illi noun "all" (as independent noun, apparently treated as a plural form). Imb' illi "among all" (VT47:30)
-o (1) genitive ending, as in Altariello, Oromëo, Elenna-nórëo, Rithil-Anamo, Rúmilo, Lestanórëo, neldëo, omentielvo, sindiëo, Valinórëo, veryanwesto, q.v. In words ending in -a, the genitive ending replaces this final vowel, hence atto, Ráno, Vardo, vorondo as the genitive forms of atta, Rána, Varda, voronda (q.v.) Following a noun in -ië, the ending can have the longer form -no, e.g. *máriéno "of goodness" (PE17:59, but contrast sindiëo "of greyness" in PE17:72). Where the word ends in -o already, the genitive is not distinct in form, e.g. ciryamo (q.v.) = "mariner" or "mariners". Pl. -ion and -ron, q.v.; dual -to (but possibly -uo in the case of nouns that have nominative dual forms in -u rather than -t). The Quenya genitive describes source, origin or former ownership rather than current ownership (which is rather covered by the possessive-adjectival case in -va). The ending -o may also take on an ablativic sense, "from", as in Oiolossëo "from (Mount) Oiolossë" (Nam), sio "hence" (VT49:18). In some of Tolkiens earlier material, the genitive ending was -n rather than -o, cf. such a revision as Yénië Valinóren "Annals of Valinor" becoming Yénië Valinórëo (MR:200).
áimmediate time reference
a (3), also á, imperative particle. An imperative with "immediate time reference" is expressed by á in front of the verb (or "occasionally after it, sometimes before and after for emphasis"), with the verb following in "the simplest form also used for the uninflected aorist without specific time reference past or present or future" (PE17:93). Cf. a laita te, laita te! "[o] bless them, bless them!", á vala Manwë! "may Manwë order it!", literally "o rule Manwë!" (see laita, vala for reference); cf. also á carë "do[!]", á ricë "try!", á lirë "sing[!]", á menë "proceed[!]", a norë "run[!]" (PE17:92-93, notice short a in this example), á tula "come!" (VT43:14). In the last example, the verb tul- "come" receives an ending -a that probably represents the _suffixed form of the imperative particle, this apparently being an example of the imperative element occurring both "before and after" the verbal stem "for emphasis" (PE17:93)_. This ending may also appear on its own with no preceding a/á, as in the command queta "speak!" (PE17:138). Other examples of imperatives with suffixed -a include cena and tira (VT47:31, see cen-, tir-); the imperatives of these same verbs are however also attested as á tirë, á cenë (PE17:94) with the imperative particle remaining independent and the following verb appearing as an uninflected aorist stem. This aorist can be plural to indicate a 3rd person pl. subject: á ricir! "let them try!" (PE17:93). Alyë (VT43:17, VT44:9) seems to be the imperative particle a with the pronominal suffix -lyë "you, thou" suffixed to indicate the subject who is to carry out the command; attested in the phrase alyë anta "give thou" (elided aly' in VT43:11, since the next word begins in e-: aly' eterúna me, *"do thou deliver us"); presumably other pronominal suffixes could likewise be added. The particle a is also present in the negative imperatives ala, #ála or áva, q.v.
melwa adj. "lovely" (LT1:262); compare melda in Tolkiens later Quenya.
sil- vb. "shine" (white), present tense síla "shines, is shining" (FG); aorist silë, pl. silir (RS:324), frequentative sisíla- (Markirya comments), future tense siluva (VT49:38), dual future siluvat (VT49:44, 45)
seldo noun (meaning not quite clear, likely the masculine form of seldë "child", hence *"boy") (SEL-D, VT46:13, 22-23)
seldë noun "child" (meaning changed by Tolkien from "daughter"; in his later texts the Quenya word for "child" is rather hína, and the final status of seldë is uncertain. See also tindómerel.) (SEL-D, VT46:13, 22-23) In one late source, Tolkien reverts to the meaning "daughter", but this may have been replaced by anel, q.v.
selda adj.?noun? (meaning not clear, related to seldë "child" (meaning changed by Tolkien from "daughter") and seldo "boy". Thus selda may be an adjective "childlike", since -a is a frequent adjectival ending. Alternatively, as suggested in VT46:13, selda may be a neuter noun "child", corresponding to masc. seldo "boy" and fem. seldë "girl" (before Tolkien changed the meaning of the latter to "child"). (SEL-D, cf. VT46:22-23)
quat- vb. "fill" (WJ:392), future #quantuva "shall fill" (enquantuva "shall refill") (Nam, RGEO:67) Irrespective of the prefix en- "re", the form enquatuva (VT48:11) displays the expected future tense of quat-. The Namárië form enquantuva seems to include a nasal infix as well, which is possibly an optional feature of the future tense. On the other hand, PE17:68 cites the verb as quanta- rather than quat-, and then the future-tense form quantuva would be straightforward.
quanta- (2) vb. "fill" (PE17:68), cf. enquantuva "will refill" in Namárië. This verb seems to spring from a secondary use of the adjective quanta "full" as a verbal stem, whereas the synonym quat- (q.v.) is the original primary verb representing the basic root KWAT.
onwë noun "child" (PE17:170)
Variations of the word: onwe.
Word Form Gloss Source onnalda 2nd-pl-poss *your child VT49/42.2601 onnalya 2nd-sg-polite-poss *your child VT49/42.2401 onnar plural children PM/391.2110-2
Element in: Q. onya
menya (pl. menyë is attested) possessive pron. "our", 1st person pl. exclusive independent possessive pronoun (VT43:19, 35). Evidently derived from the dative form men "for us" by adding the adjectival ending -ya. Compare ninya, q.v.
írimëfeminine name. Lovely
Conceptual Development: When she first appeared, her name was given as Írimë and she was either the middle or youngest daughter, varying in birth-order with a third daughter Faniel (MR/207, 238), who later disappeared from the texts. At one point her name was temporarily changed to Finvain (MR/262), but later still she reappeared as Írimë, as the second of only two daughters (PM/343). Confusingly, her name was then changed to Írien just a few lines later, without explanation.
Christopher Tolkien discusses the changing names for Finwë’s daughters on PM/359, notes #26 and #28. This lexicon uses Írimë as the most common of her names.
Variations of the word: Írimë, Írien.
Word Gloss Source írima desirable -
#cal- vb. "shine", future tense caluva ("k") "shall shine" _(UT:22 cf. 51). Compare also early "Qenya" cala- ("k")"shine" (LT1:254)_. It is possible that the verbal stem should have a final -a in later Quenya as well, since this vowel would not appear in the future tense caluva (compare valuvar as the pl. future tense of vala-, WJ:404).
írimalovely, beautiful, desirable
írima adj. "lovely, beautiful, desirable" (ID, FS, PE17:155), in FS also pl. írimar; in the "Qenya" of Fíriel's Song, adjectives in -a form their plurals in -ar instead of -ë as in LotR-style Quenya.
-lma pronominal ending "our", 1st person pl. exclusive (VT49:16), also attested (with the genitive ending -o that displaces final -a) in the word omentielmo "of our meeting" (nominative omentielma, PE17:58). Tolkien emended omentielmo to omentielvo in the Second Edition of LotR, reflecting a revision of the Quenya pronominal system (cf. VT49:38, 49, Letters:447). The cluster -lm- in the endings for inclusive "we/our" was altered to -lv- (VT43:14). In the revised system, -lma should apparently signify exclusive "our".
ilya adj. and noun "all" (LR:47, 56; SD:310), "all, the whole" (IL); "each, every, all of a particular group of things" (VT39:20); ilyë before a plural noun, "all" being inflected like an adjective (Nam, RGEO:67): ilyë tier "all paths" (Namárië, VT39:20), ilyë mahalmar "all thrones" (CO), ilya raxellor "from all dangers" (VT44:9; we might expect *ilyë raxellor here), ilyárëa (older ilyázëa) "daily, of every day" (evidently ilya "every" + árë, ázë "day" + -a adjectival ending) (VT43:18). Tolkien apparently abandoned ilyárëa in favour of ilaurëa, q.v.
-lwa, possessive pronominal ending, 1st person pl. inclusive "our" (VT49:16), later (in exilic Quenya) used in the form #-lva, genitive -lvo in omentielvo (see -lv-).
-mma "our", 1st person dual exlusive possessive ending: *"my and one others" (VT49:16). At an earlier conceptual phase, Tolkien apparently intended the same ending to be plural inclusive "our" (VT49:55, RS:324), cf. Mélamarimma "Our Home" (q.v.) In the latter word, Tolkien slips in i as a connecting vowel before this ending; elsewhere he used e, as in Átaremma "our Father" (see atar).
ilaurëa adj. "daily", "of every day" (il- "every" + aurë "day" + -a adjectival ending) (VT43:18).
-ngwa "our", 1st person dual inclusive possessive pronominal ending: *"thy and my", corresponding to the ending -ngwë for dual inclusive "we" (VT49:16)
Variations of the word: hina.
Word Form Gloss Source -hin suffix - WJ/403.1904 hīn(i) plural - PE17/157.1405 hinanya 1st-sg-poss my child WJ/403.1907 híni plural children SA/híni.001 -híni plural suffix - WJ/403.1803 Híni plural Children SI/Children of Ilúvatar.010 hinin dative plural - VT44/35.1006 hínin dative plural *to children VT44/35.0902 híniryannar 3rd-sg-poss allative plural *to his children VT44/35.1203 hinya 1st-sg-poss assimilated my child WJ/403.2009
Also glossed as “ice-cold”.
-uva future tense ending. In avuva, caluva, cenuva, hiruva, (en)quantuva, (en)tuluva, laituvalmet, lauva, maruvan, termaruva, tiruvantes. A final -a drops out before the ending -uva is added: quanta- "fill", future tense quantuva (PE17:68). A verbal stem in -av- may be contracted when -uva follows, as when avuva is stated to have become auva (VT49:13). Origin/etymology of the ending -uva, see VT48:32. In VT49:30, the future tense of the verb "to be" is given as uva, apparently the future-tense "ending" appearing independently, but several other sources rather give nauva for "will be" (see ná #1).
calta- ("k")vb. "shine" (KAL)
untúpa vb. "down-roofs" = covers (perhaps for *undutúpa-, cf. undu-). Present tense of untup- with lengthening of the stem vowel and the suffix -a (cf. síla "shines" from sil-)